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1.
J Org Chem ; 2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433901

RESUMO

Direct C-H activation and functionalization offer a convenient protocol for pharmaceutical and material syntheses. Although versatile mechanisms have been proposed to depict transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activation, to date, the shared key agostic hydrogen intermediate in several major mechanisms has not been observed yet, which apparently puzzles the mechanism-based catalyst design. This work reports the direct observations of this intermediate in Pd(II)/Sc(III)-catalyzed C-H activation of acetanilides, and its stability and reactivity in C-H activation are investigated. Remarkably, this intermediate is only observed in electron-rich acetanilides, and the meta-substituent with increased σm constant generally accelerates C-H activation, a characteristic of the base-assisted C-H activation mechanism. This study has unveiled the masks of this intermediate with an understanding of its first-hand physicochemical properties, shedding new light on mechanism-based catalyst design.

2.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432480

RESUMO

The recovery of the intestinal epithelial barrier is the goal for curing various intestinal injurious diseases, especially IBD. However, there are limited therapeutics for restoring intestinal epithelial barrier function in IBD. The stemness of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) can differentiate into various mature intestinal epithelial cells, thus playing a key role in the rapid regeneration of the intestinal epithelium. IL-22 secreted by CD4+ T cells and ILC3 cells was reported to maintain the stemness of ISCs. Our previous study found that L-fucose significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colonic inflammation and intestinal epithelial injury. In this study, we discovered enhanced ISC regeneration and increased intestinal IL-22 secretion and its related transcription factor AHR in colitis mice after L-fucose treatment. Further studies showed that L-fucose promoted IL-22 release from CD4+ T cells and intestinal lamina propria monocytes (LPMCs) via activation of nuclear AHR. The coculture system of LPMCs and intestinal organoids demonstrated that L-fucose stimulated the proliferation of ISCs through an indirect manner of IL-22 from LPMCs via the IL-22R-p-STAT3 pathway, and restored TNF-α-induced organoid damage via IL-22-IL-22R signaling. These results revealed that L-fucose helped to heal the epithelial barrier by accelerating ISC proliferation, probably through the AHR/IL-22 pathway of LPMCs, which provides a novel therapy for IBD in the clinic.


Assuntos
Fucose , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Animais , Camundongos , Fucose/farmacologia , Monócitos , Mucosa Intestinal , Células-Tronco , Regeneração , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico
3.
JACC Case Rep ; 4(18): 1169-1175, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36213889

RESUMO

Cardioneural ablation is a novel treatment for functional bradycardia. However, the risk of acute complications is still unknown. The aim of this case report is to describe acute occlusion of the sinus node artery after cardiac denervation procedures in 2 patients and to encourage measures to prevent it, such as evaluating the aortic angulation in older patients before the procedure and by monitoring signs of sinus failure during ablation in patients with electroanatomical maps showing a constricted aspect of the right atrium. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).

4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 907990, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36237900

RESUMO

Background: The effect of extreme sleep duration on the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CCDs) remains debatable. The pathology of CCDs is consistent in some respects (e.g., vascular factors), suggesting that there may be an overlapping range of sleep duration associated with a low risk of both diseases We aimed to quantify the dose-response relationship between sleep duration and CCDs. Study objective: To explore whether there is an optimal sleep duration (SD) in reducing the risk of CCDs. Methods: PubMed and EMBASE were searched until June 24, 2022 to include cohort studies that investigated the longitudinal relationships of SD with incident CCDs, including stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). The robusterror meta-regression model (REMR model) was conducted to depict the dose-response relationships based on multivariate-adjusted risk estimates. Results: A total of 71 cohorts with 3.8 million participants were included for meta-analysis, including 57 for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and 29 for cerebrovascular disease. A significant U-shaped relationship was revealed of nighttime sleep duration with either cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. The nighttime sleep duration associated with a lower risk of CVD was situated within 4.3-10.3 h, with the risk hitting bottom at roughly 7.5 h per night (p non-linearity < 0.0001). Sleep duration associated with a lower risk of cerebrovascular diseases ranges from 5 to 9.7 h per night, with the inflection at 7.5 h per night (p non-linearity = 0.05). Similar non-linear relationship exited in daily sleep duration and CCDs. Other subgroup analyses showed non-linear relationships close to the above results. Conclusion: Rational sleep duration (7.5 h/night) is associated with a reduced risk of cardio-cerebrovascular disease for adults.

