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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 132021 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819919

RESUMO

Excessive fructose (Fru) intake has become an increased risk for chronic kidney disease progression. Despite extensive researches that have been performed to develop effective treatments against Fru-induced renal injury, the outcome has achieved limited success. In this study, we attempted to explore whether carminic acid (CA) could influence the progression of Fru-induced kidney injury, and the underlying molecular mechanism. At first, our in vitro results showed that CA significantly reduced inflammation in mouse tubular epithelial cells and human tubule epithelial cells stimulated by Fru. The anti-inflammatory effects of CA were associated with the blockage of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. In addition, Fru-exposed cells showed higher oxidative stress, which was effectively restrained by CA treatment through improving nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2) nuclear translocation. Importantly, we found that Fru-induced inflammation and oxidative stress were accelerated in cells with Nrf-2 knockdown. What's more, in Fru-stimulated cells, CA-alleviated inflammatory response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were evidently abolished by Nrf-2 knockdown. The in vivo analysis demonstrated that Fru led to metabolic disorder, excessive albuminuria and histologic changes in renal tissues, which were effectively reversed by CA supplementation. We confirmed that CA significantly reduced inflammation and oxidative stress in the kidneys of mice through regulating NF-κB and Nrf-2 signaling pathways, eventually alleviating the progression of chronic kidney injury. Taken together, these results identified CA as a potential therapeutic strategy for metabolic stress-induced renal injury through restraining inflammation and oxidative stress via the improvement of Nrf-2 signaling.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(12): 14543-14551, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733728

RESUMO

Development of smart switchable surfaces to solve the inevitable bacteria attachment and colonization has attracted much attention; however, it proves very challenging to achieve on-demand regeneration for noncontaminated surfaces. We herein report a smart, host-guest interaction-mediated photo/temperature dual-controlled antibacterial surface, topologically combining stimuli-responsive polymers with nanobactericide. From the point of view of long-chain polymer design, the peculiar hydration layer generated by hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (polyHEMA) segments severs the route of initial bacterial attachment and subsequent proliferation, while the synergistic effect on chain conformation transformation poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (polyNIPAM) and guest complex dissociation azobenzene/cyclodextrin (Azo/CD) complex greatly promotes the on-demand bacterial release in response to the switch of temperature and UV light. Therefore, the resulting surface exhibits triple successive antimicrobial functions simultaneously: (i) resists ∼84.9% of initial bacterial attachment, (ii) kills ∼93.2% of inevitable bacteria attack, and (iii) releases over 94.9% of killed bacteria even after three cycles. The detailed results not only present a potential and promising strategy to develop renewable antibacterial surfaces with successive antimicrobial functions but also contribute a new antimicrobial platform to biomedical or surgical applications.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1401-1409, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787138

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of six common drying methods on the quality of different specifications of Sophorae Flos, in order to select their suitable drying methods. According to appearance and morphology, Sophorae Flos was divided into the following three specifications: flower bud type(HL), half-open type(BK) and blooming type(SK). All specifications of samples were treated with shade-drying method(25 ℃, natural temperature), sun-drying method, hot-air-drying method(60, 105 ℃), and drying method(60 ℃) after steaming. The contents of total flavonoids, rutin, narcissus, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and Fe~(3+) reducing ability, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) were detected by UV, HPLC and colorimetry, respectively. Principal component analysis(PCA), cluster analysis(CA) and correlation analysis were used to comprehensively evaluate the quality of samples. According to the results, there were significant differences in the effect of drying methods on different specifications of samples. The drying method(60 ℃) after steaming was suitable for HL and BK, while the hot-air-drying method(60 ℃) was suitable for SK. When the fresh medicinal materials could not be treated in time, they should be spread out in a cool and ventilated place. Under high and low temperature conditions, the quality of three specifications of Sophorae Flos would be reduced. The hot-air-drying method(105 ℃) and shade-drying method(25 ℃) were not suitable for the treatment of fresh flowers and flower buds of Sophora japonicus. There were obviously differences of chemical compositions and antioxidant activities among the three specifications of samples. Therefore, the specifications of medicinal materials should be controlled to ensure the uniform quality. The study provided the abundant data reference for the selection of appropriate drying methods for the three specifications of Sophorae Flos, and useful exploration for the classification and processing of medicinal materials of flowers.


