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1.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e05362020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605379

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), such as artemisinin-piperaquine (AP), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), and artemether-lumefantrine (AL), is the first-line treatment for malaria in many malaria-endemic areas. However, we lack a detailed evaluation of the cardiotoxicity of these ACTs. This study aimed to analyze the electrocardiographic effects of these three ACTs in malaria patients. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical data of 89 hospitalized patients with falciparum malaria who had received oral doses of three different ACTs. According to the ACTs administered, these patients were divided into three treatment groups: 27 treated with AP (Artequick), 31 with DP (Artekin), and 31 with AL (Coartem). Electrocardiograms and other indicators were recorded before and after the treatment. The QT interval was calculated using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) and Bazett's formula (QTcB). RESULTS: Both QTcF and QTcB interval prolongation occurred in all three groups. The incidence of such prolongation between the three groups was not significantly different. The incidence of both moderate and severe prolongation was not significantly different between the three groups. The ΔQTcF and ΔQTcB of the three groups were not significantly different. The intra-group comparison showed significant prolongation of QTcF after AL treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recommended doses of DP, AL, and AP may cause QT prolongation in some malaria patients but do not cause torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia or other arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Artemisininas , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Artemeter/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolinas
2.
Orthop Surg ; 13(1): 244-252, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term clinical efficacy of TiRobot-assisted percutaneous cannulated screw fixation in the treatment of femoral neck fractures. METHODS: This retrospective study included 50 patients with unilateral femoral neck fractures who were treated with TiRobot-assisted percutaneous cannulated screw fixation from September 2017 to May 2018. After at least 2 years of follow-up, the results of treatment, including operation duration, frequency of fluoroscopy use, intraoperative bleeding, hospital stay, medical expense, screw placement accuracy, rate of fracture healing and necrosis of the femoral head, and Harris hip scores at the last follow up, were recorded and compared with those of 83 matched patients who underwent conventional manual positioning surgery. RESULTS: The TiRobot group had longer operation duration (83.3 ± 31.2 min vs 44.1 ± 14.8 min) and higher medical expenses (28,407.1 ± 7498.0 yuan vs 22,672.3 ± 4130.3 yuan) than the conventional group. The TiRobot group had significantly less intraoperative bleeding (11.3 ± 7.3 mL vs 51.6 ± 40.4 mL) and shorter hospital stay (8.6 ± 2.8 days vs 11.1 ± 3.41 days) than the conventional group. Screw parallelism (1.32° ± 1.85° vs 2.54° ± 2.99° on anteroposterior radiograph; 1.42° ± 2.25° vs 3.09° ± 3.63° on lateral radiograph) and distance between screws (58.44 ± 10.52 mm vs 39.69 ± 12.17 mm) were significantly improved. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of the use of fluoroscopy (40.1 ± 28.5 times vs 38.6 ± 21.0 times) and Harris hip scores at the last follow-up (93.2 ± 10.3 points vs 88.4 ± 11.9 points). Two cannulated screws penetrated the femoral head during manual insertion in the conventional group but not in the TiRobot group. The rate of nonunion and necrosis of the femoral head in the TiRobot group was reduced compared with that in the conventional group (0 vs 7.2%; 6.0% vs 24.1%). CONCLUSION: TiRobot-assisted percutaneous cannulated screw fixation of femoral neck fractures is accurate and minimally invasive and helps in reducing late complications, particularly necrosis of the femoral head and nonunion of fractures.

3.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(1): 505-514, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213649

RESUMO

In the prediction and forecasting of spontaneous coal combustion, protogenetic CO produced in the process of coal oxidation is used as the indicator gas, but the sources of CO gas in coal seams are extensive. Protogenetic CO in coal seams often interferes with predictions of spontaneous coal combustion. To predict the content of protogenetic CO gas in coal seams and its emission, this study established an experimental system of protogenetic CO content and emission in coal seams. Six groups of coal samples were tested, and the CO emission content was determined per hour within 24 hours of obtaining each coal sample. Four kinds of protogenetic CO gas emission indexes were defined. Then, internal factors of coal, including industrial components, elemental content and pore structure, were analysed. Finally, the relationship between the protogenetic CO gas emission index of coal seams and the internal factors of coal was obtained. The results indicate that the relation between the CO dispersion concentration and the time of the coal sample follows an exponential power distribution. The internal factors of coal influence the content and emission of protogenetic CO in coal seams, but there is no strict correlation with each parameter as it is a multi-parameter correlation synthesis process.

