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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474453

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study on prospectively implemented EOS protocol. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to audit and compare existing radiological definitions of gaze direction - Chin Brow Vertical Angle (CBVA), McGregor's Slope (McGS), Slope of Line of Sight (SLS), Orbital-Internal Occipital Protuberance (OIOP) slope angle and Tangent to the Hard Palate (THP) in a neutral, healthy and asymptomatic cohort. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ability to accurately define direction of gaze is the first step when striving for horizontal gaze restoration in any affected individual with rigid sagittal deformity. Yet, the radiological definition of gaze direction remains poorly standardized. METHODS: 100 healthy subjects who could achieve horizontal gaze underwent whole-body standing EOS radiographs taken under a strictly standardized protocol. Radiographic measurements of global spinal sagittal parameters and surrogate measures of horizontal gaze were analysed and compared. RESULTS: The mean age was 45 ±â€Š15.9 years, with a balanced male-to-female-ratio. Their C7 SVA was -7.7 mm ±â€Š24.8 mm, PI was 51.0o ±â€Š11.4o, PI-LL was -0.9o ±â€Š13.0o and T1-slope was 21.2o ±â€Š9.2o. Measured horizontal gaze parameters were as follows: CBVA (1.07o ±â€Š5.48o), McGS (-3.23o ±â€Š5.63o), SLS (0.45o ±â€Š5.34o), OIOP (5.03o ±â€Š4.66o), THP (-0.17o ±â€Š6.27o). CBVA correlated strongly with McGS (r = 0.679, p < .001), SLS (r = 0.592, p < .001), OIOP (r = 0.697, p < .001) and THP (r = -0.504, p < .001). OIOP had the lowest variance amongst all parameters and showed less variability compared to CBVA (SD 4.66 Var 21.69 vs SD 5.48 Var 30.08, p = 0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that C2-7 angle was the only parameter found to be associated with OIOP values (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: OIOP is the least variable, and most robust radiological method in determining gaze direction. It uses easily recognizable anatomical landmarks and an angular criterion, which makes it advantageous both with X-rays or slot scanners.Level of Evidence: 3.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1601, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National health campaigns are often used to improve lifestyle behaviors in the general population. However, evidence specifically in the young adult population is scarce. Given the general deterioration of healthy lifestyle practices from adolescence to young adulthood, it is imperative to study this age group. This study aimed to investigate the behavioral impact of a national health campaign in Singapore on the lifestyle practices of young adults, and whether sex or full-time working and schooling status affected lifestyle practices. METHODS: A total of 594 Singaporean respondents aged 18-39 years old were interviewed via a cross-sectional study in December 2019. Lifestyle practices assessed were diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, current tobacco use, and participation in health screening programs. Other factors investigated included exposure to the national health campaign "War on Diabetes" (WoD), sex, ethnicity, and working/schooling status. Multivariable modified Breslow-Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) as measures for the associations in this study, after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Exposure to the WoD campaign had a significant association with meeting dietary recommendations (PRR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.5, p = 0.037), participation in screening (PRR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, p = 0.028), and current tobacco use (PRR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8, p = 0.003). Males were significantly more likely to meet exercise recommendations (PRR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5-2.7, p < 0.001), currently use tobacco (PRR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.2-6.9, p < 0.001), and consume alcohol excessively (PRR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3, p = 0.046), as compared to females. Working young adults were significantly less likely to meet exercise recommendations (PRR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9, p = 0.019) but significantly more likely to be current tobacco users (PRR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1, p = 0.024), as compared to those who were in school. CONCLUSIONS: While this paper affirms that national health campaigns have significant beneficial associations in diet, health screenings and current tobacco use, policymakers should acknowledge that young adults are an age group with different influences that impact their healthy lifestyle habits. Specific interventions that target these subgroups may be required for better health outcomes. Future studies should evaluate other socio-environmental factors that could play a role in modifying the effect of health campaigns among young adults.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD); lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) have a vital role in cognitive impairment and dementia. SVD in lobar location is related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy, whereas SVD in a deep location with hyper- tensive arteriopathy. It remains unclear how different locations of SVD affect long-term cognitive de- cline. The present study aimed to analyse the association between different locations and severity of SVD with global and domain-specific cognitive decline over the follow-up interval of 3 years. METHODS: We studied 428 participants who had performed MRI scans at baseline and at least 3 neuro- psychological assessments. Locations of lacunes and CMBs were categorized into strictly lobar, strictly deep and mixed-location, WMH volume into anterior and posterior. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network Harmonization Neuropsychological Battery was used to assess cognitive function. To analyse the association between baseline location and severity of SVD with cognitive decline, linear regression models with generalized estimated equations were constructed to calculate the mean difference, 95% confidence interval and two-way interaction factor between time and SVD. RESULTS: Increased numbers of baseline CMBs were associated with a decline in global cognition as well as a decline in executive function and memory domains. Location-specific analysis showed simi- lar results with strictly lobar CMBs. There was no association with strictly deep and mixed-location CMBs with cognitive decline. Baseline WMH volume was associated with a decline in global cogni- tion, executive function and memory. Similar results were obtained with anterior and posterior WMH volumes. Lacunes and their locations were not associated with cognitive decline. CONCLUSION: Strictly lobar CMBs, as well as WMH volume in anterior and posterior regions, were associated with cognitive decline. Future research focuses are warranted to evaluate interventions that may prevent cognitive decline related to SVD.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 292, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics and is associated with lower mortality in patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite this, some patients develop refractory hypoxemia and hypercapnia requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) support and are usually cared for in supine position. The physiologic and outcome benefits of routine PP of patients during VV ECMO remains unclear. Hence, we conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the outcome benefits of PP for patients with ARDS being treated with VV ECMO. METHODS: After registration with PROSPERO (CRD42020199723), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant studies that reported PP in more than 10 adult patients supported with VV ECMO from origin to 1 March 2021. Studies were reviewed for quality using appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklists, and certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. The random-effects model (DerSimonian and Laird) was used. The primary outcome of interest was cumulative survival. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS) and ECMO duration. Changes in arterial blood gas (ABG) values, ventilator mechanics and complication rates were also studied. RESULTS: Of 812 potentially relevant publications, 12 studies (640 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Due to overlapping study populations, 11 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Cumulative survival in patients that underwent PP was 57% (95% CI 41.9-71.4, high certainty). Patients that underwent PP had longer ICU LOS (+ 14.5 days, 95% CI 3.4-25.7, p = 0.01) and ECMO duration (+ 9.6 days, 95% CI 5.5-13.7, p < 0.0001). After PP, patients had significantly higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio, lower PaCO2 and reduced ventilator driving pressure, and no major complications were reported. CONCLUSIONS: PP during VV ECMO appears safe with a cumulative survival of 57% and may result in longer ECMO runs and ICU LOS. However, evidence from appropriately designed randomized trials is needed prior to widespread adoption of PP on VV ECMO.

