Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 97
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 91, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) form the basis of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Vitex trifolia L. is a medicinal plant growing in countries such as China, India, Australia and Singapore. Its dried ripe fruits are documented in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat ailments like rhinitis and dizziness. Its leaves are used traditionally to treat inflammation-related conditions like rheumatic pain. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of V. trifolia leaf extracts prepared by different extraction methods (Soxhlet, ultrasonication, and maceration) in various solvents on cytokine production in human U937 macrophages, and identify phytoconstituents from the most active leaf extract. METHODS: Fresh leaves of V. trifolia were extracted using Soxhlet, ultrasonication, and maceration in hexane, dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol or water. Each extract was evaluated for its effects on TNF-α and IL-1ß cytokine production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human U937 macrophages. The most active extract was analyzed and further purified by different chemical and spectroscopic techniques. RESULTS: Amongst 14 different leaf extracts investigated, extracts prepared by ultrasonication in dichloromethane and maceration in ethanol were most active in inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1ß production in human U937 macrophages. Further purification led to the isolation of artemetin, casticin, vitexilactone and maslinic acid, and their effects on TNF-α and IL-1ß production were evaluated. We report for the first time that artemetin suppressed TNF-α and IL-1ß production. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of eight other compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of butylated hydroxytoluene, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, campesterol and maslinic acid in V. trifolia leaf extracts. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, leaf extracts of V. trifolia obtained using different solvents and extraction methods were successfully investigated for their effects on cytokine production in human U937 macrophages. The findings provide scientific evidence for the traditional use of V. trifolia leaves (a sustainable resource) and highlight the importance of conservation of medicinal plants as resources for drug discovery. Our results together with others suggest further investigation on V. trifolia and constituents to develop novel treatment strategies in immune-mediated inflammatory conditions is warranted.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048773

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to estimate the network structures of depressive symptoms using network analysis and evaluated the geographic regional differences in theses network structures among Asian patients with depressive disorders. METHODS: Using data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD), the network of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode was estimated from 1174 Asian patients with depressive disorders. The node strength centrality of all ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for a depressive episode was estimated using a community-detection algorithm. In addition, networks of depressive symptoms were estimated separately among East Asian patients and South or Southeast Asian patients. Moreover, networks were estimated separately among Asian patients from high-income countries and those from middle-income countries. RESULTS: Persistent sadness, fatigue, and loss of interest were the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms in Asian patients with depressive disorders overall. A community-detection algorithm estimated that when excluding psychomotor disturbance as an outlier, the other nine symptoms formed the largest clinically meaningful cluster. Geographic and economic variations in networks of depressive symptoms were evaluated. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that the typical symptoms of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode are the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, our findings suggested that cultural influences related to geographic and economic distributions of participants could influence the estimated depressive symptom network in Asian patients with depressive disorders.

3.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; 32(6): 304-311, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is a controversial topic in the treatment of older adults with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to examine the use of APP in older adult Asian patients with schizophrenia and its associated demographic and clinical factors. METHODS: This study was based on the fourth survey of the consortium known as the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Antipsychotics. Fifteen Asian countries/territories participated in this survey, including Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Basic demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using a standardized data collection form. RESULTS: Among the 879 older adults with schizophrenia included in the survey, the rate of APP was 40.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher antipsychotic doses (P < .001, odds ratio [OR] = 1.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002-1.003), longer duration of illness (P = .02, OR = 1.845, 95% CI: 1.087-3.132), and the prescription of anticholinergics (P < .001, OR = 1.871, 95% CI: 1.329-2.635), second-generation antipsychotics (P = .001, OR = 2.264, 95% CI: 1.453-3.529), and first-generation antipsychotics (P < .001, OR = 3.344, 95% CI: 2.307-4.847) were significantly associated with APP. CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic polypharmacy was common in older adult Asian patients with schizophrenia. Compared to the results of previous surveys, the use of APP showed a declining trend over time. Considering the general poor health status of older patients with schizophrenia and their increased risk of drug-induced adverse events, the use of APP in this population needs careful consideration.

4.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 45: 74-80, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Regular surveys are important to monitor the use of psychotropic medications in clinical practice. This study examined the psychotropic prescription patterns in adult Asian schizophrenia patients based on the data of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) 2016 survey. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey across 15 Asian countries/territories collected socio-demographic and clinical data with standardized procedures between March and May 2016. The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded with a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Altogether 3,537 adult patients with schizophrenia were consecutively screened and enrolled in the survey. The mean age was 38.66 ±â€¯11.55 years and 59.7% of the sample were male. The mean dose of antipsychotics in chlorpromazine equivalents (CPZeq) was 424 ±â€¯376 mg/day; 31.3% and 80.8% received first- and second- generation antipsychotics, respectively and 42.6% had antipsychotic polypharmacy, 11.7% had antidepressants, 13.7% had mood stabilizers, 27.8% had benzodiazepines, and 45.6% had anticholinergics. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic prescription patterns in Asian adult patients with schizophrenia varied across countries. Regular surveys on psychotropic medications for schizophrenia are important to monitor pharmacotherapy practice in Asia.