4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; : 113806, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280995

RESUMO

Remdesivir is a prodrug of the nucleotide analogue and used for COVID-19 treatment. However, the bioanalysis of the active metabolites remdesivir nucleotide triphosphate (RTP) and its precursor remdesivir nucleotide monophosphate (RMP) is very challenging. Herein, we established a novel method to separate RTP and RMP on a BioBasic AX column and quantified them by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. Stepwise, we optimized chromatographic retention on an anion exchange column, improved stability in matrix through the addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2nitrobenzoic acid) and PhosSTOP EASYpack, and increased recovery by dissociation of tight protein binding with 2 % formic acid aqueous solution. The method allowed lower limit of quantification of 20 nM for RMP and 10 nM for RTP. Method validation demonstrated acceptable accuracy (93.6%-103% for RMP, 94.5%-107% for RTP) and precision (RSD < 11.9 % for RMP, RSD < 11.4 % for RTP), suggesting that it was sensitive and robust for simultaneous quantification of RMP and RTP. The method was successfully applied to analyze RMP and RTP in mouse tissues. In general, the developed method is suitable to monitor RMP and RTP, and provides a useful approach for exploring more detailed effects of remdesivir in treating diseases.

5.
Dig Surg ; : 1-7, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291099

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a dearth of literature on frailty specifically in elderly (aged ≥65 years) gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy. We aim to assess the effects of frailty on postoperative outcomes. METHODS: A review of a prospective database was performed from November 2011 to April 2019. Frailty was assessed by multidimensional frailty score (MFS). Outcomes assessed were early postoperative complications and mortality, and length of stay. RESULTS: 289 patients were included. The mean age was 77.3 (range 66-94) years. 183 (63.3%) were males and 172 (59.5%) had early cancer. 275 (95.2%) underwent minimally invasive gastrectomy. 79 (27.3%) patients suffered early postoperative complications, with 47 (16.3%) suffering from Clavien-Dindo grade ≥2 complications. One-year, 90-day, 30-day, and inhospital mortality were 6.6, 1.4, 0.7, and 0%, respectively. 111 (38.4%) of patients were classified as "frail" based on MFS > 5. "Frail" patients were associated with higher 1-year mortality (odds ratio (OR) 4.51, 95% CI 1.57-12.98, p = 0.005) on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, "frail" patients did not have significantly increased 1-year mortality. However, when definition of "frail" was changed from MFS > 5 to MFS > 6, frailty was significantly associated with increased 1-year mortality (OR 3.73, 95% CI 1.11-12.53, p = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Elderly gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy with MFS > 5 do not have increased mortality risk. The influence of frailty on postoperative outcomes may vary based on the risk of the surgical procedure.

6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 950-961, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134248

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effects of Arf6 downregulation on human prostate cancer cells. Materials and Methods The effects of Arf6 downregulation on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis were assessed by MTT, BrdU, scratch, Transwell assays and flow cytometry respectively. AKT, p-AKT, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and Rac1 protein expressions were detected by Western blot. Results Downregulating Arf6 by siRNA interference suppressed the mRNA and protein expressions of Arf6. The proliferation capacities of siRNA group at 48h, 72h, and 96h were significantly lower than those of control group (P <0.05). The migration distance of siRNA group at 18h was significantly shorter than that of control group (P <0.01). The number of cells penetrating Transwell chamber membrane significantly decreased in siRNA group compared with that of control group (P <0.01). After 24h, negative control and normal control groups had similar apoptotic rates (P >0.05) which were both significantly lower than that of siRNA group (P <0.01). After Arf6 expression was downregulated, p-ERK1/2 and Rac1 protein expressions were significantly lower than those of control group (P <0.05). Conclusion Downregulating Arf6 expression can inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro, which may be related to ERK1/2 phosphorylation and Rac1 downregulation.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200219