5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 246, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While recommended by international societal guidelines in the paediatric population, the use of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) as mechanical circulatory support for refractory septic shock in adults is controversial. We aimed to characterise the outcomes of adults with septic shock requiring VA ECMO, and identify factors associated with survival. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception until 1st June 2021, and included all relevant publications reporting on > 5 adult patients requiring VA ECMO for septic shock. Study quality and certainty in evidence were assessed using the appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute checklist, and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach, respectively. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge, and secondary outcomes included intensive care unit length of stay, duration of ECMO support, complications while on ECMO, and sources of sepsis. Random-effects meta-analysis (DerSimonian and Laird) were conducted. DATA SYNTHESIS: We included 14 observational studies with 468 patients in the meta-analysis. Pooled survival was 36.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.6%-50.1%). Survival among patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 20% (62.0%, 95%-CI: 51.6%-72.0%) was significantly higher than those with LVEF > 35% (32.1%, 95%-CI: 8.69%-60.7%, p = 0.05). Survival reported in studies from Asia (19.5%, 95%-CI: 13.0%-26.8%) was notably lower than those from Europe (61.0%, 95%-CI: 48.4%-73.0%) and North America (45.5%, 95%-CI: 16.7%-75.8%). GRADE assessment indicated high certainty of evidence for pooled survival. CONCLUSIONS: When treated with VA ECMO, the majority of patients with septic shock and severe sepsis-induced myocardial depression survive. However, VA ECMO has poor outcomes in adults with septic shock without severe left ventricular depression. VA ECMO may be a viable treatment option in carefully selected adult patients with refractory septic shock.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Choque Séptico/terapia , Administração Intravenosa/métodos , Hidratação/métodos , Hidratação/normas , Hidratação/tendências , Humanos , Análise de Regressão
6.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 211, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are several reports of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to guide clinical decision-making and future research. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and Scopus databases from 1 December 2019 to 10 January 2021 for observational studies or randomised clinical trials examining ECMO in adults with COVID-19 ARDS. We performed random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression, assessed risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist and rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. Survival outcomes were presented as pooled proportions while continuous outcomes were presented as pooled means, both with corresponding 95% confidence intervals [CIs]. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were duration of ECMO therapy and mechanical ventilation, weaning rate from ECMO and complications during ECMO. RESULTS: We included twenty-two observational studies with 1896 patients in the meta-analysis. Venovenous ECMO was the predominant mode used (98.6%). The pooled in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients (22 studies, 1896 patients) supported with ECMO was 37.1% (95% CI 32.3-42.0%, high certainty). Pooled mortality in the venovenous ECMO group was 35.7% (95% CI 30.7-40.7%, high certainty). Meta-regression found that age and ECMO duration were associated with increased mortality. Duration of ECMO support (18 studies, 1844 patients) was 15.1 days (95% CI 13.4-18.7). Weaning from ECMO (17 studies, 1412 patients) was accomplished in 67.6% (95% CI 50.5-82.7%) of patients. There were a total of 1583 ECMO complications reported (18 studies, 1721 patients) and renal complications were the most common. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients received venovenous ECMO support for COVID-19-related ARDS. In-hospital mortality in patients receiving ECMO support for COVID-19 was 37.1% during the first year of the pandemic, similar to those with non-COVID-19-related ARDS. Increasing age was a risk factor for death. Venovenous ECMO appears to be an effective intervention in selected patients with COVID-19-related ARDS. PROSPERO CRD42020192627.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Medição de Risco
7.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association between near work, screen time including TV and outdoor time with myopia in children from the Sunflower Myopia Asian Eye Epidemiology Consortium (AEEC). METHODS: We analysed AEEC cross-sectional data (12 241 children) on risk factors (near work, screen time including TV and outdoor time) and myopia of six population-based studies (China, Hong Kong and Singapore). Cycloplegic refraction and axial length (AL) measurements were included. Risk factors were determined using questionnaires. Data were pooled from each study, and multivariable regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between risks factors and myopia, spherical equivalent (SE) and AL. RESULTS: Among the included children, 52.1% were boys, 98.1% were Chinese and 69.7% lived in urban areas. Mean±standard deviation (SD) for age was 8.8 ± 2.9 years, for SE was -0.14 ± 1.8 D and for AL was 23.3 ± 1.1 mm. Myopia prevalence was 30.6%. In multivariate analysis, more reading and writing (OR = 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.24), more total near work (OR = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09) and less outdoor time (OR = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.75-0.88) were associated with myopia (p's < 0.05). These factors were similarly associated with SE and AL (p's < 0.05), except for total near work and AL (p = 0.15). Screen time including TV was not significantly associated with myopia (p = 0.49), SE (p = 0.49) or AL (p = 0.83). CONCLUSION: In this study, increased reading and writing and decreased outdoor time were associated with myopia. Screen time may be a surrogate factor of near work or outdoor time, but further research is needed to assess its role as an independent risk factor for myopia.

8.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(4): 325-335, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990820

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced coagulopathy (CIC) has been widely reported in the literature. However, the spectrum of abnormalities associated with CIC has been highly variable. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature (until 1 June 2020) to assess CIC and disease severity during the early COVID-19 pandemic. Primary outcomes were pooled mean differences in platelet count, D-dimer level, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen level between non-severe and severe patients, stratified by degree of hypoxaemia or those who died. The risk factors for CIC were analysed. Random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression were performed using R version 3.6.1, and certainty of evidence was rated using the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: Of the included 5,243 adult COVID-19 patients, patients with severe COVID-19 had a significantly lower platelet count, and higher D-dimer level, prothrombin time and fibrinogen level than non-severe patients. Pooled mean differences in platelet count (-19.7×109/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] -31.7 to -7.6), D-dimer level (0.8µg/mL, 95% CI 0.5-1.1), prothrombin time (0.4 second, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) and fibrinogen level (0.6g/L, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) were significant between the groups. Platelet count and D-dimer level were significant predictors of disease severity on meta-regression analysis. Older men had higher risks of severe coagulopathic disease. CONCLUSION: Significant variability in CIC exists between non-severe and severe patients, with platelet count and D-dimer level correlating with disease severity. Routine monitoring of all coagulation parameters may help to assess CIC and decide on the appropriate management.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Tempo de Protrombina , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(2): 561-573, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) is an underlying cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Hypertension is a known risk factor of CeVD, but the effects of mean of visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) on incident CeVD and functional-cognitive decline remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between mean of visit-to-visit BP with the incidence and progression of CeVD [white matter hyperintensities (WMH), infarcts (cortical infarcts and lacunes), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), intracranial stenosis, and hippocampal volume] as well as functional-cognitive decline over 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: 373 patients from a memory-clinic underwent BP measurements at baseline, year 1, and year 2. The mean of visit-to-visit systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure were calculated. Baseline and year 2 MRI scans were graded for WMH, infarcts, CMBs, intracranial stenosis, and hippocampal volume. Functional-cognitive decline was assessed using locally validated protocol. Logistic and linear regression models with odds ratios, mean difference, and 95%confidence interval were constructed to analyze associations of visit-to-visit BP on CeVD incidence and progression as well as functional-cognitive decline. RESULTS: Higher mean of visit-to-visit diastolic BP was associated with WMH progression. Higher tertiles of diastolic BP was associated with WMH progression and incident CMBs. There was no association between mean of visit-to-visit BP measures with incident cerebral infarcts, intracranial stenosis, change in hippocampal volume, and functional-cognitive decline. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the possibility of hypertension-related vascular brain damage. Careful monitoring and management of BP in elderly patients is essential to reduce the incidence and progression of CeVD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Disfunção Cognitiva , Hipertensão , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9633, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953288

RESUMO

Daily step count is a readily accessible physical activity measure inversely related to many important health outcomes. However, its day-to-day variability is not clear, especially when measured by recent mobile devices. This study investigates number of measurement days required to reliably estimate the weekly and monthly levels of daily step count in adults using wrist-worn fitness trackers and smartphones. Data were from a 5-month physical activity program in Singapore. The 5-month period was divided into 22 weekly and 5 monthly time windows. For each time window, we leveraged data sampling procedures and estimated the minimum number of measurement days needed to achieve reliable mean daily step count with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) above 80%. The ICCs were derived using linear mixed effect models. We examined both simple random and random consecutive measurement days and conducted subgroup analysis by participant characteristics and tracking devices. Analysis of weekly and monthly step count included 212,048 and 112,865 adults, respectively. Fewer simple random measurement days are needed than random consecutive days for weekly time windows (mean 2.5, SD 0.5 vs mean 2.7, SD 0.5; p-value = 0.025). Similarly, monthly time windows require fewer measurements of simple random days than random consecutive days (mean 3.4, SD 0.5 vs mean 4.4, SD 0.5; p-value = 0.025). Younger participants and those tracking steps via smartphones consistently required more days. Being obese was associated with more measurement days for weekly time windows. In sum, to obtain reliable daily step count level, we recommend at least 3 measurement days for weekly and 5 days for monthly time window in adults. Fewer days could be considered for adults age 60+ years, while more days are required when tracking daily step via smartphones.

11.
Acupunct Med ; 39(6): 629-636, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional therapy may be inadequate for many patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a viable alternative, but its effectiveness for axSpA is unknown. We are currently conducting a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) to investigate the effectiveness of a TCM collaborative model of care (TCMCMC), which combines usual rheumatologic care with acupuncture for patients with axSpA. This nested qualitative sub-study aims to identify facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of the TCMCMC. METHODS: We conducted individual in-depth interviews with participants who had completed the acupuncture regimen to elicit opinions on the facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of the TCMCMC. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twelve participants were included, with data saturation occurring after 10 interviews. The analysis revealed both a number of important 'facilitators' and 'barriers'. Facilitators to the implementation of the TCMCMC included effectiveness of TCM to relieve symptoms, inadequacy of conventional treatment and positive social perceptions of TCM. Barriers included scepticism towards TCM, inability of TCM to provide instant relief, needle-related discomfort, variable effectiveness of TCM influenced by physicians' skills and experience and the high cost of TCM. Recommendations to overcome barriers included further patient education about TCM. CONCLUSION: Policymakers should take into account the various feasibility factors identified in this study when developing and implementing a TCMCMC. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03420404 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

12.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 74, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outpatient medical follow-up post-stroke is not only crucial for secondary prevention but is also associated with a reduced risk of rehospitalization. However, being voluntary and non-urgent, it is potentially determined by both healthcare needs and the socio-demographic context of stroke survivor-caregiver dyads. Therefore, we aimed to examine the role of caregiver factors in outpatient medical follow-up (primary care (PC) and specialist outpatient care (SOC)) post-stroke. METHOD: Stroke survivors and caregivers from the Singapore Stroke Study, a prospective, yearlong, observational study, contributed to the study sample. Participants were interviewed 3-monthly for data collection. Counts of PC and SOC visits were extracted from the National Claims Database. Poisson modelling was used to explore the association of caregiver (and patient) factors with PC/SOC visits over 0-3 months (early) and 4-12 months (late) post-stroke. RESULTS: For the current analysis, 256 stroke survivors and caregivers were included. While caregiver-reported memory problems of a stroke survivor (IRR: 0.954; 95% CI: 0.919, 0.990) and caregiver burden (IRR: 0.976; 95% CI: 0.959, 0.993) were significantly associated with lower early post-stroke PC visits, co-residing caregiver (IRR: 1.576; 95% CI: 1.040, 2.389) and negative care management strategies (IRR: 1.033; 95% CI: 1.005, 1.061) were significantly associated with higher late post-stroke SOC visits. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that the association of caregiver factors with outpatient medical follow-up varied by the type of service (i.e., PC versus SOC) and temporally. Our results support family-centred care provision by family physicians viewing caregivers not only as facilitators of care in the community but also as active members of the care team and as clients requiring care and regular assessments.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Prospectivos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(4): 17, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851974

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of childhood progression of spherical equivalent (SE) with high myopia (HM) in teenagers in the Singapore Cohort of Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM). Methods: We included 928 SCORM children followed over a mean follow-up of 6.9 ± 1.0 years from baseline (6-11 years old) until their teenage years (12-19 years old). Cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length (AL) measurements were performed yearly. The outcomes in teenagers were HM (SE ≤ -5 diopter [D)], AL ≥ 25 mm, SE and AL. Three-year SE and AL progression in childhood and baseline SE and AL with outcomes were evaluated using multivariable logistic or linear regression models, with predictive performance of risk factors assessed using the area under the curve (AUC). Results: At the last visit, 9.8% of teenagers developed HM and 22.7% developed AL ≥ 25 mm. In multivariate regression analyses, every -0.3 D/year increase in 3-year SE progression and every 0.2 mm/year increase in 3-year AL progression were associated with a -1.14 D greater teenage SE and 0.52 mm greater teenage AL (P values < 0.001). The AUC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of a combination of 3-year SE progression and baseline SE for teenage HM was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.95 - 0.98). The AUC of 3-year AL progression and baseline AL for teenage AL ≥ 25 mm was 0.91 (95% CI = 0.89 - 0.94). Conclusions: Three-year myopia progression in childhood combined with baseline SE or AL were good predictors of teenage HM. Clinicians may use this combination of factors to guide timing of interventions, potentially reducing the risk of HM later in life.


Assuntos
Comprimento Axial do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Miopia Degenerativa/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Miopia Degenerativa/diagnóstico , Miopia Degenerativa/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Diabetologia ; 64(7): 1538-1549, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885933

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes progression and complication risk are different in Asian people compared with those of European ancestry. In this study, we sought to understand the epidemiology of diabetes-related lower extremity complications (DRLECs: symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, ulceration, infection, gangrene) and amputations in a multi-ethnic Asian population. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study using data obtained from one of three integrated public healthcare clusters in Singapore. The population consisted of individuals with incident type 2 diabetes who were of Chinese, Malay, Indian or Other ethnicity. We examined incidence, time to event and risk factors of DRLECs and amputation. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2017, of the 156,593 individuals with incident type 2 diabetes, 20,744 developed a DRLEC, of whom 1208 underwent amputation. Age- and sex-standardised incidence of first DRLEC and first amputation was 28.29/1000 person-years of diabetes and 8.18/1000 person-years of DRLEC, respectively. Incidence of both was highest in individuals of Malay ethnicity (DRLEC, 36.09/1000 person-years of diabetes; amputation, 12.96/1000 person-years of DRLEC). Median time from diabetes diagnosis in the public healthcare system to first DRLEC was 30.5 months for those without subsequent amputation and 10.9 months for those with subsequent amputation. Median time from DRLEC to first amputation was 2.3 months. Older age (p < 0.001), male sex (p < 0.001), Malay ethnicity (p < 0.001), Indian ethnicity (p = 0.014), chronic comorbidities (nephropathy [p < 0.001], heart disease [p < 0.001], stroke [p < 0.001], retinopathy [p < 0.001], neuropathy [p < 0.001]), poorer or missing HbA1c (p < 0.001), lower (p < 0.001) or missing (p = 0.002) eGFR, greater or missing BMI (p < 0.001), missing LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001) at diagnosis, and ever-smoking (p < 0.001) were associated with higher hazard of DRLEC. Retinopathy (p < 0.001), peripheral vascular disease (p < 0.001), poorer HbA1c (p < 0.001), higher (p = 0.009) or missing (p < 0.001) LDL-cholesterol and missing BMI (p = 0.008) were associated with higher hazard of amputation in those with DRLEC. Indian ethnicity (p = 0.007) was associated with significantly lower hazard of amputation. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This study has revealed important ethnic differences in risk of diabetes-related lower limb complications, with Malays most likely to progress to DRLEC. Greater research efforts are needed to understand the aetiopathological and sociocultural processes that contribute to the higher risk of lower extremity complications among these ethnic groups.

15.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the association of reported time outdoors and light exposure patterns with myopia among children aged 9 years from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes birth cohort. METHODS: We assessed reported time outdoors (min/day), light exposure patterns and outdoor activities of children aged 9 years (n=483) with a questionnaire, the FitSight watch and a 7-day activity diary. Light levels, the duration, timing and frequency of light exposure were assessed. Cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE), myopia (SE≤-0.5 D) and axial length (AL) of paired eyes were analysed using generalised estimating equations. RESULTS: In this study, 483 (966 eyes) multiethnic children (50.0% boys, 59.8% Chinese, 42.2% myopic) were included. Reported time outdoors (mean±SD) was 100±93 min/day, and average light levels were 458±228 lux. Of the total duration children spent at light levels of ≥1000 lux (37±19 min/day), 76% were spent below 5000 lux. Peak light exposure occurred at mid-day. Children had 1.7±1.0 light exposure episodes/day. Common outdoor activities were walks, neighbourhood play and swimming. Greater reported time outdoors was associated with lower odds of myopia (OR=0.82, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.95/hour increase daily; p=0.009). Light levels, timing and frequency of light exposures were not associated with myopia, SE or AL (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Reported time outdoors, light levels and number of light exposure episodes were low among Singaporean children aged 9 years. Reported time outdoors was protective against myopia but not light levels or specific light measures. A multipronged approach to increase time outdoors is recommended in the combat against the myopia epidemic.