5.
Pharmacol Res ; 147: 104327, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283981

RESUMO

Oxymatrine (OMT) is a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the roots of the Sophora genus plants. It has been widely used as a treatment for chronic hepatitis infections and inflammatory diseases due to its effective immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, the potential anti-cancer effects of OMT have been actively studied in various cancers. It can induce apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, including those of colorectal cancer, gall bladder carcinoma, and leukemia. Moreover, it reduces tumor growth in different in vivo models as well as augments the anti-cancer effects of existing chemotherapeutics on tumor cells. OMT regulates various oncogenic signaling pathways such as the Akt, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) cascades to exert its cytotoxicity against cancer cells. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the potential of OMT as an anti-cancer therapeutic through the modulation of diverse oncogenic molecular targets.

6.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(6): 323-330, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240984

RESUMO

Background: Although cannabis use has been linked with schizophrenia in a dose-response pattern, to our knowledge, the relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia has rarely been reported in Asian population. Aim: We compared the clinical characteristics and psychotropic prescription patterns between cannabis users and non-users among Asian patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, we aimed to identify the independent correlates of cannabis use in these subjects. Methods: We performed the analysis of the data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP), a collaborative consortium survey used to collate the prescription patterns for antipsychotic and other psychotropic medications in patients with schizophrenia in Asia. We included 132 schizophrenia patients in the group of lifetime cannabis use and 1756 in the group that had never used cannabis. A binary logistic model was fitted to detect the clinical correlates of lifetime cannabis use. Results: Adjusting for the effects of age, sex, geographical region, income group, duration of untreated psychosis, and Charlson comordity index level, a binary logistic regression model revealed that lifetime cannabis use was independently associated with aggressive behavior [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.582, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.006-2.490, p = .047] and with long-acting injectable antipsychotic treatment (aOR = 1.796, 95% CI = 1.444-2.820, p = .001). Conclusion: Our findings indicate a close link between lifetime cannabis use and aggressive behavior. The use of long-acting, injectable antipsychotics preferentially treats the aggressive behavior cannabis users among patients with schizophrenia in Asia, especially, the South or Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Agressão , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(6): 459-463, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247705

RESUMO

Our study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and psychotropic prescription patterns of a history of suicide attempts in South Koreans with bipolar disorder (BD), by using only Korean data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Bipolar disorder. The patterns of clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug use were compared among 53 patients with a history of suicide attempts and 297 without this history; the potential effects of confounding variables were adjusted with binary logistic analyses for discrete variables and analyses of covariance for continuous variables. After adjusting the effects of age, sex, duration of illness, and enrollment as an outpatient, patients with a history of suicide attempts were characterized by a significantly more prevalent depressive episode, lower prevalent remission state, lower levels of hemoglobin, and more use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics compared to those without lifetime suicide attempt. The inability to plan goal-directed behavior may be an intervening factor in the relationship between suicide attempts and depression in BD. Relatively low hemoglobin levels can be associated with manic episodes in patients with a history of suicide attempts and the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, or hypnotics can be associated with suicide attempts in BD patients.

8.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(5): 397-402, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132844

RESUMO

Based on Korean data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Bipolar Disorder, this study tried to present prescription patterns in biopolar disorder (BD) and its associated clinical features. Based on the information obtained from the study with structured questions, the tendency of prescription pattern was studied and analyzed. Polypharmacy was predominant, including simple polypharmacy in 51.1% and complex polypharmacy in 34.2% of patients. Subjects associated with simple or complex polypharmacy were significantly younger, had higher inpatient settings, a larger portion of onset with manic episode, a shorter duration of untreated illness, a shorter duration of current episode, were more overweight, used less antidepressants and used more anxiolytics. These findings can suggest higher polypharmacy rate in more severe BD and highlight the necessity of monitoring the weight of subjects with polypharmacy.

