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1.
Singapore Med J ; 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound (US) is current standard of care for imaging surveillance in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been explored as an alternative, given the higher sensitivity of MRI, although this comes at a higher cost. We performed a cost-effective analysis comparing US and a dual-sequence non-contrast MRI (NCEMRI) for HCC surveillance, in the local setting. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness analysis of no surveillance, US surveillance and NCEMRI surveillance was performed using Markov modelling and microsimulation. At-risk patient cohort was simulated and followed-up for 40 years to estimate their disease status, direct medical costs, and effectiveness. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost effectiveness ratio were calculated. RESULTS: 482,000 patients with an average age of 40 years were simulated and followed up for 40 years. The average total costs and QALYs for the three scenarios - no surveillance, US surveillance and NCEMRI surveillance were S$1,193/7.460 QALYs; S$8,099/11.195 QALYs; S$9,720/11.366 QALYs, respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite NCEMRI having a superior diagnostic accuracy, it is a less cost-effective strategy than US for HCC surveillance in the general at-risk population. Future local cost-effectiveness analyses should include stratifying surveillance methods with a variety of imaging techniques (US, NCEMRI, CEMRI) based on patients' risk profiles.

2.
Br J Radiol ; : 20210509, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing diagnostic performance and inter reader agreement between PI-RADS v. 2.1 and PI-RADS v. 2 in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). METHODS: A systematic review was performed, searching the major biomedical databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus), using the keywords "PIRADS 2.1" or "PI RADS 2.1" or "PI-RADS 2.1". Studies reporting on head-to-head diagnostic comparison between PI-RADS v. 2.1 and v. 2 were included. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were compared between PI-RADS v. 2.1 and v. 2. Summary receiver operator characteristic graphs were plotted. Analysis was performed for whole gland, and pre-planned subgroup analysis was performed by tumour location (whole gland vs transition zone (TZ)), high b-value DWI (b-value ≥1400 s/mm2), and reader experience (<5 years vs ≥5 years with prostate MRI interpretation). Inter-reader agreement and pooled rates of csPCa for PI-RADS 1-3 lesions were compared between PI-RADS v. 2.1 and v. 2. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool v. 2 (QUADAS-2). RESULTS: Eight studies (1836 patients, 1921 lesions) were included. Pooled specificity for PI-RADS v. 2.1 was significantly lower than PI-RADS v. 2 for whole gland (0.62 vs 0.66, p = 0.02). Pooled sensitivities, PPVs and NPVs were not significantly different (p = 0.17, 0.31, 0.41). Pooled specificity for PI-RADS v. 2.1 was significantly lower than PI-RADS v. 2 for TZ only (0.67 vs 0.72, p = 0.01). Pooled sensitivities, PPVs and NPVs were not significantly different (p = 0.06, 0.36, 0.17). Amongst studies utilising diffusion-weighted imaging with highest b-value of ≥1400 s/mm2, pooled sensitivities, specificities, PPVs and NPVs were not significantly different (p = 0.52, 0.4, 0.5, 0.47). There were no significant differences in pooled sensitivities, specificities, PPVs and NPVs between PI-RADS v. 2.1 and PI-RADS v. 2 for less-experienced readers (p = 0.65, 0.37, 0.65, 0.81) and for more experienced readers (p = 0.57, 0.90, 0.91, 0.65). For PI-RADS v. 2.1 alone, there were no significant differences in pooled sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV between less and more experienced readers (p = 0.38, 0.70, 1, 0.48). Inter-reader agreement was moderate to substantial for both PI-RADS v. 2.1 and v. 2. There were no significant differences between pooled csPCa rates between PI-RADS v. 2.1 and v. 2 for PI-RADS 1-2 lesions (6.6% vs 7.3%, p = 0.53), or PI-RADS 3 lesions (24.1% vs 26.8%, p = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic performance and inter-reader agreement for PI-RADS v. 2.1 is comparable to PI-RADS v. 2, however the significantly lower specificity of PI-RADS v. 2.1 may result in increased number of unnecessary biopsies. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: 1. Compared to PI-RADS v. 2, PI-RADS v. 2.1 has a non-significantly higher sensitivity but a significantly lower specificity for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.2. PI-RADS v. 2.1 could potentially result in considerable increase in number of negative targeted biopsy rates for PI-RADS 3 lesions, which could have been potentially avoided.