16.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 49, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population segmentation permits the division of a heterogeneous population into relatively homogenous subgroups. This scoping review aims to summarize the clinical applications of data driven and expert driven population segmentation among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: The literature search was conducted in Medline®, Embase®, Scopus® and PsycInfo®. Articles which utilized expert-based or data-driven population segmentation methodologies for evaluation of outcomes among T2DM patients were included. Population segmentation variables were grouped into five domains (socio-demographic, diabetes related, non-diabetes medical related, psychiatric / psychological and health system related variables). A framework for PopulAtion Segmentation Study design for T2DM patients (PASS-T2DM) was proposed. RESULTS: Of 155,124 articles screened, 148 articles were included. Expert driven population segmentation approach was most commonly used, of which judgemental splitting was the main strategy employed (n = 111, 75.0%). Cluster based analyses (n = 37, 25.0%) was the main data driven population segmentation strategies utilized. Socio-demographic (n = 66, 44.6%), diabetes related (n = 54, 36.5%) and non-diabetes medical related (n = 18, 12.2%) were the most used domains. Specifically, patients' race, age, Hba1c related parameters and depression / anxiety related variables were most frequently used. Health grouping/profiling (n = 71, 48%), assessment of diabetes related complications (n = 57, 38.5%) and non-diabetes metabolic derangements (n = 42, 28.4%) were the most frequent population segmentation objectives of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: Population segmentation has a wide range of clinical applications for evaluating clinical outcomes among T2DM patients. More studies are required to identify the optimal set of population segmentation framework for T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos
17.
J Nutr ; 151(4): 911-920, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation has been shown to increase muscle mass or prevent muscle loss during weight loss. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effects of a BCAA-supplemented hypocaloric diet on lean mass preservation and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: A total of 132 Chinese adults (63 men and 69 women aged 21-45 y, BMI 25-36 kg/m2) were block randomly assigned by gender and BMI into 3 hypocaloric diet (deficit of 500 kcal/d) groups: standard-protein (14%) with placebo (control, CT) or BCAA supplements at 0.1 g · kg-1 body weight · d-1 (BCAA) or high-protein (27%) with placebo (HP). The subjects underwent 16 wk of dietary intervention with provision of meals and supplements, followed by 8 wk of weight maintenance with provision of supplements only. One-way ANOVA analysis was conducted to analyze the primary (lean mass and insulin sensitivity) and secondary outcomes (anthropometric and metabolic parameters) among the 3 groups. Paired t-test was used to analyze the change in each group. RESULTS: The 3 groups demonstrated similar significant reductions in body weight (7.97%), fat mass (13.8%), and waist circumference (7.27%) after 16 wk of energy deficit. Lean mass loss in BCAA (4.39%) tended to be lower than in CT (5.39%) and higher compared with HP (3.67%) (P = 0.06). Calf muscle volume increased 3.4% in BCAA and intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) decreased in BCAA (17%) and HP (18%) (P < 0.05) over 16 wk. During the 8 wk weight maintenance period, lean mass gain in BCAA (1.03%) tended to be lower compared with CT (1.58%) and higher than in HP (-0.002%) (P = 0.04). Lean mass gain differed significantly between CT and HP (P = 0.03). Insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles did not differ among the groups throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: BCAA supplementation does not preserve lean mass or affect insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults during weight loss. A higher protein diet may be more advantageous for lean mass preservation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Remodelação Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/patologia , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(6): 1829-1839, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial stenosis (ICS) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia in cross-sectional studies. However, data examining the effect of ICS on cognitive decline are limited. We investigated the effect of ICS on cognition over a period of 3 years in a memory clinic cohort. METHODS: Patients were recruited from the National University Hospital in Singapore. Data were collected using a standardised questionnaire, physical examination, and 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline. ICS was defined as arterial narrowing that exceeded 50% of the luminal diameter in any intracranial vessel. Cognition was measured at baseline and annually for 3 years using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and a detailed neuropsychological test battery. The association between ICS and cognitive decline was analysed using generalised estimating equations. RESULTS: A total of 364 patients were included in the analysis. The mean (±SD) age was 71.9 (±8.0) years, and 164 (45.1%) patients were male. A total of 66 (18.1%) patients had ICS. ICS was associated with worse executive function (ß = -0.37, 95% confidence interval = -0.68 to -0.05, p = 0.022) and modified the effect of follow-up time on memory (p = 0.005) and visuomotor speed (p = 0.047). These results remained significant after controlling for demographics, overall diagnosis, cardiovascular risk factors, and MRI markers of cerebrovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial stenosis was independently associated with worse executive function across all time points, and cognitive decline in memory and visuomotor speed over 3 years of follow-up. This suggests that ICS may be a useful indicator of vascular brain damage leading to cognitive decline and may warrant consideration of antiatherosclerotic treatment in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Constrição Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Constrição Patológica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
19.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 99(2): 171-180, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare 3-year myopic progression between Finnish and Singaporean children. METHODS: Myopic progression was compared between 9-year-old (mean age 9.7 ± 0.4 years, n = 92) and 11-year-old (mean age 11.7 ± 0.4 years, n = 144) Finnish (Finnish RCT) children and Singaporean children matched by age and refraction (SCORMMatched, n = 403) and 7- to 8-year-old Singaporean children matched only by refraction (SCORM Young, n = 186). Spherical equivalent (SE) was between -0.50 and -3.00 D. Refraction with cycloplegia was controlled annually for 3 years. Information on parental myopia, mother's education, time spent on near-work and outdoor time was gathered by parental questionnaire. RESULTS: Three-year myopic progression was -2.08 ± 0.96 D and -1.30 ± 0.69 D in the Finnish RCT and Singaporean SCORM Matched 9-year-olds, respectively, and -1.34 ± 0.78 D, and -0.52 ± 0.44 D in the 11-year-olds, respectively (p < 0.001 between all groups). Myopic progression was fastest (-2.69 ± 0.89 D) in the SCORM 7-year-olds and similar between the SCORM Matched 9-year-olds and Finnish RCT 11-year-olds (p = 0.55). The Finnish RCT and SCORM Matched children showed significant differences in both daily near-work time (1.8 ± 1.0 versus 3.4 ± 1.9 hours per day, p < 0.001) and outdoor time (2.6 ± 0.9 versus 0.5 ± 0.4 hours per day, p < 0.001). These differences did not, however, explain the differences in myopic progression between the groups. More time spent outdoors was associated with less myopic progression in the Finnish RCT (r = 0.17, p = 0.009) group only. In the whole materials, greater myopic progression was associated with younger age at baseline (p < 0.001), younger age was associated with mother's higher education (p < 0.001), and mothers higher education was associated with myopia in both parents (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Age at baseline was the most significant factor associated with myopic progression. However, at the same age and with the same initial refraction, the Finnish and Singaporean children showed different myopic progression. This result remains unexplained. Thus, age of myopia onset should be considered when comparing myopic progression between different samples and conducting treatment trials. Parental myopia may be a weak indicator of heredity of myopia.

20.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 105(4): 531-537, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447325

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the characteristics, risk factors and visual impact of myopic traction maculopathy (MTM) among adults with myopia in Singapore. METHODS: We analysed 3316 myopic eyes of adults aged over 40 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases-2 study. Detailed questionnaires and ophthalmic examinations were conducted. A total of 2913 myopic eyes of 1639 subjects were graded for MTM by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. MTM is defined as the presence of retinoschisis, lamellar or full-thickness macula hole and foveal retinal detachment. Fundus photographs were graded for myopic macular degeneration (MMD). RESULTS: Of these 2913 myopic eyes, the mean and SD of age was 60.1±8.0 years; the spherical equivalent (SE) was -2.5±2.3 D; and the axial length (AL) was 24.6±1.3 mm. MTM was found in 0.9% of myopic eyes and 7.3% of highly myopic eyes. In the multivariate analysis, myopic SE (p<0.001), longer AL (p<0.001), MMD (p=0.01) and epiretinal traction (p<0.001) were independent risk factors for MTM. MTM was not associated with age (p=0.38). MTM was significantly associated with poorer best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study revealed that MTM was present in 0.9% of myopic eyes and 7.3% of highly myopic eyes. While greater myopic SE, longer AL, MMD and epiretinal traction are risk factors of MTM, age was not related to MTM. MTM has a negative effect on BCVA.


Assuntos
Macula Lutea/patologia , Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Miopia Degenerativa/complicações , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia Degenerativa/diagnóstico , Miopia Degenerativa/fisiopatologia , Singapura/epidemiologia
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