9.
Psychiatry Res ; 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885383

RESUMO

Clozapine is an effective antipsychotic medication for treatment resistant schizophrenia and is widely used in Asian countries. This study investigated clozapine prescription patterns and their associated factors in Asian countries and territories based on the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic prescription study (REAP) conducted in 2016. Demographic and clinical information of 3744 schizophrenia patients in 15 Asian countries and territories was collected with a standardized data collection form. In total, 18.4% of the sample received clozapine, ranging from 2.6% in Japan to 32.3% in Hong Kong. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that higher antipsychotic dose (OR = 1.002, P < 0.001), less frequent first admission in the sample (OR = 0.6, P < 0.001), more severe negative symptoms (OR = 1.4, P = 0.001) and less first generation antipsychotics (FGAs) (OR = 0.2, P < 0.001) were independently and significantly associated with clozapine prescription. Clozapine is frequently and increasingly prescribed for schizophrenia in Asia, with large variation across countries and territories. Given the diverse prescription patterns of clozapine found in Asian countries/territories, the clinical rationale of clozapine prescription needs careful consideration in Asia with more local input.

10.
Psychogeriatrics ; 19(4): 333-339, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734411

RESUMO

AIM: Depressive disorders are common in old age. Antipsychotics (APs) are often used as an adjunctive treatment with antidepressants (ADs) in this population but its patterns of use in Asia are not known. This study explored the rate of combination of APs and ADs in older adult psychiatric patients in Asia. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the database of a multicentre study which recorded participants' basic demographical and clinical data in standardised format in 10 Asian countries and territories. The data were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 955 older adult psychiatric in- and outpatients were included in this study. The proportion of concurrent AP and AD use was 32.0%, ranging from 23.3% in Korea to 44.0% in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, inpatient status and diagnosis of schizophrenia, anxiety and other mental disorders were significantly related to a higher proportion of concurrent use of APs and ADs. CONCLUSION: Around a third of older adult psychiatric patients had concurrent AP and AD use in the Asian countries/regions surveyed. Considering the uncertain effectiveness and questionable safety of the AP and AD combination in this patient population, such should be cautiously used.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Japão , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Singapura , Taiwan , Tailândia
11.
Saudi Pharm J ; 27(2): 246-253, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766437

RESUMO

Background: Although disorganized speech is seen as one of the nuclear features of schizophrenia, there have been few reports of disorganized speech-associated psychotropic drug-prescribing patterns in large samples of schizophrenia patients. Objective: We aimed to examine the prevalence of disorganized speech and its correlates in terms of psychotropic drug prescribing, using the data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP) study. Method: A total of 3744 patients with the ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were enrolled from 71 survey centers in 15 Asian countries/areas. An essential criterion of disorganized speech was that it was "severe enough to impair substantially effective communication" as defined in the DSM-5. A binary logistic model was fitted to identify the psychotropic drug-prescribing correlates of disorganized speech. Results: After adjusting for the potential effects of confounding variables, the binary logistic regression model showed that the presence of disorganized speech was directly associated with adjunctive use of mood stabilizers (P < 0.001) and cumulative diazepam equivalent dose (P < 0.0001), and inversely associated with adjunctive use of anti-Parkinson drugs (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The association between disorganized speech and adjunctive use of mood stabilizers could perhaps be understood in the context of a relationship with impulsiveness/aggressiveness, or in terms of deconstructing the Kraepelinian dualism.

12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 235: 75-87, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599223

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The extensive biodiversity of plants in Southeast Asia and inadequate research hitherto warrant a continued investigation into medicinal plants. On the basis of a careful review of fresh medicinal plant usage to treat cancer from previous ethnobotanical interviews in Singapore and from the traditional uses of the indigenous plants, fresh leaves of seven locally grown medicinal plant species were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the anti-proliferative activity of local medicinal plant species Clausena lansium Skeels, Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau, Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr., Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC., Strobilanthes crispus (L.) Blume, Vernonia amygdalina Delile and Vitex trifolia L. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Fresh, healthy and mature leaves of the seven medicinal plants were harvested from various locations in Singapore and Malaysia for Soxhlet, ultrasonication and maceration extractions in three different solvents (water, ethanol and methanol). Cell proliferation assay using water soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay was performed on twelve human cancer cell lines derived from breast (MDA-MB-231, T47D), cervical (C33A), colon (HCT116), leukemia (U937), liver (HepG2, SNU-182, SNU-449), ovarian (OVCAR-5, PA-1, SK-OV-3) and uterine (MES-SA/DX5) cancer. RESULTS: A total of 37 fresh leaf extracts from seven medicinal plants were evaluated for their anti-tumour activities in twelve human cancer cell lines. Of these, the extracts of C. lansium, L. indica, P. bleo, S. crispus, V. amygdalina and V. trifolia exhibited promising anti-proliferative activity against multiple cancer cell lines. Further investigation of selected promising leaf extracts indicated that maceration methanolic extract of L. indica was most effective overall against majority of the cancer cell lines, with best IC50 values of 31.5 ±â€¯11.4 µg/mL, 37.5 ±â€¯0.7 µg/mL and 43.0 ±â€¯6.2 µg/mL in cervical C33A, liver SNU-449, and ovarian PA-1 cancer cell lines, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide new scientific evidence for the traditional use of local medicinal plant species C. lansium, L . indica, P. bleo, S. crispus, V. amygdalina and V. trifolia in cancer treatment. These results highlight the importance of the upkeep of these indigenous plants in modern society and their relevance as resources for drug discovery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Malásia , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático/métodos , Neoplasias/patologia , Singapura
13.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 31(5): 685-691, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212560