Assuntos
Sophora , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Rutina
4.
Spine J ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a progressive, debilitating disease most commonly affecting the cervical spine. When compared to other degenerative pathologies, OPLL procedures carry a significantly higher risk of complications owing to increased case complexity and technical difficulties. Most previous studies have focused on functional outcomes and few have reported on risk factors for postoperative complications in OPLL patients. PURPOSE: To identify clinical and radiological risk factors of surgical complications following treatment for cervical OPLL STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review PATIENT SAMPLE: One hundred and thirty-one patients with cervical myelopathy secondary to OPLL who underwent surgical decompression with complete 2-year follow-up. OUTCOME MEASURES: Surgical and medical postoperative complications were analyzed. Revision surgery rates and mortality rates were recorded. METHODS: Clinical, surgical, and radiological characteristics were collected for each patient. Complications within 30 days were identified. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify risk factors for surgical complications. RESULTS: There were 39 (29.8%) surgical complications in the cohort, which included C5 palsy (7.6%), dural tear (3.1%), surgical site infection (3.1%), and epidural hematoma (1.5%). Two-year revision and mortality rates were 4.6% and 2.3%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that blood loss ≥750mL (OR 3.42, p=0.028), operative duration ≥5.5 hours (OR 3.16, p=0.008), hill-type OPLL (OR 3.08, p=0.011), K-line (-) OPLL (OR 5.39, p<0.001), and presence of a double-layer sign (OR 3.79, p=0.002) were significant risk factors. In multivariate analysis, only hill-type OPLL (OR 2.61, p=0.048) and K-line (-) OPLL (OR 2.98, p=0.031) were found to be significant. Patients with both hill-type and K-line (-) OPLL had a 3.5 times risk of developing surgical complications (p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OPLL have a higher risk of perioperative surgical complications if they had a hill-shaped OPLL and K-line (-) OPLL on preoperative imaging studies. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to link hill-type and K-line (-) OPLL morphology as risk factors for perioperative surgical complications.

6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734570

RESUMO

Oxidative stress in the lumbar disc leads to the degeneration of nucleus pulposus (NP). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. In this study, we delineated a key calcium-binding protein, S100A9, which was induced by oxidative stress and was highly expressed in the degenerative NP. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting revealed that S100A9 induced NP cell apoptosis in vitro by up-regulating the expression of pro-apoptotic markers, including cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c and Bax. Moreover, RT-PCR analyses revealed that the expression of S100A9 caused NP matrix degradation by up-regulating the expression of matrix degradation enzymes and increased the inflammatory response by up-regulating cytokine expression. Therefore, S100A9 induced NP cell degeneration by exerting pro-apoptotic, pro-degradation and pro-inflammatory effects. The detailed mechanism underlying S100A9-induced NP degeneration was explored by administering SC75741, a specific NF-κB inhibitor in vitro. We concluded that S100A9 induced NP cell apoptosis, caused matrix degradation and amplified the inflammatory response through the activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway. Inhibition of these pro-apoptotic, pro-degradation and pro-inflammatory effects induced by S100A9 in NP may be a favourable therapeutic strategy to slow lumbar disc degeneration.

