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1.
Small ; 16(4): e1905485, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894647

RESUMO

Direct growth of graphene on glass can bring an innovative revolution by coupling the complementary properties of traditional glass and modern graphene (such as transparency and conductivity), offering brand new daily-life related applications. However, preparation of high-quality graphene on nonmetallic glass is still challenging. Herein, the direct route of low sheet resistance graphene on glass is reported by using in situ-introduced water as a mild etchant and methane as a carbon precursor via chemical vapor deposition. The derived graphene features with large domain sizes and few amorphous carbon impurities. Intriguingly, the sheet resistance of graphene on glass is dramatically lowered down to ≈1170 Ω sq-1 at the optical transmittance ≈93%, ≈20% of that derived without the water etchant. Based on the highly conductive and optical transparent graphene on glass, a see-through thermochromic display is thus fabricated with transparent graphene glass as a heater. This work can motivate further investigations of the direct synthesis of high-quality graphene on functional glass and its versatile applications in transparent electronic devices or displays.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 541, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992713

RESUMO

The fast development of high-resolution electron microscopy (EM) demands a background-noise-free substrate to support the specimens, where atomically thin graphene membranes can serve as an ideal candidate. Yet the preparation of robust and ultraclean graphene EM grids remains challenging. Here we present a polymer- and transfer-free direct-etching method for batch fabrication of robust ultraclean graphene grids through membrane tension modulation. Loading samples on such graphene grids enables the detection of single metal atoms and atomic-resolution imaging of the iron core of ferritin molecules at both room- and cryo-temperature. The same kind of hydrophilic graphene grid allows the formation of ultrathin vitrified ice layer embedded most protein particles at the graphene-water interface, which facilitates cryo-EM 3D reconstruction of archaea 20S proteasomes at a record high resolution of ~2.36 Å. Our results demonstrate the significant improvements in image quality using the graphene grids and expand the scope of EM imaging.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(6): 2726-2731, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985227

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors hold great promise in flexible electronics because of their intrinsic flexibility and high electrical performance. However, the lack of facile synthetic and subsequent device fabrication approaches of high-mobility 2D semiconducting thin films still hinders their practical applications. Here, we developed a facile, rapid, and scalable solution-assisted method for the synthesis of a high-mobility semiconducting oxyselenide (Bi2O2Se) thin film by the selenization and decomposition of a precursor solution of Bi(NO3)3·5H2O. Simply by changing the rotation speed in spin-coating of the precursor solution, the thicknesses of Bi2O2Se thin films can be precisely controlled down to few atomic layers. The as-synthesized Bi2O2Se thin film exhibited a high Hall mobility of ∼74 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is much superior to other 2D thin-film semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides. Remarkably, flexible top-gated Bi2O2Se transistors showed excellent electrical stability under repeated electrical measurements on flat and bent substrates. Furthermore, Bi2O2Se transistor devices on muscovite substrates can be readily transferred onto flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrates with the help of thermal release tape. The integration of a high-mobility thin-film semiconductor, excellent stability, and easy transfer onto flexible substrates make Bi2O2Se a competitive candidate for future flexible electronics.

4.
Small ; 15(43): e1904482, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512402

RESUMO

Bi2 O2 Se is emerging as a photosensitive functional material for optoelectronics, and its photodetection mechanism is mostly considered to be a photoconductive regime in previous reports. Here, the bolometric effect is discovered in Bi2 O2 Se photodetectors. The coexistence of photoconductive effect and bolometric effect is generally observed in multiwavelength photoresponse measurements and then confirmed with microscale local heating experiments. The unique photoresponse of Bi2 O2 Se photodetectors may arise from a change of hot electrons during temperature rises instead of photoexcited holes and electrons. Direct proof of the bolometric effect is achieved by real-time temperature tracking of Bi2 O2 Se photodetectors under time evolution after light excitation. Moreover, the Bi2 O2 Se bolometer shows a high temperature coefficient of resistance (-1.6% K-1 ), high bolometric coefficient (-31 nA K-1 ), and high bolometric responsivity (>320 A W-1 ). These findings offer a new approach to develop bolometric photodetectors based on Bi2 O2 Se layered materials.