RESUMO

ABSTRACTBackground:Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates. METHODS: The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.

14.
Psychiatry Investig ; 15(10): 1007-1008, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373360

RESUMO

The REAP-AP study recruited 3,746 patients with schizophrenia, in March and April 2016, from 71 centers in 15 Asian countries/territories namely Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. Our findings reveal a trend according to which high dose antipsychotic prescription is more prevalent in Eastern Asia (especially, Japan and Korea) than in other regions of Asia. This historical factor may be associated with our finding of an Eastern Asian preponderance of high dose antipsychotic prescription.

15.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 38(6): 598-603, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Little is known regarding the trend of polypharmacy in Asia. We used data from 5 Asian countries to examine the patterns of antidepressant (AD) prescription and trends of psychotropic polypharmacy over time. METHODS: We used the cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiological data from 2004 and 2013 REAP-AD (Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants) to examine the patterns of AD prescriptions in clinical settings in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. We compared the trend in polypharmacy (ie, concomitant use of ≥2 classes of psychotropic) among individuals receiving AD prescriptions in 2004 and 2013 using multivariable logistic regression models in different diagnostic categories. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with psychotropic polypharmacy decreased from 2004 to 2013 in all 3 diagnostic categories, including mood disorders (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.44 [0.35-0.56]; P < 0.001), anxiety disorders (aOR, 0.58 [0.36-0.94]; P = 0.028), and psychotic disorders (aOR, 0.18 [0.05-0.60]; P = 0.006). Among individuals with AD prescriptions, concomitant use of anxiolytics (including sedative-hypnotics) decreased in patients with mood disorders (aOR, 0.34 [0.27-0.42]; P < 0.001) and anxiety disorders (aOR, 0.43 [0.27-0.67]; P < 0.001). In contrast, concomitant use of antipsychotics in patients with mood disorders increased (aOR, 1.43 [1.15-1.77]; P = 0.001), and concomitant use of mood stabilizers in patients with psychotic disorders also increased (aOR, 3.49 [1.50-8.14]; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study examining trends in psychotropic polypharmacy in East Asia. We found a generally decreasing trend of psychotropic polypharmacy in contrast to the increasing trend reported from Western countries. These findings could offer significant implications for health system reform or policy making.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Polimedicação , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Tranquilizantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Singapura , Taiwan
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096932

RESUMO

The effect of horticultural therapy (HT) on immune and endocrine biomarkers remains largely unknown. We designed a waitlist-control randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of HT in improving mental well-being and modulating biomarker levels. A total of 59 older adults was recruited, with 29 randomly assigned to the HT intervention and 30 to the waitlist control group. The participants attended weekly intervention sessions for the first 3 months and monthly sessions for the subsequent 3 months. Biological and psychosocial data were collected. Biomarkers included IL-1ß, IL-6, sgp-130, CXCL12/SDF-1α, CCL-5/RANTES, BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), hs-CRP, cortisol and DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone). Psychosocial measures examined cognitive functions, depression, anxiety, psychological well-being, social connectedness and satisfaction with life. A significant reduction in plasma IL-6 level (p = 0.02) was observed in the HT intervention group. For the waitlist control group, significant reductions in plasma CXCL12 (SDF-1α) (p = 0.003), CXCL5 (RANTES) (p = 0.05) and BDNF (p = 0.003) were observed. A significant improvement in social connectedness was also observed in the HT group (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: HT, in reducing plasma IL-6, may prevent inflammatory disorders and through maintaining plasma CXCL12 (SDF-1α), may maintain hematopoietic support to the brain. HT may be applied in communal gardening to enhance the well-being of older adults.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Horticultura Terapêutica/métodos , Saúde Mental , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/biossíntese , Quimiocina CXCL12/biossíntese , Cognição , Desidroepiandrosterona/biossíntese , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/biossíntese , Interleucinas/biossíntese , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Ginseng Res ; 42(3): 298-303, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989070