6.
J Org Chem ; 87(21): 13919-13934, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205496

RESUMO

Transition-metal ion catalyzed intramolecular dual C-H activation to construct polycyclic heteroarene skeletons is merited for its step and atom-economic advantages in organic synthesis. However, in most cases, stoichiometric oxidants, elevated temperature, and other harsh conditions were commonly faced for this reaction, which apparently block the synthetic applications. Herein, we report a Pd(II)/LA (LA: Lewis acid) catalyzed intramolecular dual C-H activation to construct indoloquinolinone derivatives under mild conditions with dioxygen as the sole oxidant. It was found that adding LA such as Sc3+ to Pd(OAc)2 sharply improved its catalytic efficiency, whereas Pd(OAc)2 alone was very sluggish. The activity improvement was attributed to the linkage of the Sc3+ cation to the Pd(II) species through a diacetate bridge that significantly enhanced the electrophilic properties of Pd(II) for dual C-H activation.

7.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 309: 102791, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193603

RESUMO

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has long been used as a delivery system owing to its wide availability, biocompatibility, and degradability. However, it often suffers from many challenges toward rapid dissolution at stomach acid environment, low retention ability, and lack of sustained release. Many of these issues can be addressed by modifying the CaCO3 particles or integrating them with other encapsulation systems, generating advanced CaCO3-derived systems. This review article presents a recent progress (2015-2022) in the utilization of CaCO3 particles in the exploration of various advanced delivery systems, including polymer-doped CaCO3, surface-coated CaCO3, CaCO3-stabilized Pickering emulsions, CaCO3-in-hydrogels, and liposomal CaCO3. Some emerging systems templated on CaCO3 sacrificial cores, such as hollow capsules, matrix-type capsules, and core-shell capsules, are also reviewed. A brief description of each system is given, and then their formation, structure, and properties are described. Particular emphasis is given to the applications and challenges of these advanced systems for the protection and controlled delivery of bioactive compounds in the biological, pharmaceutical, and functional food fields.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio , Polímeros , Cápsulas/química , Emulsões , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Hidrogéis
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 635, 2022 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36199048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research examines the direct and indirect relationships between optimism, perceived social support (PSS), benefit finding (BF), and anxiety and depressive symptoms among Chinese women with breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We recruited 512 patients, aged averagely 47.46(SD = 8.51) years from two hospitals located in Hunan province, China. The variables were assessed using the Optimism-Pessimism Scale (OPS), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Benefit Finding Scale (BFS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Path analyses were conducted by Amos version 24.0 for Windows to test the hypothesized serial mediation model. RESULTS: Path analyses suggest a significant negative association between optimism and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The relationship was mediated by BF (ß = -0.085, SE = 0.015, 95% CI [-0.126, -0.055]), and by BF together with PSS (ß = -0.027, SE = 0.007, 95% CI [-0.047, -0.017]). The difference comparison between the two indirect effects was significant (ß = 0.057, SE = 0.015, 95% CI [0.034,0.101]). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PSS, and BF are important mediators through which optimism may buffer symptoms of anxiety and depression among Chinese BC patients. Clinicians and healthcare practitioners should be aware of the importance of patients' emotional health and endeavor to offer emotional support, facilitate their capacity to improve their quality of life.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Depressão , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , China , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 1008780, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36299612

RESUMO

Background: Perturbation of lipid metabolism is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Heart fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) is an adipokine playing an important role in lipid metabolism regulation. Materials and methods: Two datasets separately enrolled 303 and 197 participants. First, we examine the associations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HFABP levels with cognitive measures [including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes (CDRSB), and the cognitive section of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale] and AD biomarkers (CSF amyloid beta and tau levels). Second, we examine the longitudinal associations of baseline CSF HFABP levels and the variability of HFABP with cognitive measures and AD biomarkers. Structural equation models explored the mediation effects of AD pathologies on cognition. Results: We found a significant relationship between CSF HFABP level and P-tau (dataset 1: ß = 2.04, p < 0.001; dataset 2: ß = 1.51, p < 0.001). We found significant associations of CSF HFABP with longitudinal cognitive measures (dataset 1: ADAS13, ß = 0.09, p = 0.008; CDRSB, ß = 0.10, p = 0.003; MMSE, ß = -0.15, p < 0.001; dataset 2: ADAS13, ß = 0.07, p = 0.004; CDRSB, ß = 0.07, p = 0.005; MMSE, ß = -0.09, p < 0.001) in longitudinal analysis. The variability of HFABP was associated with CSF P-tau (dataset 2: ß = 3.62, p = 0.003). Structural equation modeling indicated that tau pathology mediated the relationship between HFABP and cognition. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that HFABP was significantly associated with longitudinal cognitive changes, which might be partially mediated by tau pathology.