5.
Adv Mater ; 31(39): e1901964, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389096

RESUMO

Atomically thin oxychalcogenides have been attracting intensive attention for their fascinating fundamental properties and application prospects. Bi2 O2 Se, a representative of layered oxychalcogenides, has emerged as an air-stable high-mobility 2D semiconductor that holds great promise for next-generation electronics. The preparation and device fabrication of high-quality Bi2 O2 Se crystals down to a few atomic layers remains a great challenge at present. Here, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of atomically thin Bi2 O2 Se films down to monolayer on SrTiO3 (001) substrate is achieved by co-evaporating Bi and Se precursors in oxygen atmosphere. The interfacial atomic arrangements of MBE-grown Bi2 O2 Se/SrTiO3 are unambiguously revealed, showing an atomically sharp interface and atom-to-atom alignment. Importantly, the electronic band structures of one-unit-cell (1-UC) thick Bi2 O2 Se films are observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), showing low effective mass of ≈0.15 m0 and bandgap of ≈0.8 eV. These results may be constructive to the synthesis of other 2D oxychalcogenides and investigation of novel physical properties.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3457, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358759

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

7.
Nanoscale ; 11(22): 10622-10628, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139797

RESUMO

We report on phase-coherent transport studies of a Bi2O2Se nanoplate and on observation of universal conductance fluctuations and spin-orbit interaction induced reduction in fluctuation amplitude in the nanoplate. Thin-layered Bi2O2Se nanoplates are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transport measurements are made on a Hall-bar device fabricated from a CVD-grown nanoplate. The measurements show weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields at low temperatures, as a result of spin-orbit interaction, and a crossover toward weak localization with increasing temperature. Temperature dependences of characteristic transport lengths, such as spin relaxation length, phase coherence length, and mean free path, are extracted from the low-field measurement data. Universal conductance fluctuations are visible in the low-temperature magnetoconductance over a large range of magnetic fields and the phase coherence length extracted from the autocorrelation function is consistent with the result obtained from the weak localization analysis. More importantly, we find a strong reduction in amplitude of the universal conductance fluctuations and show that the results agree with the analysis assuming strong spin-orbit interaction in the Bi2O2Se nanoplate.

8.
Nano Lett ; 19(3): 2148-2153, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835131

RESUMO

Emerging two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials serve as promising alternatives for next-generation digital electronics and optoelectronics. However, large-scale 2D semiconductor films synthesized so far are typically polycrystalline with defective grain boundaries that could degrade their performance. Here, for the first time, wafer-size growth of a single-crystal Bi2O2Se film, which is a novel air-stable 2D semiconductor with high mobility, was achieved on insulating perovskite oxide substrates [SrTiO3, LaAlO3, (La, Sr)(Al, Ta)O3]. The layered Bi2O2Se epilayer exhibits perfect lattice matching and strong interaction with perovskite oxide substrates, which enable unidirectional alignment and seamless mergence of multiple seeds into single-crystal continuous films free of detrimental grain boundaries. The single-crystal Bi2O2Se thin films show excellent spatial homogeneity over the entire wafer and allow for the batch fabrication of high-performance field-effect devices with high mobilities of ∼150 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, excellent switching behavior with large on/off ratio of >105, and high drive current of ∼45 µA µm-1 at a channel length of ∼5 µm. Our work makes a step toward the practical applications of high-mobility semiconducting 2D layered materials and provides an alternative platform of oxide heterostructure to investigate novel physical phenomena.

9.
Adv Mater ; 31(3): e1805769, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461090

RESUMO

Concomitance of diverse synaptic plasticity across different timescales produces complex cognitive processes. To achieve comparable cognitive complexity in memristive neuromorphic systems, devices that are capable of emulating short-term (STP) and long-term plasticity (LTP) concomitantly are essential. In existing memristors, however, STP and LTP can only be induced selectively because of the inability to be decoupled using different loci and mechanisms. In this work, the first demonstration of truly concomitant STP and LTP is reported in a three-terminal memristor that uses independent physical phenomena to represent each form of plasticity. The emerging layered material Bi2 O2 Se is used for memristors for the first time, opening up the prospects for ultrathin, high-speed, and low-power neuromorphic devices. The concerted action of STP and LTP allows full-range modulation of the transient synaptic efficacy, from depression to facilitation, by stimulus frequency or intensity, providing a versatile device platform for neuromorphic function implementation. A heuristic recurrent neural circuitry model is developed to simulate the intricate "sleep-wake cycle autoregulation" process, in which the concomitance of STP and LTP is posited as a key factor in enabling this neural homeostasis. This work sheds new light on the development of generic memristor platforms for highly dynamic neuromorphic computing.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos , Bismuto , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Compostos de Selênio , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Nano Lett ; 19(1): 197-202, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557023