RESUMO

Background: Panax ginseng is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs worldwide for a variety of therapeutic properties including neurocognitive effects. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most abundant active chemical constituents of this herb with known neuroprotective, anxiolytic, and cognition improving effects. Methods: We investigated the effects of Rg1 on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a key brain region involved in cognition, information processing, working memory, and decision making. In this study, the effects of systemic administration of Rg1 (1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg) on (1) spontaneous firing of the medial prefrontal cortical neurons and (2) long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal-medial prefrontal cortical (HP-mPFC) pathway were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results: The spontaneous neuronal activity of approximately 50% the recorded pyramidal cells in the mPFC was suppressed by Rg1. In addition, Rg1 attenuated LTP in the HP-mPFC pathway. These effects were not dose-dependent. Conclusion: This report suggests that acute treatment of Rg1 impairs LTP in the HP-mPFC pathway, perhaps by suppressing the firing of a subset of mPFC neurons that may contribute to the neurocognitive effects of Rg1.

18.
Psychogeriatrics ; 18(5): 351-356, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study explored the patterns of physical comorbidities and their associated demographic and clinical factors in older psychiatric patients prescribed with antidepressants in Asia. METHODS: Demographic and clinical information of 955 older adults were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Standardized data collection procedure was used to record demographic and clinical data. RESULTS: Proportion of physical comorbidities in this cohort was 44%. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that older age (OR = 1.7, P < 0.001), higher number of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.09, P = 0.016), being treated in psychiatric hospital (OR = 0.5, P = 0.002), living in high income countries/territories (OR = 2.4, P = 0.002), use of benzodiazepines (OR = 1.4, P = 0.013) and diagnosis of 'other psychiatric disorders' (except mood, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia) (OR = 2.7, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with physical comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Physical comorbidities in older patients prescribed with antidepressants were common in Asia. Integrating physical care into the treatment of older psychiatric patients should be urgently considered.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
19.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 10: 195, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042673

RESUMO

Introduction: This study is a parallel-arm randomized controlled trial evaluating choral singing's efficacy and underlying mechanisms in preventing cognitive decline in at-risk older participants. Methods: Three-hundred and sixty community-dwelling, non-demented older participants are recruited for a 2-year intervention. Inclusion criteria are self-reported cognitive complaints, early cognitive impairment based on neuropsychological test scores or multiple risk factors of dementia. Participants are randomized to either weekly choral singing sessions or general health education. The primary outcome is cognitive performance, measured by a composite cognitive test score (CCTS). Secondary outcomes include depression, anxiety and neuropsychiatric symptoms; perceived stress; sleep quality and severity of dementia symptoms. Underlying mechanisms are examined using blood- and urine-based biomarkers and neuroimaging. Results: Screening began in July 2016. The first group of participants (n = 93) have been recruited. Intervention and control treatments are ongoing and will end in December 2019. Discussion: An evidence-based singing intervention for dementia prevention holds potential for healthcare savings and societal welfare. Trial Registration: NCT02919748, IRB Approval Number: NUS 2508.

20.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 72(8): 572-579, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761577

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to survey the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy and combined medication use across 15 Asian countries and areas in 2016. METHODS: By using the results from the fourth survey of Research on Asian Prescription Patterns on antipsychotics, the rates of polypharmacy and combined medication use in each country were analyzed. Daily medications prescribed for the treatment of inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, including antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antiparkinson agents, were collected. Fifteen countries from Asia participated in this study. RESULTS: A total of 3744 patients' prescription forms were examined. The prescription patterns differed across these Asian countries, with the highest rate of polypharmacy noted in Vietnam (59.1%) and the lowest in Myanmar (22.0%). Furthermore, the combined use of other medications, expressed as highest and lowest rate, respectively, was as follows: mood stabilizers, China (35.0%) and Bangladesh (1.0%); antidepressants, South Korea (36.6%) and Bangladesh (0%); anxiolytics, Pakistan (55.7%) and Myanmar (8.5%); hypnotics, Japan (61.1%) and, equally, Myanmar (0%) and Sri Lanka (0%); and antiparkinson agents, Bangladesh (87.9%) and Vietnam (10.9%). The average psychotropic drug loading of all patients was 2.01 ± 1.64, with the highest and lowest loadings noted in Japan (4.13 ± 3.13) and Indonesia (1.16 ± 0.68), respectively. CONCLUSION: Differences in psychiatrist training as well as the civil culture and health insurance system of each country may have contributed to the differences in these rates. The concept of drug loading can be applied to other medical fields.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimedicação , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Ásia , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA