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Sci Adv ; 5(11): eaav4355, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700996


Recently, several captivating topological structures of electric dipole moments (e.g., vortex, flux closure) have been reported in ferroelectrics with reduced size/dimensions. However, accurate polarization distribution of these topological ferroelectric structures has never been experimentally obtained. We precisely measure the polarization distribution of an individual ferroelectric vortex in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices at the subunit cell level by using the atomically resolved integrated differential phase contrast imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. We find, in vortices, that out-of-plane polarization is larger than in-plane polarization, and that downward polarization is larger than upward polarization. The polarization magnitude is closely related to tetragonality. Moreover, the contribution of the Pb─O bond to total polarization is highly inhomogeneous in vortices. Our precise measurement at the subunit cell scale provides a sound foundation for mechanistic understanding of the structure and properties of a ferroelectric vortex and lattice-charge coupling phenomena in these topological ferroelectric structures.

Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(38): 21381-21388, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531469


In multiferroics, electromagnons have been recognized as a noticeable topic due to their indispensable role in magnetoelectric, magnetodielectric, and magnetocapacitance effects. Here, the electromagnons of Bi1-xNdxFeO3 (x = 0-0.2) nanoparticles are studied via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, and the impacts of doping concentrations on electromagnons have been discussed. We found that the electromagnons in Bi1-xNdxFeO3 nanoparticles are associated with their phase transition. The total coupling weight of electromagnons is gradually increased in polar R3c structures and then reduces in the antipolar Pbam phase, and the weight in the antipolar phase is less than that of the pure R3c phase. Interestingly, a colossal electromagnon is observed at polar-antipolar and antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic phase boundaries. Our work offers an avenue for designing and choosing materials with better magnetodielectric and magnetocapacitance properties.

ACS Nano ; 12(9): 9558-9567, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138564


The ability to electrically write magnetic bits is highly desirable for future magnetic memories and spintronic devices, though fully deterministic, reversible, and nonvolatile switching of magnetic moments by electric field remains elusive despite extensive research. In this work, we develop a concept to electrically switch magnetization via polarization modulated oxygen vacancies, and we demonstrate the idea in a multiferroic epitaxial heterostructure of BaTiO3/Fe3O4 fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity of BaTiO3 have been confirmed by macro- and microscale measurements, for which Fe3O4 serves as the top electrode for switching the polarization. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra indicate a mixture of Fe2+ and Fe3+ at O h sites and Fe3+ at T d sites in Fe3O4, while the room-temperature magnetic domains of Fe3O4 are revealed by microscopic magnetic force microscopy measurements. It is demonstrated that the magnetic domains of Fe3O4 can be switched by not only magnetic fields but also electric fields in a deterministic, reversible, and nonvolatile manner, wherein polarization reversal by electric field modulates the oxygen vacancy distribution in Fe3O4, and thus its magnetic state, making it attractive for electrically written magnetic memories.