RESUMO

The high radon concentration in the underground space of the subway station during construction often endangers the health of workers. Subway station project No. 16 in Beijing, while under construction, was selected as the main measuring point, a year's monitoring data was obtained to analyse the change of radon concentration. It was found that the concentration of radon was basically within the range of 5 ~ 500 Bq/m3 and showing a low level in the morning and a high level at noon, and presents the seasonal rule, compared with other seasons, the summer radiation is stronger. Furthermore, among the different measuring points, the radon concentration of the heading roadway is the highest, and the construction level of the station hall is the lowest. According to the comprehensive analysis, the concentration of radon during the construction of the subway station is mainly affected by the ambient temperature and air mobility.

8.
ACS Nano ; 14(11): 15468-15491, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175514

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the fundamental building blocks of cancer dissemination, so it is desirable to develop a technique to predict the behavior of CSCs during tumor initiation and relapse. It will provide a powerful tool for pathological prognosis. Currently, there exists no method of such prediction. Here, we introduce nickel-based functionalized nanoprobe facilitated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for prediction of cancer dissemination by undertaking CSC-based surveillance. SERS profiling of CSCs of various cell lines (breast cancer, cervical cancer, and lung cancer) was compared with their cancer counterparts for the prediction of prognosis, with statistical significance of single-cell sensitivity. The single-cell sensitivity is critical as even a few CSCs are capable of initiating a tumor. Intermediate states of CSC transmutation to cancer cells and its reverse were monitored, and nanoprobe-assisted SERS profiling was undertaken. We experimentally demonstrated that the quasi-intermediate CSC states have dissimilar profiles during the transformation from cancer to CSC and vice versa enabling statistical differentiation without ambiguity. It was also observed that molecular signatures of these opposite pathways are cancer-type specific. This observation provided additional clarity to the current understanding of relatively unfamiliar quasi-intermediate states; making it possible to predict CSC dissemination for variety of cancers with ∼99% accuracy. Nano probe-based prediction of CSC fate is a powerful prediction tool for ultrasensitive prognosis of malignancy in a complex environment. Such CSC-based cancer prognosis has never been proposed before. This prediction technique has potential to provide insights for cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as for obtaining information instrumental in designing of meaningful CSC-based cancer therapeutics.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110706, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) is one of the most common and bothersome complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The purpose of the present study is to investigate DBD in KK-Ay mice, and to identify the expression of relative genes. METHOD: Totally twenty-seven KK-Ay mice and thirty C57BL/6 J mice, respectively, were randomly divided into 12-, 18-, and 25-week old groups. The weight, water intake, voided volume, the frequency of micturition, fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured at varying time points. Maximum bladder volume (MBC), residual volume (RV), bladder compliance (BC), micturition efficiency (VE) and maximum micturition pressure (MVP) were assessed by urodynamic test, and contractile responses to α, ß-methylene ATP, KCl, electrical-field stimulation, carbachol were performed by detrusor smooth muscle strips contractility test. The bladders were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome to determine bladder wall thickness. Additionally, the mRNA expression of Myosin Va, SLC17A9, P2X1, M3 and M2 were then verified by qRT-PCR. RESULT: The weight, water intake, voided volumes, micturition frequency, FBG, the blood glucose AUC0-2h of KK-Ay mice were significantly increased at three time points. MBC, RV and BC were significantly increased; VE was significantly lower at the age of 18 and 25 weeks in KK-Ay mice; MVP was significantly increased at the age of 25 weeks in KK-Ay mice. In DSM strips contractility test, the amplitude of the spontaneous activity in KK-Ay mice significant increased at 12 weeks and 18 weeks, while both the amplitude and frequency were significantly decreased at the age of 25 weeks. The level of Myosin Va, SLC17A9 and M3 receptor significantly decreased in KK-Ay mice at 12 weeks, while Myosin Va markedly increased at 18 weeks; P2X1 and M2 receptors of KK-Ay mice was significantly increased at all three time points. CONCLUSION: Taken together, this study demonstrates that KK-Ay mice can be a proper model to investigate DBD whose transformation from compensatory state to decompensated state may ascribe to the time-dependent alternations of Myosin Va, SLC17A9, P2X1, M3 and M2 expression levels.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(21)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143235

RESUMO

The propagation of light underwater is tied closely to the optical properties of water. In particular, the underwater channel imposes attenuation on the optical signal in the form of scattering, absorption, and turbulence. These attenuation factors can lead to severe spatial and temporal dispersion, which restricts communication to a limited range and bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a statistical model to estimate the probability density function of the temporal dispersion in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) based Internet of Underwater Things (IoUTs) using discrete histograms. The underwater optical channel is modeled using Monte Carlo simulations, and the effects of temporal dispersion are presented by measuring the magnitude response of the channel in terms of received power. The temporal response analysis is followed by an extensive performance evaluation in terms of bit error rate (BER). To facilitate in-depth theoretical analysis, we have measured and presented magnitude response and BER of the channel under different field-of-views (FoVs), apertures, and water types. The three main areas under study are (i) BER versus link distance behavior, (ii) temporal response of the channel, and (iii) effect of scattering on photon travel. Our study shows the two main factors that contribute to beam spreading and temporal dispersion are (i) diffusivity of the optical source and (ii) multiple scattering. Furthermore, our results suggest that temporal dispersion caused due to multiple scattering cannot be mitigated completely; however, it can be minimized by optimizing the receiver aperture.

11.
J Neurosci Methods ; 348: 109012, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nerve plexus of the enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial part in regulating gastrointestinal functions, such as muscle contractile activity and nutrient absorption. Studying the nerve plexus can provide vital information for research on ENS disorders. Whole-mount preparation is an important technique for investigating the nerve plexus. However, currently available methods are time consuming and highly technical. NEW METHOD: This study describes a simple and rapid method for preparing whole mounts of the longitudinal muscle and myenteric plexuses (LMMPs) of rat colon. Integral LMMPs can be easily separated from the underlying layer by using glass rods and wet cotton swabs. RESULTS: The proposed method allows the easy separation of the LMMPs in intact sheets. Immunofluorescence histochemical staining of whole mounts enable clear visualization of enteric ganglia, nerve fibers, and several subtypes of neuronal populations residing in the myenteric plexus. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Compared with existing procedures for whole-mount preparations, the proposed method achieves a quicker and more efficient preparation of high-quality LMMPs from intestinal segments in sufficient quantity. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides a rapid method for efficiently preparing whole mounts of the intestines. Our method can be used for in situ observation of the morphological and functional alterations of the myenteric plexus for further studies on the ENS.

12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 5609637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110474

RESUMO

The underlying molecular mechanisms that the hypoxic microenvironment could aggravate neuronal injury are still not clear. In this study, we hypothesized that the exosomes, exosomal miRNAs, and the mTOR signaling pathway might be involved in hypoxic peritumoral neuronal injury in glioma. Multimodal radiological images, HE, and HIF-1α staining of high-grade glioma (HGG) samples revealed that the peritumoral hypoxic area overlapped with the cytotoxic edema region and directly contacted with normal neurons. In either direct or indirect coculture system, hypoxia could promote normal mouse hippocampal neuronal cell (HT22) injury, and the growth of HT22 cells was suppressed by C6 glioma cells under hypoxic condition. For administrating hypoxia-induced glioma-derived exosomes (HIGDE) that could aggravate oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/reperfusion neuronal injury, we identified that exosomes may be the communication medium between glioma cells and peritumoral neurons, and we furtherly found that exosomal miR-199a-3p mediated the OGD/reperfusion neuronal injury process by suppressing the mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, the upregulation of miRNA-199a-3p in exosomes from glioma cells was induced by hypoxia-related HIF-1α activation. To sum up, hypoxia-induced glioma-derived exosomal miRNA-199a-3p can be upregulated by the activation of HIF-1α and is able to increase the ischemic injury of peritumoral neurons by inhibiting the mTOR pathway.

13.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041326

RESUMO

Remdesivir (RDV) exerts anti-severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 activity following metabolic activation in the target tissues. However, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distributions of the parent drug and its active metabolites have been poorly characterized to date. Blood and tissue levels were evaluated in the current study. After intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg RDV in mice, the concentrations of the parent drug, nucleotide monophosphate (RMP) and triphosphate (RTP), as well as nucleoside (RN), in the blood, heart, liver, lung, kidney, testis, and small intestine were quantified. In blood, RDV was rapidly and completely metabolized and was barely detected at 0.5 h, similar to RTP, while its metabolites RMP and RN exhibited higher blood levels with increased residence times. The area under the concentration versus time curve up to the last measured point in time (AUC0-t) values of RMP and RN were 4558 and 136,572 h∙nM, respectively. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of RMP and RN were 2896 nM and 35,819 nM, respectively. Moreover, RDV presented an extensive distribution, and the lung, liver and kidney showed high levels of the parent drug and metabolites. The metabolic stabilities of RDV and RMP were also evaluated using lung, liver, and kidney microsomes. RDV showed higher clearances in the liver and kidney than in the lung, with intrinsic clearance (CLint) values of 1740, 1253, and 127 mL/(min∙g microsomal protein), respectively.

14.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065993

RESUMO

To improve the engine-driven performance of propellants, high-energy alloys such as Al and Mg are usually adopted as annexing agents. However, there is still room for improvement in the potential full utilization of alloy energy. In this study, we investigated how to improve combustion efficiency by decorating Al3Mg2 alloy with multilayer graphene and amorphous boron. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman tests showed that decorating with multilayer graphene and amorphous boron promoted the dispersion of Al3Mg2 alloy. The results showed that decorating with 1% boron and 2% multilayer graphene improved the combustion heat of Al3Mg2 alloy to 32.8 and 30.5 MJ/kg, respectively. The coexistence of two phases improved the combustion efficiency of the matrix Al3Mg2 alloy.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1491, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease condition associated with aging and a frequent cause of primary care consultations. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to identify its risk factors among the Chinese population. METHODS: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationwide longitudinal survey of persons aged ≥45 years. Symptomatic knee OA was diagnosed when both self-reported knee pain and self-reported physician-diagnosis arthritis existed. Using the national survey data collected from the CHARLS, we estimated the incidence of symptomatic knee OA, taking into account the complex survey design and response rate. We applied weighted logistic regression analysis to identify its risk factors. RESULTS: In the 4-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of symptomatic knee OA among middle-aged and older Chinese adults was 8.5%; the incidence was higher among females (11.2%) than males (5.6%). Female (odds ratio (OR) 1.98 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65-2.37]), rural area (OR 1.32 [95% CI 1.08-1.60]), and West region (OR 2.33 [95% CI 1.89-2.87]) were associated with a higher risk of incident symptomatic knee OA. Physical activities (OR 0.47 [95% CI 0.29-0.76]) and high education level (OR 0.60 [95% CI 0.41-0.88]) was associated with a lower risk of incident symptomatic knee OA, while histories of heart disease (OR 1.40 [95% CI 1.07-1.82]), kidney disease (OR 1.80 [95% CI 1.35-2.39]), and digestive disease (OR 1.54 [95% CI 1.30-1.82]) were associated with a higher risk of incident symptomatic knee OA. CONCLUSION: The cumulative incidence of symptomatic knee OA over 4 years was relatively high, and varied by province and region. Lack of physical activities was confirmed to be risk factors of incident symptomatic knee OA. The presence of heart disease, kidney disease, and digestive disease may be associated with a higher risk of incident symptomatic knee OA, further research need to confirm these findings.

16.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(6): 1382-1386, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968413

RESUMO

Objective: To discuss the correlation between hormone levels and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in menopausal patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This clinical research study was conducted at Department of Endocrinology, Baoding No. 1 Hospital from January 2016 to December 2017. In this study a total of 386 menopausal female patients with T2 DM were selected and classified into two groups according to the CAN function test: the CAN group (80 cases) and the DM group (306 cases). The Kupperman score (KI integral) was calculated for all participants in the study, and the following indexes were measured: body mass index (BMI), blood estrogen (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), fasting blood-glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum lipids, uric acid (SUA), hypersensitive c-reactive protein (CRP), etc. Results: The FBG, HbA1c, TGs, Hs-CRP, SUA, KI score, TSH, FSH and LH of the CAN group were obviously higher than the same parameters in the DM group (P<0.01, P<0.05), while HDL-C, E2, FT3 and FT4 were significantly lower (Pπ.01, Pπ.05). Pearson correlation analysis indicated that CAN presents a positive correlation with HbA1c, TGs, hs-CRP and SUA and a negative correlation with HDL-C and E2, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The multifactor logistic regression analysis results showed that HbA1c (OR=3.980, 95%CI=1.268~10.319) and E2 (OR=3.075, 95%CI=1.167~7.366) are independent risk factors for CAN. Conclusion: The CAN morbidity of menopausal female patients with T2DM is high, and HbA1c and E2 should be mainly monitored to identify and treat CAN early.

17.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 46(12): 3210-3217, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988670

RESUMO

The aim of the prospective study described here was to compare the tolerability, safety and diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided transoral core needle biopsy (CEUS-CNB) with that of conventional US-guided transoral CNB (US-CNB) and standard incisional biopsy in patients with oral masses. Between June 2017 and November 2019, consecutive patients with oral masses referred for biopsy were randomly assigned to undergo incisional biopsy, US-CNB or CEUS-CNB. Procedure time, intra­operative blood loss volume, diagnostic performance and pain level before and after the procedure assessed by visual analogue score (VAS) were recorded and compared among the three procedures. Finally, 238 patients with pathology confirmation were analyzed: 80 patients underwent incisional biopsy, 78 patients US-CNB and 80 patients CEUS-CNB. In this study, no significant difference was found in biopsy time between CEUS-CNB, US-CNB and incisional biopsy (75 ± 11 s vs. 73.6 ± 12 s vs. 77 ± 13 s, p = 0.24). CEUS-CNB achieved the highest sensitivity (CEUS-CNB: 100%, US-CNB: 88.5%, incisional biopsy: 84.3%), negative predictive value (CEUS-CNB: 100%, US-CNB: 81.3%, incisional biopsy: 78.4%) and accuracy (CEUS-CNB: 100%, US-CNB: 92.3%, incisional biopsy: 90%). The VAS score for incision biopsy was higher (p = 0.01) and the amount of bleeding was larger (p < 0.001), yet there was no significant difference between CEUS-CNB and US-CNB. Our results indicate CEUS-guided transoral CNB is an efficient, safe and well-tolerated procedure, with biopsy time comparable to and diagnostic performance better than those of conventional US-guided transoral CNB and incisional biopsy.

18.
Optom Vis Sci ; 97(9): 676-682, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932396

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: This study evaluated the effects scleral lens wear has on corneal health using fluorometry and in vivo confocal microscopy. No subclinical changes on healthy corneas of young subjects were observed during 3 months of scleral lens wear. PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects 3 months of scleral lens wear has on the corneal epithelial barrier function, dendritic cell density, and nerve fiber morphology. METHODS: Twenty-seven neophytes (mean [standard deviation] age, 21.4 [3.9] years) wore scleral lenses of a fluorosilicone acrylate material bilaterally (97 Dk, 15.6 to 16.0-mm diameter) for 3 months without overnight wear. Subjects were randomized to use either Addipak (n = 12) or PuriLens Plus (n = 15) during lens insertion. Measurements of corneal epithelial permeability to fluorescein were performed with automated scanning fluorophotometer (Fluorotron Master; Ocumetrics, Mountain View, CA) on the central cornea of the right eye and the temporal corneal periphery of the left eye. Images of the distributions of corneal nerve fibers and dendritic cells and nerve fibers were captured in vivo with a confocal laser scanning microscope (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, Rostock Cornea Module; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) on the central and inferior peripheral cornea of the left eye. Corneal measurements and imaging were performed at baseline and after 1 and 3 months of lens wear. RESULTS: The corneal permeability values in natural log, dendritic cell densities, and nerve fiber morphology did not significantly change from baseline to 1 and 3 months of lens wear, for both central and peripheral corneal regions (P > .05). Dendritic cell density at the inferior cornea was higher than the central cornea throughout the study (P < .001). No relationships were observed between each outcome measurements and the saline solution groups (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Scleral lens wear for 3 months on healthy cornea of young subjects did not affect corneal epithelial barrier function, nerve fiber, and dendritic cell densities. Buffered and nonbuffered saline solutions impacted the corneal health in similar ways.

19.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(4): 3559-3565, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945426

RESUMO

Currently, microglia are considered as crucial factors in suppressing inflammatory reactions, but the specific molecular mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate whether peroxisome proliferator­activated receptor­Î³ (PPAR­Î³) can inhibit neuroinflammatory cytokine expression via the mTOR signal pathway, the BV­2 cell line was incubated with lipopolysaccharide (10 mM/ml) to induce an inflammatory injury. PPAR­Î³ was activated by rosiglitazone, and was inhibited by GW9662. The mTOR signal pathway was activated by phosphatidic acid (P.A.), while it was inhibited by rapamycin. Western blotting and reverse transcription­quantitative PCR were used to evaluate the expression levels of PPAR­Î³/mTOR signal pathway related proteins and neuroinflammatory cytokines, including NF­κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)­α and interleukin (IL)­1ß. When treated with P.A., the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)mTOR and p­ribosomal protein S6 kinase (pS6K) were significantly increased and the expression levels of TNF­α and IL­1ß were significantly lower. However, the expression of PPAR­Î³ was similar in P.A. treated cells and cells treated with rapamycin. When PPAR­Î³ was activated, pmTOR and pS6K protein expression levels were significantly decreased, and the mRNA expression levels of TNF­α and IL­1ß were significantly reduced, but this inhibition could be alleviated by administrating GW9662. Collectively, it was indicated that the mTOR signal pathway may be located downstream of PPAR­Î³. Furthermore, neuroinflammatory reactions could be inhibited via the activation of PPAR­Î³ by suppressing the mTOR signal pathway in microglia.

20.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of emodin on inflammation and autophagy in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and reveal its underlying mechanism. METHODS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay was conducted to find the appropriate dose for emodin. RAW264.7 cells pretreated with different concentrations (0-50 µmol/L) of emodin or vehicle for 2 h prior to exposure to LPS for 16 h. Cell morphology was examined and propidium iodide staining was used to examine cell cycle. Expressions of inflammation-related proteins [nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κ B) and I-kappaB (I κ B)α] and autophagy-related proteins [light chain (LC)3, P62/sequestosome 1, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and p-mTOR] were examined using Western blot analysis. Expression of inflammation-related cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Autophagy was examined with LC3B fluorescence intensity and aggregation. The effect of emodin on autophagy was conducted with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA). RESULTS: The expression of NF-κ B in LPS-induced cells was significantly increased (P<0.01) and simultaneously I κ B α decreased compared with the normal cell (P<0.05). The expressions of TNF-α, IL-ß, and IL-6 proteins in the LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells were significantly higher than in the normal cell (P<0.05 or P<0.01). LPS increased the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase, which was recovered by emodin at different doses (12.5, 25, and 50µ mol/L, P<0.05 or P<0.01). The medium-dose (25 µ ml/L) emodin decreased the expressions of NF-κ B, P62 and p-mTOR (P<0.01) and increased I κ B α expression, LC3B II/I ratio as well as LC3B fluorescence intensity (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Meanwhile, the enhanced autophagic effects of emodin, such as the increment of LC3B II/ratio and the decrement of P62 expression, were suppressed by autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. CONCLUSION: Emodin could inhibit inflammation of mice RAW264.7 macrophages induced by LPS, possibly through activating autophagy.

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