RESUMO

The air-stable and high-mobility two-dimensional (2D) Bi2O2Se semiconductor has emerged as a promising alternative that is complementary to graphene, MoS2, and black phosphorus for next-generation digital applications. However, the room-temperature residual charge carrier concentration of 2D Bi2O2Se nanoplates synthesized so far is as high as about 1019-1020 cm-3, which results in a poor electrostatic gate control and unsuitable threshold voltage, detrimental to the fabrication of high-performance low-power devices. Here, we first present a facile approach for synthesizing 2D Bi2O2Se single crystals with ultralow carrier concentration of ∼1016 cm-3 and high Hall mobility up to 410 cm2 V-1 s-1 simultaneously at room temperature. With optimized conditions, these high-mobility and low-carrier-concentration 2D Bi2O2Se nanoplates with domain sizes greater than 250 µm and thicknesses down to 4 layers (∼2.5 nm) were readily grown by using Se and Bi2O3 powders as coevaporation sources in a dual heating zone chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. High-quality 2D Bi2O2Se crystals were fabricated into high-performance and low-power transistors, showing excellent current modulation of >106, robust current saturation, and low threshold voltage of -0.4 V. All these features suggest 2D Bi2O2Se as an alternative option for high-performance low-power digital applications.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3311, 2018 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120240

RESUMO

Infrared light detection and sensing is deeply embedded in modern technology and human society and its development has always been benefitting from the discovery of various photoelectric materials. The rise of two-dimensional materials, thanks to their distinct electronic structures, extreme dimensional confinement and strong light-matter interactions, provides a material platform for next-generation infrared photodetection. Ideal infrared detectors should have fast respond, high sensitivity and air-stability, which are rare to meet at the same time in one two-dimensional material. Herein we demonstrate an infrared photodetector based on two-dimensional Bi2O2Se crystal, whose main characteristics are outstanding in the whole two-dimensional family: high sensitivity of 65 AW-1 at 1200 nm and ultrafast photoresponse of ~1 ps at room temperature, implying an intrinsic material-limited bandwidth up to 500 GHz. Such great performance is attributed to the suitable electronic bandgap and high carrier mobility of two-dimensional oxyselenide.

12.
Adv Mater ; : e1803194, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015990

RESUMO

Heterostructures based on graphene and other 2D atomic crystals exhibit fascinating properties and intriguing potential in flexible optoelectronics, where graphene films function as transparent electrodes and other building blocks are used as photoactive materials. However, large-scale production of such heterostructures with superior performance is still in early stages. Herein, for the first time, the preparation of a submeter-sized, vertically stacked heterojunction of lead iodide (PbI2 )/graphene on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film by vapor deposition of PbI2 on graphene/PET substrate at a temperature lower than 200 °C is demonstrated. This film is subsequently used to fabricate bendable graphene/PbI2 /graphene sandwiched photodetectors, which exhibit high responsivity (45 A W-1 cm-2 ), fast response (35 µs rise, 20 µs decay), and high-resolution imaging capability (1 µm). This study may pave a facile pathway for scalable production of high-performance flexible devices.

13.
Nanoscale ; 10(6): 2704-2710, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360119

RESUMO

Semiconductor Bi2O2Se nanolayers of high crystal quality have been realized via epitaxial growth. These two-dimensional (2D) materials possess excellent electron transport properties with potential application in nanoelectronics. It is also strongly expected that the 2D Bi2O2Se nanolayers can be an excellent material platform for developing spintronic and topological quantum devices if the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction in the 2D materials can be experimentally demonstrated. Herein, we report the experimental determination of the strength of spin-orbit interactions in Bi2O2Se nanoplates through magnetotransport measurements. The nanoplates are epitaxially grown by chemical vapor deposition, and the magnetotransport measurements are performed at low temperatures. The measured magnetoconductance exhibits a crossover behavior from weak antilocalization to weak localization at low magnetic fields with increasing temperature or decreasing back gate voltage. We have analyzed this transition behavior of magnetoconductance based on an interference theory, which describes quantum correction to the magnetoconductance of a 2D system in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. Dephasing length and spin relaxation length are extracted from the magnetoconductance measurements. Compared to the case of other semiconductor nanostructures, the extracted relatively short spin relaxation length of ∼150 nm indicates the existence of a strong spin-orbit interaction in Bi2O2Se nanolayers.

14.
Small ; 14(3)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125685

RESUMO

Future applications of graphene rely highly on the production of large-area high-quality graphene, especially large single-crystalline graphene, due to the reduction of defects caused by grain boundaries. However, current large single-crystalline graphene growing methodologies are suffering from low growth rate and as a result, industrial graphene production is always confronted by high energy consumption, which is primarily caused by high growth temperature and long growth time. Herein, a new growth condition achieved via ethane being the carbon feedstock to achieve low-temperature yet rapid growth of large single-crystalline graphene is reported. Ethane condition gives a growth rate about four times faster than methane, achieving about 420 µm min-1 for the growth of sub-centimeter graphene single crystals at temperature about 1000 °C. In addition, the temperature threshold to obtain graphene using ethane can be reduced to 750 °C, lower than the general growth temperature threshold (about 1000 °C) with methane on copper foil. Meanwhile ethane always keeps higher graphene growth rate than methane under the same growth temperature. This study demonstrates that ethane is indeed a potential carbon source for efficient growth of large single-crystalline graphene, thus paves the way for graphene in high-end electronical and optoelectronical applications.

15.
Adv Mater ; 29(44)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024087

RESUMO

2D layered nanomaterials with strong covalent bonding within layers and weak van der Waals' interactions between layers have attracted tremendous interest in recent years. Layered Bi2 Se3 is a representative topological insulator material in this family, which holds promise for exploration of the fundamental physics and practical applications such as transparent electrode. Here, a simultaneous enhancement of optical transmittancy and electrical conductivity in Bi2 Se3 grid electrodes by copper-atom intercalation is presented. These Cu-intercalated 2D Bi2 Se3 electrodes exhibit high uniformity over large area and excellent stabilities to environmental perturbations, such as UV light, thermal fluctuation, and mechanical distortion. Remarkably, by intercalating a high density of copper atoms, the electrical and optical performance of Bi2 Se3 grid electrodes is greatly improved from 900 Ω sq-1 , 68% to 300 Ω sq-1 , 82% in the visible range; with better performance of 300 Ω sq-1 , 91% achieved in the near-infrared region. These unique properties of Cu-intercalated topological insulator grid nanostructures may boost their potential applications in high-performance optoelectronics, especially for infrared optoelectronic devices.

16.
Adv Mater ; 29(44)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024159

RESUMO

Patterning of high-mobility 2D semiconducting materials with unique layered structures and superb electronic properties offers great potential for batch fabrication and integration of next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, a facile approach is used to achieve accurate patterning of 2D high-mobility semiconducting Bi2 O2 Se crystals using dilute H2 O2 and protonic mixture acid as efficient etchants. The 2D Bi2 O2 Se crystal after chemical etching maintains a high Hall mobility of over 200 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature. Centimeter-scale well-ordered arrays of 2D Bi2 O2 Se with tailorable configurations are readily obtained. Furthermore, integrated photodetectors based on 2D Bi2 O2 Se arrays are fabricated, exhibiting excellent air stability and high photoresponsivity of ≈2000 A W-1 at 532 nm. These results are one step towards the practical application of ultrathin 2D integrated digital and optoelectronic circuits.