7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(3): 582-590, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645023

RESUMO

The natural forest and artificial shed are the main cropping modes of Coptis chinensis. This study is aimed to reveal the rhizosphere soil bacterial community structure difference between under tow C. chinensis cropping modes-natural forest and artificial shed, and to assist us to completely understand soil quality condition,and provide theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting. The rhizosphere soil samples of 1-5-year-old C. chinensis under tow cropping modes-natural forest and artificial shed were collected. Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the alpha diversity, community composition, community structure of soil bacteria under the tow cropping modes,and the effects of soil nutriment indices on soil bacterial community structure. Through the analysis of species number, Shannon, Chao1 index and ACE index of bacterial community, it was found that the bacterial diversity of 1-year-old C. chinensis soil under natural forest cropping mode was significantly lower than that under artificial shed cropping mode, and the diversity of bacterial communities in soil of 2-5-years old C. chinensis were not significant different between two cropping modes. A total of 53 phyla,60 classes,140 orders and 266 families were detected in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of natural forest, respectively. The rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of artificial shed included 54 phyla,65 classes,140 orders and 264 families, respectively. Under the two cropping modes, the top 10 dominant species of bacterial community abundance are the same, they are Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria,Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria, but there are differences in the abundance sequence. The top 10 dominant species of bacterial community abundance accounted for 74.36% to 74.30% of the total bacteria, and 3.15% to 3.92% of the bacteria are unclassified. The results of Metastat analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonadetes in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes the artificial shed was significantly higher than that under the natural forest cropping mode(P<0.05). MRPP analysis of community structure differences showed that under tow cropping modes, there were significant differences in the bacterial community structure of 1-4-year-old soil bacteria, among which the difference between 1-year-old soil samples was the largest. With the increase of cropping years, the difference gradually decreases, and there is no significant difference in the bacterial community structure between 5-year-old soil samples. RDA analysis and correlation analysis of bacterial community structure and soil physical and chemical properties showed that the order of environmental factors on the rhizosphere soil bacteria of Coptis chinensis was: pH>available P> total P> total K>bulk density>total N>available N>organic matter. The results are helpful to understand the soil health of C. chinensis and provide scientific basis and theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting.


Assuntos
Coptis , Rizosfera , Pré-Escolar , Florestas , Humanos , Lactente , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107340, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667999

RESUMO

Obesity is an important factor implicated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Juglanin (Jug) is a natural compound extracted from the crude Polygonumaviculare, showing anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects. However, whether Jug has protective effects against obesity-induced renal injury, little has been investigated. Herein, we attempted to explore the potential of Jug in mediating obesity-induced kidney disease in high fat diet (HFD)-challenged mice. Our results suggested that chronic HFD feeding markedly increased the body weights of mice compared to the ones fed with normal chow diet (NCD), along with significant glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, these metabolic disorders induced by HFD were effectively alleviated by Jug treatments in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, HFD-challenged mice showed apparent histopathological changes in renal tissues with significant collagen accumulation, which were attenuated by Jug supplementation. In addition, Jug treatment decreased the expression levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), while increased nephrin and podocin expression levels in kidney of HFD-challenged mice, improving the renal dysfunction. Furthermore, HFD led to lipid deposition in kidney samples of mice by enhancing abnormal lipid metabolism. In addition, HFD promoted the releases of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced the renal inflammation by activating nuclear factor-kappa B/histone deacetylase 3 (NF-κB/HDAC3) signaling. HFD-induced dyslipidemia and inflammation were considerably abrogated by Jug administration in mice. The protective effects of Jug against renal injury were confirmed in palmitate (PA)-stimulated HK2 cells in vitro mainly through suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and HDAC3, repressing inflammation and lipid accumulation eventually. Hence, Jug could ameliorate HFD-induced kidney injury mainly through blocking the NF-κB/HDAC3 nuclear translocation.

9.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 35: 116073, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610010

RESUMO

Streptochlorin is a small molecule of indole alkaloid isolated from marine Streptomyces sp., it is a promising lead compound due to its potent bioactivity in preventing many phytopathogens in our previous study, but further structural modifications are required to improve its antifungal activity. Our work in this paper focused on the replacement of oxazole ring in streptochlorin with the imidazole ring, to discover novel analogues. Based on this design strategy, three series of streptochlorin analogues were efficiently synthesized through sequential Vilsmeier-Haack reaction, Van Leusen imidazole synthesis and halogenation reaction. Some of the analogues displayed excellent activity in the primary assays, and this is highlighted by compounds 4g and 4i, the growth inhibition against Alternaria Leaf Spot and Rhizoctorzia solani under 50 µg/mL are 97.5% and 90.3%, respectively, even more active than those of streptochlorin, pimprinine and Osthole. Molecular docking models indicated that streptochlorin binds with Thermus thermophiles Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase in a similar mode to AN2690, offering a perspective on the mode of action study for antifungal activities of streptochlorin derivatives. Further study is still ongoing with the aim of discovering synthetic analogues, with improved antifungal activity and clear mode of action.

10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 591: 173-183, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596504

RESUMO

Hydrophobic micro-porous membrane such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with excellent thermal-/chemical-stability and low surface energy has received extensive attention in industrial water treatment and sustainable energy conversion. However, undesirable contaminants caused by inevitable proteins or microorganisms adhesion may lead to a rapid loss of separation efficiency, which significantly deteriorate their porous structures and eventually limit their practical performance. Herein, we present a scalable approach for fabricating comb-like copolymer modified PVDF membranes (PVDF-PN@AgNPs) that prevent bacteria from proliferating on the surface and temperature-controlled release of adhered contaminants. Comb-like structured copolymers were imparted to a polydopamine (PDA)-treated PVDF membrane by Michael addition reaction, which enabled a covalent binding of comb-like structured copolymers to the membrane. Such unique structural design of grafted copolymer, containing hydrophilic side chain and temperature-responsive chain backbone, stably prevents bacteria adhesion and provides reversible surface wettability. Therefore, the resultant membranes were evaluated to prevent bacterial adhesion, high touch-killing efficiency and temperature-controlled contaminants release (~99% of protein and ~75% of bacteria). Moreover, with the collapse and stretch of grafted copolymer chain backbone, the synthetic membrane further reversibly adjusted inner micro-porous structure and surface wettability, which eventually helped to achieve variable water fluid transport efficiency. This study not only provides a feasible structural design for stably coping with the challenging of antifouling and subsequent contamination adhesion of PVDF membrane, but also potentially answers the significant gap between lab research advances and practical application, particularly in the industrial membrane field.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 177: 111-118, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592267

RESUMO

7α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7α-HSDH) plays an important role in the efficient biotransformation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) to tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA). In this paper, a novel NADP(H)-dependent 7α-HSDH (named J-1-1) was discovered, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. J-1-1 exhibited high enzymatic activities. The specific activities of J-1-1 toward TCDCA, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) and ethyl benzoylacetate (EBA) were 188.3 ± 0.2, 217.6 ± 0.4, and 20.0 ± 0.2 U·mg-1, respectively, in 50 mM Glycine-NaOH, pH 10.5. Simultaneously, J-1-1 showed high thermostability; 73% of its activity maintained after heat treatment at 40 °C for 100 h. Particularly noteworthy is that magnesium ion could stabilize the structure of J-1-1, resulting in the enhancement of its enzymatic activity and thermostability. The enzymatic activity of J-1-1 increased 40-fold in the presence of 50 mM Mg2+, and T0.5 increased by approximately 6 °C. Furthermore, after heat treatment at 40 °C for 20 min, the control group only retained 52% of the residual enzyme activity, while the residual enzyme activity of the experimental group was still 77% of the J-1-1 enzyme activity with Mg2+ and without heat treatment. These properties of 7α-HSDH would be expected to contribute to more extensive applications in the biotransformation of related substrates.

12.
Eur Spine J ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555365

RESUMO

AIM: Interbody cages are commonly used to augment interbody fusion. Commonly used materials include titanium (Ti) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK), with their inherent differences. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare between the various clinical and radiological outcomes of Ti and PEEK interbody spinal cages. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing clinical and radiological outcomes between Ti and PEEK interbody cages in patients undergoing spinal fusion was performed. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database were searched. All studies that compared the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients who underwent Ti and PEEK cages were included. Subgroup analyses was performed to differentiate between patients who had cervical and lumbar interbody fusion. RESULTS: A total of 11 articles were identified, with a total of 743 patients. Spinal fusion rates at final follow-up did not differ between Ti and PEEK cages (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.57-3.94, P = 0.41), although in patients undergoing lumbar fusion, Ti cages demonstrated superior fusion (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.05-4.28, P = 0.04). In patients with non-infective etiologies, Ti cages had a higher rate of cage subsidence (RR 2.17, 95% CI 1.13-4.16, P = 0.02). Both types of cages had similar operating time, postoperative hematoma formation, neuropathic pain, segmental angle correction and postoperative clinical outcome improvement. CONCLUSION: In non-infective lumbar spine conditions, Ti cage may be the superior option due to the higher fusion rate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

13.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528791

RESUMO

Our previous study showed that the lncRNA UBE2R2-AS1 inhibits the growth and invasion of glioma cells and promotes apoptosis through the miR-877-3p/TLR4 pathway. In this study, it was further found that the expression of UBE2R2-AS1 in glioma tissues was decreased significantly, and gradually decreased with increasing clinical stage. Chi-square analysis showed that the expression of UBE2R2-AS1 was significantly correlated with the WHO stage of tumor and epilepsy. Using Kaplan-Meier univariate survival analysis, it was found that the expression of UBE2R2-AS1 correlated positively with the overall survival of patients with glioma, while multiple Cox regression analysis showed that the expression of UBE2R2-AS1 correlated positively with the overall survival of patients with glioma as a protective factor for glioma prognosis. The analysis of data from TCGA also showed that patients with high UBE2R2-AS1 levels or low miR-877-3p expression were more likely to have good survival outcomes. Further construction of a glioma xenograft model in nude mice showed that UBE2R2-AS1 overexpression inhibited the growth of tumors, and the inhibition of miR-877-3p expression had a similar effect. Simultaneous UBE2R2-AS1 overexpression and miR-877-3p inhibition further decreased the growth rate of tumors in nude mice. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that UBE2R2-AS1 is an important tumor suppressor gene in glioma, which may be a good marker and treatment target for the clinical detection of glioma.

14.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495618

RESUMO

Relaxin is an antifibrotic peptide hormone previously assumed to directly reverse the activation of hepatic stellate cells for liver fibrosis resolution. Using nanoparticle-mediated delivery, here we show that, although relaxin gene therapy reduces liver fibrosis in vivo, in vitro treatment fails to induce quiescence of the activated hepatic stellate cells. We show that hepatic macrophages express the primary relaxin receptor, and that, on relaxin binding, they switch from the profibrogenic to the pro-resolution phenotype. The latter releases exosomes that promote the relaxin-mediated quiescence of activated hepatic stellate cells through miR-30a-5p. Building on these results, we developed lipid nanoparticles that preferentially target activated hepatic stellate cells in the fibrotic liver and encapsulate the relaxin gene and miR-30a-5p mimic. The combinatorial gene therapy achieves synergistic antifibrosis effects in models of mouse liver fibrosis. Collectively, our findings highlight the key role that macrophages play in the relaxin-primed alleviation of liver fibrosis and demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach to devise antifibrotic strategies through the complementary application of nanotechnology and basic science.

15.
Eur Spine J ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, while healthcare systems and hospitals are diverting their resources to combat the pandemic, patients who require spinal surgeries continue to accumulate. The aim of this study is to describe a novel hospital capacity versus clinical justification triage score (CCTS) to prioritize patients who require surgery during the "new normal state" of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: A consensus study using the Delphi technique was carried out among clinicians from the Orthopaedic Surgery, Neurosurgery, and Anaesthesia departments. Three rounds of consensus were carried out via survey and Webinar discussions. RESULTS: A 50-points score system consisting of 4 domains with 4 subdomains was formed. The CCTS were categorized into the hospital capacity, patient factors, disease severity, and surgery complexity domains. A score between 30 and 50 points indicated that the proposed operation should proceed without delay. A score of less than 20 indicates that the proposed operation should be postponed. A score between 20 and 29 indicates that the surgery falls within a grey area where further discussion should be undertaken to make a joint justification for approval of surgery. CONCLUSION: This study is a proof of concept for the novel CCTS scoring system to prioritize surgeries to meet the rapidly changing demands of the COVID-19 pandemic. It offers a simple and objective method to stratify patients who require surgery and allows these complex and difficult decisions to be unbiased and made transparently among surgeons and hospital administrators.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 3089-3097, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400490

RESUMO

Numerous efforts to fabricate antimicrobial surfaces by simple yet universal protocols with high efficiency have attracted considerable interest but proved to be particularly challenging. Herein, we designed and fabricated a series of antimicrobial polymeric coatings with different functions from single to multiple mechanisms by selectively utilizing diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE), polylysine, and poly[glycidylmethacrylate-co-3-(dimethyl(4-vinylbenzyl)ammonium)propyl sulfonate] (poly(GMA-co-DVBAPS)) via straightforward mussel-inspired codeposition techniques. Bactericidal polylysine endowed the modified surfaces with a high ability (∼90%) to kill attached bacteria, while PEGDGE components with unique surface hydration prevented bacterial adhesion, avoiding the initial biofilm formation. Moreover, excellent salt-responsive poly(GMA-co-DVBAPS) enabled reactant polymeric coatings to change chain conformations from shrinkable to stretchable state and subsequently release >90% attached bacteria when treated with NaCl solution, even after repeated cycles. Therefore, the obtained polymeric coatings, polydopamine/poly(GMA-co-DVBAPS) (PDA/PDV), polydopamine/polylysine/poly(GMA-co-DVBAPS) (PDA/l-PDV), and polydopamine/polylysine/poly(GMA-co-DVBAPS)/diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PDA/l-PDV-PEGDGE), controllably realized functions from single and dual to multiple antimicrobial mechanisms, as evidenced by long-term antifouling activity to bacteria, high bactericidal efficiency, and salt-responsive bacterial regeneration performance with several bacterial killing-release cycles. This study not only contributes to mussel-inspired chemistry for polymeric coatings with controllable functions but also provides a series of reliable and highly efficient antimicrobial surfaces for potential biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Bivalves/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Etilenoglicóis/química , Etilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Humanos , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Polilisina/química , Polilisina/farmacologia , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Ann Clin Biochem ; : 4563220986593, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipaemic interference on automated analysers has been widely studied using soy-based emulsion such as Intralipid. Due to the greater adoption of fish oil-based lipid emulsion for total parenteral nutrition in view of improved clinical outcomes, we seek to characterize the optical properties of SMOFlipid 20% (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Homburg, Germany), a fish oil-based emulsion, on the Roche Cobas 6000 chemistry analyser (Roche Diagnostic, Basel, Switzerland). METHOD: Various amounts of SMOFlipid were spiked into pooled serums. We plotted Roche Cobas Serum Index Gen.2 Lipaemia Index (L-index) against the amount of SMOFlipid added. We then studied the interference thresholds for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin and renal panel analytes using SMOFlipid. We subjected five levels of spiked lipaemia to high-speed centrifugation and analysed the specimens pre- and post-centrifugation. To postulate whether fish oil-based lipid emulsion interferes with laboratory results in the clinical setting, we calculated concentrations of SMOFlipid post-lipid rescue therapy and steady-state concentration of a typical total parenteral nutrition regime using pharmacokinetic principles. RESULTS: SMOFlipid optical behaviour is similar to Intralipid using the Serum Index Gen.2 L-index, with 1 mg/dL of SMOFlipid representing 1 unit of L-index. Manufacturer-stated interference thresholds are accurate for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, urea and creatinine. High-speed centrifugation at 60 min 21,100g facilitates the removal of fish oil-based SMOFlipid. CONCLUSION: Based on the interference thresholds we verified and pharmacokinetics parameters provided by SMOFlipid manufacturer, total parenteral nutrition may not interfere with chemistry analytes given sufficient clearance, but lipid rescue therapy will interfere. Further studies assessing lipaemic interference on immunoassays are needed.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111571, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254419

RESUMO

Marine microalgae with high removal efficiency of phenol are needed for the remediation of polluted seawater in cases involving phenol spills. To achieve this purpose, adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was performed by a microalga Isochrysis galbana Parke MACC/H59, which is capable of degrading phenol at concentrations of less than 100 mg L-1 in 4 d. Two acclimation conditions were used: (i) 90 d at 100 mg L-1 phenol, and (ii) 90 d at 100 mg L-1 phenol followed by another 90 d at 200 mg L-1 phenol. By doing so, two strains (PAS-1 and PAS-2) could be obtained respectively. They grew rapidly at phenol concentrations up to 200 mg L-1 and 300 mg L-1, respectively, with a specific growth rate 2.52-3.40 times and 1.93-3.23 times that of the control (without phenol). Also, both strains had a higher removal capacity of phenol than the unacclimated alga. Phenol at an initial concentration of 200 mg L-1 was completely removed in 5 d thereby. For 300 mg L-1 phenol, a removal efficiency of 92% was achieved in 10 days by using PAS-2, with a removal rate constant of 30.01 d-1 (about twice that of PAS-1) and a half-life of 4.90 d (about half that of PAS-1), showing that a better strain may be obtained by extending the acclimation time. The enhancement of phenol biodegradation can be explained by the elevated activity of phenol hydroxylase (PH) in both strains. These results indicated that ALE could be an efficient tool used to enhance the tolerance and biodegradation of marine microalgae to phenol in seawater.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Haptófitas/fisiologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Haptófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Fenol/metabolismo , Água do Mar
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263977

RESUMO

The risk of extensive exposure of the human epidermis to solar ultraviolet radiation is significantly increased nowadays. It not only induces skin aging and solar erythema but also increases the possibility of skin cancer. Therefore, a simply prepared, highly sensitive, and optically readable device for monitoring the solar ultraviolet radiation is highly desired for the skin health management. Because of the photoinitiated polymerization triggered by graphene-carbon nitride (g-C3N4) under ultraviolet radiation, g-C3N4 is homogeneously distributed in the hybrid hydrogels containing N-isopropylacrymide (NIPAM), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA300), and sodium alginate (SA). By further immersing the hybrid hydrogels into calcium chloride solution, hybrid alginate-Ca2+/P(NIPAM-co-OEGMA300)/g-C3N4 interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) hydrogels are obtained. Due to the homogeneous distribution of g-C3N4 and the existence of thermoresponsive polymers, the hybrid IPN hydrogels present good adsorption capability and high degradation efficiency for methylene blue (MB) especially at high temperature under ultraviolet radiation. Based on this unique property, the bracelet monitoring skin health is prepared by simply immersing the hybrid IPN hydrogels into the MB solution and then wrapping it with PET foil. Because the immersion time for the top, middle, and bottom parts of the hybrid IPN hydrogels is gradually increased, their colors vary from light to dark blue. A longer time is required for the discoloration of the darker part under solar ultraviolet radiation. Thus, the bracelet can be used to conveniently monitor the dose of solar ultraviolet radiation by simply checking the discoloration in the bracelet under sunshine. Due to the facile preparation and low cost of the bracelet, it is a promising candidate for wearable devices for skin health management.

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