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 909, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of six diagnostic strategies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeted biopsy for diagnosing prostate cancer in initial and repeat biopsy settings from the Singapore healthcare system perspective. METHODS: A combined decision tree and Markov model was developed. The starting model population was men with mean age of 65 years referred for a first prostate biopsy due to clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. The six diagnostic strategies were selected for their relevance to local clinical practice. They comprised MRI targeted biopsy following a positive pre-biopsy multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) [Prostate Imaging - Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score ≥ 3], systematic biopsy, or saturation biopsy employed in different testing combinations and sequences. Deterministic base case analyses with sensitivity analyses were performed using costs from the healthcare system perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained as the outcome measure to yield incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS: Deterministic base case analyses showed that Strategy 1 (MRI targeted biopsy alone), Strategy 2 (MRI targeted biopsy ➔ systematic biopsy), and Strategy 4 (MRI targeted biopsy ➔ systematic biopsy ➔ saturation biopsy) were cost-effective options at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of US$20,000, with ICERs ranging from US$18,975 to US$19,458. Strategies involving MRI targeted biopsy in the repeat biopsy setting were dominated. Sensitivity analyses found the ICERs were affected mostly by changes to the annual discounting rate and prevalence of prostate cancer in men referred for first biopsy, ranging between US$15,755 to US$23,022. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed Strategy 1 to be the least costly, and Strategies 2 and 4 being the preferred strategies when WTP thresholds were US$20,000 and US$30,000, respectively. LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: This study found MRI targeted biopsy to be cost-effective in diagnosing prostate cancer in the biopsy-naïve setting in Singapore.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Biópsia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Singapura/epidemiologia
5.
MAGMA ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing appreciation of the association of obesity beyond co-morbidities, such as cancers, Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and stroke to also impact upon the muscle to give rise to sarcopenic obesity. Phenotypic knowledge of obesity is crucial for profiling and management of obesity, as different fat-subcutaneous adipose tissue depots (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue depots (VAT) have various degrees of influence on metabolic syndrome and morbidities. Manual segmentation is time consuming and laborious. Study focuses on the development of a deep learning-based, complete data processing pipeline for MRI-based fat analysis, for large cohort studies which include (1) data augmentation and preprocessing (2) model zoo (3) visualization dashboard, and (4) correction tool, for automated quantification of fat compartments SAT and VAT. METHODS: Our sample comprised 190 healthy community-dwelling older adults from the Geri-LABS study with mean age of 67.85 ± 7.90 years, BMI 23.75 ± 3.65 kg/m2, 132 (69.5%) female, and mainly Chinese ethnicity. 3D-modified Dixon T1-weighted gradient-echo MR images were acquired. Residual global aggregation-based 3D U-Net (RGA-U-Net) and standard 3D U-Net were trained to segment SAT, VAT, superficial and deep subcutaneous adipose tissue depots (SSAT and DSAT). Manual segmentation from 26 subjects was used as ground truth during training. Data augmentations, random bias, noise and ghosting were carried out to increase the number of training datasets to 130. Segmentation accuracy was evaluated using Dice and Hausdorff metrics. RESULTS: The accuracy of segmentation was SSAT:0.92, DSAT:0.88 and VAT:0.9. Average Hausdorff distance was less than 5 mm. Automated segmentation significantly correlated R2 > 0.99 (p < 0.001) with ground truth for all 3-fat compartments. Predicted volumes were within ± 1.96SD from Bland-Altman analysis. CONCLUSIONS: DL-based, comprehensive SSAT, DSAT, and VAT analysis tool showed high accuracy and reproducibility and provided a comprehensive fat compartment composition analysis and visualization in less than 10 s.

6.
Clin Imaging ; 80: 36-42, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224952

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigates the differences in diagnostic performance between diffuse-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE), either alone or in combination with T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), for diagnosing deep myometrial invasion (dMI) of endometrial cancers (EC). METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search for published studies comparing DWI and DCE for preoperatively diagnosing dMI of EC. The overall diagnostic accuracy of each test was calculated using the areas under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). The sensitivities and specificities were compared using bivariate meta-regression. RESULTS: Pooled analysis of nineteen studies with 961 patients (main group) showed that DWI had a larger AUC (0.943, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.921-0.967) than DCE (0.922, 95% CI = 0.893-0.953). For the subgroup comprising 7 studies, DWI combined with T2WI and DCE combined with T2WI showed AUCs of 0.959 (95% CI, 0.932-0.986) and 0.929 (95% CI, 0.847-1.000), respectively. None of the differences in AUCs were statistically significant. All comparisons of the sensitivities and specificities of the main group and subgroup also showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis found no significant difference in diagnostic performance between DWI and DCE for diagnosis of dMI in EC. DWI may be preferred for its ease of use in clinical practice.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314362

RESUMO

Pneumonia is one of the most common treatable causes of death, and early diagnosis allows for early intervention. Automated diagnosis of pneumonia can therefore improve outcomes. However, it is challenging to develop high performance deep learning models due to the lack of well-annotated data for training. This paper proposes a novel method, called Deep Supervised Domain Adaptation (DSDA), to automatically diagnose pneumonia from chest X-ray images. Specifically, we propose to transfer the knowledge from a publicly available large-scale source dataset (ChestX-ray14) to a well-annotated but small-scale target dataset (the TTSH dataset). DSDA aligns the distributions of the source domain and the target domain according to the underlying semantics of the training samples. It includes two task-specific sub-networks for the source domain and the target domain, respectively. These two sub-networks share the feature extraction layers and are trained in an end-to-end manner. Unlike most existing domain adaptation approaches that perform the same tasks in the source domain and the target domain, we attempt to transfer the knowledge from a multi-label classification task in the source domain to a binary classification task in the target domain. To evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we compare it with several existing peer methods. The experimental results show that our method can achieve promising performance for automated pneumonia diagnosis.

8.
Singapore Med J ; 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34005847

RESUMO

With the advent of artificial intelligence (AI), machines are increasingly being used to complete complicated tasks, yielding remarkable results. Machine learning (ML) is the most relevant subset of AI in medicine, which will soon become an integral part of our everyday practice. Therefore, physicians should acquaint themselves with ML and AI, and their role as an enabler rather than a competitor. Herein, we introduce basic concepts and terms used in AI and ML, and aim to demystify commonly used AI/ML algorithms such as learning methods including neural networks/deep learning, decision tree and application domain in computer vision and natural language processing through specific examples. We discuss how machines are already being used to augment the physician's decision-making process, and postulate the potential impact of ML on medical practice and medical research based on its current capabilities and known limitations. Moreover, we discuss the feasibility of full machine autonomy in medicine.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7477, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820944

RESUMO

We aim to describe a case series of critically and non-critically ill COVID-19 patients in Singapore. This was a multicentered prospective study with clinical and laboratory details. Details for fifty uncomplicated COVID-19 patients and ten who required mechanical ventilation were collected. We compared clinical features between the groups, assessed predictors of intubation, and described ventilatory management in ICU patients. Ventilated patients were significantly older, reported more dyspnea, had elevated C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase. A multivariable logistic regression model identified respiratory rate (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.47) and neutrophil count (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.34-4.26) on admission as independent predictors of intubation with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.928 (95% CI 0.828-0.979). Median APACHE II score was 19 (IQR 17-22) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio before intubation was 104 (IQR 89-129). Median peak FiO2 was 0.75 (IQR 0.6-1.0), positive end-expiratory pressure 12 (IQR 10-14) and plateau pressure 22 (IQR 18-26) in the first 24 h of ventilation. Median duration of ventilation was 6.5 days (IQR 5.5-13). There were no fatalities. Most COVID-19 patients in Singapore who required mechanical ventilation because of ARDS were extubated with no mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/citologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Respiração Artificial , Taxa Respiratória , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Singapura
11.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(7): 1087-1099, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856136

RESUMO

MRI has become important for the detection of prostate cancer. MRI-guided biopsy is superior to conventional systematic biopsy in patients suspected with prostate cancer. MRI is also increasingly used for monitoring patients with low-risk prostate cancer during active surveillance. It improves patient selection for active surveillance at diagnosis, although its role during follow-up is unclear. We aim to review existing evidence and propose a practical approach for incorporating MRI into active surveillance protocols.

12.
Eur Radiol ; 31(8): 5615-5628, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 9th International Forum for Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was held in Singapore in September 2019, bringing together radiologists and allied specialists to discuss the latest developments in and formulate consensus statements for liver MRI, including the applications of gadoxetic acid-enhanced imaging. METHODS: As at previous Liver Forums, the meeting was held over 2 days. Presentations by the faculty on days 1 and 2 and breakout group discussions on day 1 were followed by delegate voting on consensus statements presented on day 2. Presentations and discussions centered on two main meeting themes relating to the use of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in primary liver cancer and metastatic liver disease. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI offers the ability to monitor response to systemic therapy and to assist in pre-surgical/pre-interventional planning in liver metastases. In hepatocellular carcinoma, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI provides precise staging information for accurate treatment decision-making and follow-up post therapy. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI also has potential, currently investigational, indications for the functional assessment of the liver and the biliary system. Additional voting sessions at the Liver Forum debated the role of multidisciplinary care in the management of patients with liver disease, evidence to support the use of abbreviated imaging protocols, and the importance of standardizing nomenclature in international guidelines in order to increase the sharing of scientific data and improve the communication between centers. KEY POINTS: • Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is the preferred imaging method for pre-surgical or pre-interventional planning for liver metastases after systemic therapy. • Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI provides accurate staging of HCC before and after treatment with locoregional/biologic therapies. • Abbreviated protocols for gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI offer potential time and cost savings, but more evidence is necessary. The use of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for the assessment of liver and biliary function is under active investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Consenso , Meios de Contraste , Gadolínio DTPA , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245518, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High-risk CXR features in COVID-19 are not clearly defined. We aimed to identify CXR features that correlate with severe COVID-19. METHODS: All confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted within the study period were screened. Those with suboptimal baseline CXR were excluded. CXRs were reviewed by three independent radiologists and opacities recorded according to zones and laterality. The primary endpoint was defined as hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen, and CXR features were assessed for association with this endpoint to identify high-risk features. These features were then used to define criteria for a high-risk CXR, and clinical features and outcomes of patients with and without baseline high-risk CXR were compared using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 109 patients were included. In the initial analysis of 40 patients (36.7%) with abnormal baseline CXR, presence of bilateral opacities, multifocal opacities, or any upper or middle zone opacity were associated with supplemental oxygen requirement. Of the entire cohort, 29 patients (26.6%) had a baseline CXR with at least one of these features. Having a high-risk baseline CXR was significantly associated with requiring supplemental oxygen in univariate (odds ratio 14.0, 95% confidence interval 3.90-55.60) and multivariate (adjusted odds ratio 8.38, 95% CI 2.43-28.97, P = 0.001) analyses. CONCLUSION: We identified several high-risk CXR features that are significantly associated with severe illness. The association of upper or middle zone opacities with severe illness has not been previously emphasized. Recognition of these specific high-risk CXR features is important to prioritize limited healthcare resources for sicker patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
Clin Exp Hepatol ; 6(3): 185-198, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145425

RESUMO

Splenosis is defined as the autotransplantation of viable splenic tissue throughout various anatomic compartments. Intrahepatic splenosis (IHS) is rare and diagnosis is often challenging. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review on IHS. A literature review was performed on PubMed database. Fifty-six articles with 59 reported cases were included. The majority of the patients were male (n = 49, 83.1%). Median age was 51 years. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) included hepatitis B (n = 8, 13.6%) and cirrhosis (n = 12, 20.3%). The majority of the patients were asymptomatic (62.7%) and did not have risk factors for HCC (55.9%). We report a diagnostic triad for IHS: 1) previous history of abdominal trauma or splenectomy, 2) absence of risk factors for liver malignancy and 3) typical imaging features. Non-invasive diagnostic tests such as technetium-99m-tagged heat-damaged red blood cell scintigraphy are useful in diagnosis. Malignancy should be ruled out in the presence of risk factors for HCC.

15.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(7): 456-461, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000108

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020. A definitive diagnosis of COVID-19 is made after a positive result is obtained on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. In Singapore, rigorous contact tracing was practised to contain the spread of the virus. Nasal swabs and chest radiographs (CXR) were also taken from individuals who were suspected to be infected by COVID-19 upon their arrival at a centralised screening centre. From our experience, about 40% of patients who tested positive for COVID-19 had initial CXR that appeared "normal". In this case series, we described the temporal evolution of COVID-19 in patients with an initial "normal" CXR. Since CXR has limited sensitivity and specificity in COVID-19, it is not suitable as a first-line diagnostic tool. However, when CXR changes become unequivocally abnormal, close monitoring is recommended to manage potentially severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Radiografia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Singapore Med J ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chest radiographs (CXR) are widely used for the screening and management of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This paper determinates the radiographic features of COVID-19 based on an initial national cohort of patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of swab-positive COVID-19 patients admitted to four different hospitals in Singapore between 22 January and 9 March 2020. Initial and follow-up CXR were reviewed by three experienced radiologists to identify the predominant pattern and distribution of lung parenchymal abnormalities. RESULTS: In total, 347 CXR of 96 patients were reviewed. Initial CXR were abnormal in 41 out of 96 patients (42.7%). The mean time from onset of symptoms to CXR abnormality was 5.3 (range 1-21) days. The predominant pattern of lung abnormality was ground-glass opacity on initial CXR (51.2%) and consolidation on follow-up CXR (51.0%). Multifocal bilateral abnormalities in mixed central and peripheral distribution were seen in 63.4% and 59.2% of abnormal initial and follow-up CXR, respectively. The lower zones were involved in 90.2% of the initial CXR and 93.9% of the follow-up CXR. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of swab-positive patients, including those identified from contact tracing, we found the incidence of CXR abnormality to be lower than previously reported. The most common pattern was ground-glass opacity or consolidation, but mixed central and peripheral involvement was more common than peripheral involvement alone.

18.
Med Ultrason ; 22(3): 279-286, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898202

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the latest 2019 version of Bosniak classification (BCnew) against Bosniak classification prior to 2019 (BCold) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and to compare CEUS against contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) based on BCnew. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients who had both CEUS and CECT of the kidneys performed within three months of each other were included. CECT and CEUS images of renal cysts were retrospectively analysed by two independent readers using BCnew, extrapolating the BCnew criteria to CEUS. Where histopathology was not available, 3-year imaging follow-up was used as a reference standard. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients with a total of 54 cysts were included. Using BCnew, Bosniak category between CEUS and CECT and both readers was concordant in 18 cysts (33.3%). Bosniak category between CEUS and CT was concordant in 27 cysts (50%) in reader 1 and in 33 cysts (61%) for reader 2. Based on Cohen's weighted kappa statistic (k), inter-observer agreement was moderate for CEUS (k=0.49) and fair for CECT (k=0.36). Agreement between CEUS and CECT for both readers was fair (reader 1, k=0.24; reader 2, k=0.37). Compared to using BCold, almost half of the benign cysts were assigned to a lower Bosniak category with CEUS using BCnew (reader 1, 42.6%; reader 2, 50%). CONCLUSIONS: CEUS assessment based on BCnew more appropriately assigns benign renal cysts to a lower category than CEUS based on BCold. Readers tend to grade renal cysts to a higher Bosniak category with BCnew but with greater inter-reader agreement on CEUS than on CECT.

19.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926781, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and is associated with severe respiratory disease. There are extensive publications on the chest computed tomography (CT) findings of COVID-19 pneumonia, with ground-glass opacities (GGO) and mixed GGO and consolidation being the most common findings. Those with interstitial thickening manifesting as reticular opacities typically show superimposed ground-glass opacities, giving a crazy-paving pattern. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 77-year-old man with a background of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) who presented with progressive cough and shortness of breath for 2 days. He was in close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of a nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The initial chest radiograph was negative for lung consolidation and ground-glass opacities. During admission, he had worsening shortness of breath with desaturation, prompting a chest CT examination, which was performed on day 14 of illness. The chest CT revealed an atypical finding of predominant focal subpleural interstitial thickening in the right lower lobe. He was provided supportive treatment along with steroid and antibiotics. He recovered well and subsequently tested negative for 2 consecutive swabs. He was discharged after 34 days. CONCLUSIONS Interstitial thickening or reticular pattern on CT has been described in COVID-19 pneumonia, but largely in association with ground-glass opacity or consolidation. This case demonstrates an atypical predominance of interstitial thickening on chest CT in COVID-19 pneumonia on day 14 of illness, which is the expected time of greatest severity of the disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico por imagem , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Meios de Contraste , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 282: 103515, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777268

RESUMO

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by orthostatic oxygen desaturation and positional dyspnea from supine to an upright position. We observed POS in 5 of 20 cases of severe 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia, which demonstrated persistently elevated shunt fraction even after liberation from mechanical ventilation. POS was first observed during physiotherapy sessions; median oxygen desaturation was 8 % (range: 8-12 %). Affected individuals were older (median 64 vs 53 years old, p = 0.05) and had lower body mass index (median 24.7 vs 27.6 kg/m2, p = 0.03) compared to those without POS. While POS caused alarm and reduced tolerance to therapy, this phenomenon resolved over a median of 17 days with improvement of parenchymal disease. The mechanisms of POS are likely due to gravitational redistribution of pulmonary blood flow resulting in increased basal physiological shunting and upper zone dead space ventilation due to the predominantly basal distribution of consolidative change and reported vasculoplegia and microthrombi in severe COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Postura , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sobreviventes
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