17.
Adv Mater ; 29(26)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28464279

RESUMO

The atomically thin 2D nature of suspended graphene membranes holds promising in numerous technological applications. In particular, the outstanding transparency to electron beam endows graphene membranes great potential as a candidate for specimen support of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, major hurdles remain to be addressed to acquire an ultraclean, high-intactness, and defect-free suspended graphene membrane. Here, a polymer-free clean transfer of sub-centimeter-sized graphene single crystals onto TEM grids to fabricate large-area and high-quality suspended graphene membranes has been achieved. Through the control of interfacial force during the transfer, the intactness of large-area graphene membranes can be as high as 95%, prominently larger than reported values in previous works. Graphene liquid cells are readily prepared by π-π stacking two clean single-crystal graphene TEM grids, in which atomic-scale resolution imaging and temporal evolution of colloid Au nanoparticles are recorded. This facile and scalable production of clean and high-quality suspended graphene membrane is promising toward their wide applications for electron and optical microscopy.

18.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 12(6): 530-534, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369044

RESUMO

High-mobility semiconducting ultrathin films form the basis of modern electronics, and may lead to the scalable fabrication of highly performing devices. Because the ultrathin limit cannot be reached for traditional semiconductors, identifying new two-dimensional materials with both high carrier mobility and a large electronic bandgap is a pivotal goal of fundamental research. However, air-stable ultrathin semiconducting materials with superior performances remain elusive at present. Here, we report ultrathin films of non-encapsulated layered Bi2O2Se, grown by chemical vapour deposition, which demonstrate excellent air stability and high-mobility semiconducting behaviour. We observe bandgap values of ∼0.8 eV, which are strongly dependent on the film thickness due to quantum-confinement effects. An ultrahigh Hall mobility value of >20,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 is measured in as-grown Bi2O2Se nanoflakes at low temperatures. This value is comparable to what is observed in graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition and at the LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface, making the detection of Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillations possible. Top-gated field-effect transistors based on Bi2O2Se crystals down to the bilayer limit exhibit high Hall mobility values (up to 450 cm2 V-1 s-1), large current on/off ratios (>106) and near-ideal subthreshold swing values (∼65 mV dec-1) at room temperature. Our results make Bi2O2Se a promising candidate for future high-speed and low-power electronic applications.

19.
Nano Lett ; 17(5): 3021-3026, 2017 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398056

RESUMO

Non-neutral layered crystals, another group of two-dimensional (2D) materials that lack a well-defined van der Waals (vdWs) gap, are those that form strong chemical bonds in-plane but display weak out-of-plane electrostatic interactions, exhibiting intriguing properties for the bulk counterpart. However, investigation of the properties of their atomically thin counterpart are very rare presumably due to the absence of efficient ways to achieve large-area high-quality 2D crystals. Here, high-mobility atomically thin Bi2O2Se, a typical non-neutral layered crystal without a standard vdWs gap, was synthesized via a facial chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, showing excellent controllability for thickness, domain size, nucleation site, and crystal-phase evolution. Atomically thin, large single crystals of Bi2O2Se with lateral size up to ∼200 µm and thickness down to a bilayer were obtained. Moreover, optical and electrical properties of the CVD-grown 2D Bi2O2Se crystals were investigated, displaying a size-tunable band gap upon thinning and an ultrahigh Hall mobility of >20000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 2 K. Our results on the high-mobility 2D Bi2O2Se semiconductor may activate the synthesis and related fundamental research of other non-neutral 2D materials.

20.
Small ; 13(18)2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263026

RESUMO

Nanostructures of ternary topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Te2 Se are, in principle, advantageous to the manifestation of topologically nontrivial surface states, due to significantly enhanced surface-to-volume ratio compared with its bulk crystals counterparts. Herein, the synthesis of 2D Bi2 Te2 Se crystals on mica via the van der Waals epitaxy method is explored and systematically the growth behaviors during the synthesis process are investigated. Accordingly, 2D Bi2 Te2 Se crystals with domain size up to 50 µm large and thickness down to 2 nm are obtained. A pronounced weak antilocalization effect is clearly observed in the 2D Bi2 Te2 Se crystals at 2 K. The method for epitaxial growth of 2D ternary Bi2 Te2 Se crystals may inspire materials engineering toward enhanced manifestation of the subtle surface states of TIs and thereby facilitate their potential applications in next-generation spintronics.

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