10.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 308: 102772, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087561

RESUMO

Advances in animal husbandry and better performance of livestock results in growing demands for feed and its nutrients, bioactive compounds (bioactives), such as vitamins, minerals, proteins, and phenolics, along with drugs/vaccines. To protect the feed bioactives in unintended circumstances, they can be encapsulated to achieve desired efficacy in animal feeding and nanoencapsulation gives more potential for better protection, absorption and targeted delivery of bioactives. This study reviews structures, properties, and methods of nanoencapsulation for animal feedings and relevant drugs. Essential oil (EOs) and plant extracts are mostly encapsulated bioactives and phytochemicals for poultry diets and chitosan is found as most effective nanocarrier to load EOs and plant extracts. Nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocapsules are frequently studied nanocarriers, which are mostly processed by using the ionotropic/ionic gelation. Nanofibers, nanohydrogels and nanoemulsions are not found yet for their application in feed bioactives. These nanocarriers can have an improved protection, stability, and controlled release of feed bioactives which benefits to additional nutrition for the growth of livestock regardless of the low stability and water solubility of bioactives. For ruminants' feeds, nano-minerals, vitamins, phytochemicals, essential fatty acids, and drugs are encapsulated by NPs to facilitate the delivery to target organs through direct penetration, to improve their bioavailability, to generate more efficient absorption in cells and tissues, and protect them from rapid degradation. Furthermore, safety and regulatory issues, as well as advantages and disadvantages of nanoencapsulation application in animal feeds are also discussed. The review shows an accurate design of NPs can largely mask safety issues with straightforward approaches and awareness of safety concerns is fundamental for better designing of nanoencapsulation systems and commercialization. This review gives an insight of understanding and potential of nanoencapsulation in ruminants and poultry feedings to obtain a better bioavailability of the nutrients and bioactives with improved safety and awareness for better designing of nanoencapsulating systems.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanocápsulas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Gado , Minerais , Sistemas de Liberação de Fármacos por Nanopartículas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais , Vitaminas , Água
11.
Langmuir ; 38(39): 11882-11891, 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122176

RESUMO

Contact electrification (CE) occurs naturally at all interfaces between solids and solids, solids and liquids, solids and gasses, and so forth. It has been extensively studied for decades. While CE at a solid-solid interface has been demonstrated to be primarily caused by electron transfer, the underlying mechanism of CE at a liquid-solid interface remains controversial. In this paper, the CE process between polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and different inorganic solutions at different temperatures is studied to investigate the charge transfer mechanism. The observed temperature-CE charge relationship falls into two categories, that is, the general case and the special case. In the general case, the CE charge first increases negatively and then positively with the temperature. The CE charge increasing negatively could result from enhanced electron transfer at the interface, while the CE charge increasing positively may be caused by increasing adsorption of cations, which neutralize the negative charges on the PET surface. In contrast, the CE charge first increases positively and then negatively with the temperature in the special case. The CE charge increasing positively could be attributed to more cations being attracted to the negatively charged PET surface, while the charge increasing negatively may be caused by more anions being attracted to the PET due to enhanced cation adsorption. Supported by the surface charge and dynamic charge transfer at different PET-solution interfaces and solution temperatures, our study provides a plausible interpretation of the temperature-dependent CE at the polymer-liquid interfaces.

12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 119(4): 514-519, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequently sustained arrhythmia, with catheter ablation (CA) or electrical cardioversion (ECV), the periprocedural period is one of the most critical phases. Currently, the use of new direct action oral anticoagulants (DOAC) is increasingly frequent; however, in the real world, there are still few data on studies on the thrombus incidence in the left atrium (TrLA) or dense spontaneous contrast (DSC) on transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of events and association with risk factors in patients using DOACs. Primary objective: to analyze the prevalence of thrombus in the LA by TEE in patients using DOAC undergoing ECV/CA. Second, evaluate the association of comorbidities with the presence of thrombi and DSC. METHODS: Retrospective cohort, single-center study with patients followed at the Arrhythmia Outpatient Unit (InCor-HCFMUSP). Patients indicated for procedures and using DOACs were selected, and their clinical/echocardiographic data were analyzed. A significance level of 5% was considered. RESULTS: 354 patients were included, a total of 400 procedures, from March 2012-March 2018. Thrombus in the LA was found in 11 patients (2.8%), associated with advanced age (p=0.007) and higher CHA2DS2-VASc (p<0.001) score. DSC in the LA before TEE was found in 29 patients (7.3%), with lower LVEF (p<0.038) and greater LA dimension (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The incidence of LA thrombus and DSC in patients using DOC in the context of AF ECV/CA, although small, is not negligible. Patients with higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores, especially older and with larger LA diameter, are more prone to these echocardiographic findings.


FUNDAMENTO: No tratamento da fibrilação atrial (FA), a arritmia sustentada mais frequente, com ablação por cateter (ABL) ou cardioversão elétrica (CVE), o período periprocedimento é uma das fases mais críticas. Atualmente, o uso de novos anticoagulantes orais de ação direta (DOAC) é cada vez mais frequente, no entanto, no mundo real, ainda existem poucos dados de estudos sobre a incidência de trombo no átrio esquerdo (TrAE) ou contraste espontâneo denso (CE) no ecocardiograma transesofágico (ETE). OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência de TrAE, por ETE, em pacientes em uso de DOAC submetidos à CVE/ABL. Secundariamente: avaliar a associação de comorbidades com a presença de trombos e CE. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo, unicêntrico, com pacientes do Ambulatório de Arritmia (InCor-HCFMUSP). Foram selecionados e analisados dados clínicos e ecocardiográficos no prontuário da instituição de pacientes com indicação de procedimentos e em uso de DOACs. Considerado um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 354 pacientes, no total de 400 procedimentos, de março de 2012-março de 2018. TrAE foi encontrado em 11 pacientes (2,8%), associado com idade avançada (p=0,007) e CHA2DS2-VASc maior (p<0,001). Foi encontrado CE no AE no procedimento antes da ETE em 29 pacientes (7,3%), com menor FEVE (p <0,038) e maior dimensão do AE (p <0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de TrAE e CE em pacientes em uso de DOAC no contexto de CVE/ABL de FA, embora pequena, não é desprezível. Pacientes com escore CHA2DS2-VASc maior, principalmente mais idosos e com diâmetro do AE maior, são mais propensos a esses achados ecocardiográficos.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial , Cardiopatias , Trombose , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0094422, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972295

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a highly lethal hemorrhagic disease in domestic pigs and wild boars that has significant economic consequences for the pig industry. The type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway is a pivotal component of the innate antiviral response, and ASFV has evolved multiple mechanisms to antagonize this pathway and facilitate infection. Here, we reported a novel function of ASFV pI215L in inhibiting type I IFN signaling. Our results showed that ASFV pI215L inhibited IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activity and subsequent transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) by triggering interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) degradation. Additionally, we found that catalytically inactive pI215L mutations retained the ability to block type I IFN signaling, indicating that this only known viral E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme mediates IFR9 degradation in a ubiquitin-conjugating activity-independent manner. By coimmunoprecipitation, confocal immunofluorescence, and subcellular fractionation approaches, we demonstrated that pI215L interacted with IRF9 and impaired the formation and nuclear translocation of IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3). Moreover, further mechanism studies supported that pI215L induced IRF9 degradation through the autophagy-lysosome pathway in both pI215L-overexpressed and ASFV-infected cells. These findings reveal a new immune evasion strategy evolved by ASFV in which pI215L acts to degrade host IRF9 via the autophagic pathway, thus inhibiting the type I IFN signaling and counteracting the host innate immune response. IMPORTANCE African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly contagious and lethal disease in pigs and wild boars that is currently present in many countries, severely affecting the global pig industry. Despite extensive research, effective vaccines and antiviral strategies are still lacking, and many fundamental questions regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying host innate immunity escape remain unclear. In this study, we identified ASFV pI215L, the only known viral E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which is involved in antagonizing the type I interferon signaling. Mechanistically, pI215L interacted with interferon regulatory factor 9 for autophagic degradation, and this degradation was independent of its ubiquitin-conjugating activity. These results increase the current knowledge regarding ASFV evasion of innate immunity, which may instruct future research on antiviral strategies and dissection of ASFV pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Autofagia , Interferon Tipo I , Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon, Subunidade gama , Febre Suína Africana/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Animais , Imunidade Inata , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon, Subunidade gama/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo
14.
Arch Virol ; 167(11): 2249-2262, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029354

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an enteric virus that was first identified in 2012. Although PDCoV has been detected worldwide, there is little information about its circulation in western China. In this study, fecal samples were collected from piglets with watery diarrhea in western China between 2015 and 2018 for the detection of PDCoV. The positive rate was 29.9%. A PDCoV strain (CHN/CQ/BN23/2016, BN23) was isolated and selected for further investigation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain formed an individual cluster between the early Chinese lineage and the Chinese lineage. RDP4 and SimPlot analysis demonstrated that strain BN23 is a recombinant of Thailand/S5015L/2015 and CHN-AH-2004. The pathogenicity of BN23 was evaluated in 3-day-old piglets. Challenged piglets developed serious clinical signs and died at 3 days post-inoculation. Our data show that PDCoV is prevalent in western China and that strain BN23 is highly pathogenic to newborn piglets. Therefore, more attention should be paid to emerging PDCoV strains in western China.


Assuntos
Deltacoronavirus , Animais , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Deltacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Deltacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Diarreia/veterinária , Genômica , Filogenia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Virulência
15.
Front Genet ; 13: 936264, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35991565

RESUMO

Background: Infertility is a global health concern. MEIOB has been found to be associated with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), but its variants have not been reported in Chinese patients. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic aetiology of POI or NOA in three Han Chinese families. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was used to identify candidate pathogenic variants in three consanguineous Chinese infertile families with POI or NOA. Sanger sequencing was performed to validate these variants in the proband of family I and her affected family members. In vitro functional analyses were performed to confirm the effects of these variants. Results: Two novel homozygous frameshift variants (c.258_259del and c.1072_1073del) and one novel homozygous nonsense variant (c.814C > T) in the MEIOB gene were identified in three consanguineous Han Chinese families. In vitro functional analyses revealed that these variants produced truncated proteins and affected their function. Conclusion: We identified three novel MEIOB loss-of-function variants in local Chinese patients for the first time and confirmed their pathogenicity using in vitro functional analyses. These results extend the mutation spectrum of the MEIOB gene and have important significance for genetic counselling in these families.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 795839, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35814787

RESUMO

Background: The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, on preventing acute kidney injury (AKI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis to evaluate its efficacy on cardiac surgery-related adverse events. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies from inception to June 2021. We selected randomized controlled trials comparing NAC with controls in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Results: Twenty-five studies including 2,444 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of AKI between the NAC and control groups [relative risk (RR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.77, 1.08, P = 0.28], but the trial sequential analysis (TSA) could not confirm this result. No difference was observed in the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), all-cause mortality, MACE, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), and length of stay in the hospital. Results of subgroup analysis results showed that intravenous infusion instead of oral NAC could significantly reduce the incidence of AKI and arrhythmia (RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.71, 0.99, P = 0.03, I 2 = 3% and RR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.91, P = 0.004, I 2 = 48%, respectively). Conclusion: Intravenous administration of NAC can reduce the incidence of AKI and arrhythmia in patients after cardiac surgery, but cannot reduce all-cause mortality, AMI, cardiac insufficiency, and the number of patients using RRT. Oral NAC has no significant effect on the outcomes of patients after cardiac surgery.

17.
BMC Neurosci ; 23(1): 43, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious, and the neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection have already been reported. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on patients with central nervous system injuries remain unclear. METHODS: The high-throughput RNA sequencing was applied to analyze the transcriptomic changes in SK-N-SH cells after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were performed to identify the functions of differentially expressed genes and related pathways. RESULTS: A total of 820 mRNAs were significantly altered, including 671 upregulated and 149 downregulated mRNAs (showing an increase of ≥ 2-fold or decrease to ≤ 0.5-fold, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, we verified the significant induction of cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors, as well as the activation of NF-κB, p38, and Akt signaling pathways, in SK-N-SH by SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first time the transcriptional profiles of the host mRNAs involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection of SK-N-SH cells have been reported. These findings provide novel insight into the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and might constitute a new approach for future prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2-induced central nervous system infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neuroblastoma , Citocinas , Humanos , NF-kappa B , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Cells ; 11(13)2022 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805093

RESUMO

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) serves as an essential viral RNA sensor for innate immune. The activation of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) pathway triggers many regulations for the outcome of type I interferon, including ubiquitination, dephosphorylation, ISGylation, and autophagy. However, the autophagy-related regulation of RIG-I is still not fully understood. To investigate the potentially unknown genes related to autophagy-related regulation of RIG-I, we firstly confirm the induction of autophagy derived by overexpression of RIG-I. Furthermore, the autophagy inducer and inhibitor drugs were used in different assays. The results showed autophagy could control the activation of RLRs pathway and expression of exogenous RIG-I. In addition, we carried out the transcriptome analysis of overexpression of RIG-I in vitro. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in GO and KEGG signaling pathways enrichment provided a newly complex network. Finally, the validation of qPCR indicated that the DEGs PTPN22, PRKN, OTUD7B, and SIRT2 were correlated to the negative regulation of excessive expression of RIG-I. Taken together, our study contributed new insights into a more comprehensive understanding of the regulation of excessive expression of RIG-I. It provided the potential candidate genes for autophagy-related negative regulation for further investigation.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interferon Tipo I , Autofagia/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tretinoína
19.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 883416, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35847655

RESUMO

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary pathogen of swine enzootic pneumonia and causes great economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In China, M. hyopneumoniae seriously hinders the healthy development of the native black pigs. To prevent and treat porcine respiratory disease caused by M. hyopneumoniae, the characteristics of M. hyopneumoniae strain ES-2 isolated from Chinese native black pig lungs with gross lesions at post-mortem were studied for the first time in this study. Strain ES-2 cell was round or oval cells and most sensitive to kanamycin. The diameters of most strain ES-2 cells ranged from 0.4 to 1.0 µm with maximum viability of 1010 CCU/ml. Experimental challenge of animals with strain ES-2 showed respiratory disease could be reproduced, with pneumonic lung lesions evident. Comparative genomics analysis identified that 2 genes are specific to pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae strains, which may be predicted to be a molecular marker. These findings suggest that the study on the characteristics of M. hyopneumoniae strain ES-2 will guide the rapid and accurate drug use in the clinic, and develop a theoretical foundation for accurately diagnosing and treating the infection caused by pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae.

20.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891443

RESUMO

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) can infect most mammals and is well known for causing substantial economic losses in the pig industry. In addition to pigs, PRV infection usually leads to severe itching, central nervous system dysfunction, and 100% mortality in its non-natural hosts. It should be noted that increasing human cases of PRV infection have been reported in China since 2017, and these patients have generally suffered from nervous system damage and even death. Here, we reviewed the current prevalence and variation in PRV worldwide as well as the PRV-caused infections in animals and humans, and briefly summarized the vaccines and diagnostic methods used for pseudorabies control. Most countries, including China, have control programs in place for pseudorabies in domestic pigs, and thus, the disease is on the decline; however, PRV is still globally epizootic and an important pathogen for pigs. In countries where pseudorabies in domestic pigs have already been eliminated, the risk of PRV transmission by infected wild animals should be estimated and prevented. As a member of the alphaherpesviruses, PRV showed protein-coding variation that was relatively higher than that of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and its evolution was mainly contributed to by the frequent recombination observed between different genotypes or within the clade. Recombination events have promoted the generation of new variants, such as the variant strains resulting in the outbreak of pseudorabies in pigs in China, 2011. There have been 25 cases of PRV infections in humans reported in China since 2017, and they were considered to be infected by PRV variant strains. Although PRV infections have been sporadically reported in humans, their causal association remains to be determined. This review provided the latest epidemiological information on PRV for the better understanding, prevention, and treatment of pseudorabies.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Suídeo 1 , Pseudorraiva , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Surtos de Doenças , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/genética , Humanos , Mamíferos , Pseudorraiva/epidemiologia , Pseudorraiva/prevenção & controle , Suínos
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