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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(4): 901-908, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543040

RESUMO

Large-scale mining has greatly damaged vegetation and caused ecological degradation in the semi-arid area in China. It is urgent to restore the vegetation to solve the deteriorating ecological and environmental problems in mining area. How to reclaim soils for effectively storing and utilizing precipitation is the primary issue for vegetation restoration in the area. In this study, we proposed to take the mixture of attapulgite clay and local sandy soils as covering materials to improve the weak water conservation function of soils in mining areas, and studied the effects of the addition of attapulgite clay on soil infiltration, drainage and water storage sampled from the Shenmu mining area. The results showed that, with increasing application rates of attapulgite clay, the cumulated infiltration volumes decreased by 4.8%-37.4%, the infiltration rates dropped by 6.4%-46.3%, the wetting front advance rates decreased by 9.8%-116.9%, the saturated hydraulic conductivities decreased by 14.3%-59.5%, the drained water volumes reduced by 0.3%-4.3% for 24 hours and by 0.3%-2.5% for 72 hours, and the maximum soil water storages increased by 1.6%-22.4%. The maximum effect of attapulgite clay peaked at the application rate of 150 t·hm-2. Considering the economic cost, the optimum application rate should be 30-150 t·hm-2. The results syste-matically revealed the mechanism of reclaiming mining soils with attapulgite clay to restore the function of water conservation, and demonstrated that attapulgite clay is an effective material for soil reclamation in the semi-arid mining area, which can provide references for soil reclamation and ecological restoration in the semi-arid mining area.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Solo , Argila , Compostos de Magnésio , Compostos de Silício , Água
2.
World Neurosurg ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pedicular screws (PS) is often used in lumbar fusion. Cortical bone trajectory (CBT) is a novel technology in lumbar fusion with less clinical outcomes evidence. So we conduct a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety between cortical bone trajectory screw fixation and traditional pedicle screws in lumbar fusion surgery. METHODS: Multiple databases were searched for the articles about comparison of cortical bone trajectory (CBT) and traditional pedicle screws (PS) in lumbar fusion surgeries. The Meta-analysis was conducted by Revman 5.3 software. The following indicators were abstracted: visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA), surgical duration, complications, and blood loss. The quality of the articles was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale or Cochrane Handbook. RESULTS: 25 studies were included involving a total of 1735 patients. There is no difference in preoperative VAS scores, JOA, ODI, postoperative VAS scores and fusion rates. Besides, postoperative JOA(MD = 0.78, P = 0.02), ODI (MD = -2.09, P=0.03), surgical duration(MD = -26.90, P = 0.02), complications(MD = 0.70, P = 0.03), and blood loss(MD = -85.27, P=0.0009) showed greater improvement trends in CBT group than PS group with significant difference. CONCLUSION: CBT reduced the rate of complications, surgical duration, blood loss, postoperative ODI and JOA scores. CBT technique with better postoperative outcomes achieved similar fusion rates compared with PS technique.

3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 4247042, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401926

RESUMO

Oocyte maturation disorder and decreased quality are the main causes of infertility in women, and granulosa cells (GCs) provide the only microenvironment for oocyte maturation through autocrine and paracrine signaling by steroid hormones and growth factors. However, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress caused by ovarian hypoxia are the largest contributors to ovarian aging and GC dysfunction. Therefore, the amelioration of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress is expected to be a pivotal method to improve GC function and oocyte quality. In this study, we detected the protective effect of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) stimulated oxidative damage in a human ovarian granulosa cell line (KGN). COS significantly increased cell viability, mitochondrial function, and the cellular glutathione (GSH) content and reduced apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and vascular endothelial-derived growth factor (VEGF) in H2O2-stimulated KGN cells. COS treatment significantly increased levels of the TGF-ß1 and IL-10 proteins and decreased levels of the IL-6 protein. Compared with H2O2-stimulated KGN cells, COS significantly increased the levels of E2 and P4 and decreased SA-ß-gal protein expression. Furthermore, COS caused significant inactivation of the HIF-1α-VEGF pathway in H2O2-stimulated KGN cells. Moreover, inhibition of this pathway enhanced the inhibitory effects of COS on H2O2-stimulated oxidative injury and apoptosis in GCs. Thus, COS protected GCs from H2O2-stimulated oxidative damage and apoptosis by inactivating the HIF-1α-VEGF signaling pathway. In the future, COS might represent a therapeutic approach for ameliorating disrupted follicle development.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Quitosana/farmacologia , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469164

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial dysfunction is characterized by an imbalance of vasodilation and vasoconstriction, deficiency of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), and proinflammatory factors. This dysfunction is a key to the early pathological development of major cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Therefore, modulation of the vascular endothelium is considered an important therapeutic strategy to maintain the health of the cardiovascular system. Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of medicinal plants, fruits, and vegetables promotes vascular health, lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This is mainly attributed to the phytochemical compounds contained in these resources. Various databases, including Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Directory of Open Access Journals, were searched to identify studies demonstrating the vascular protective effects of phytochemical compounds. The literature had revealed abundant data on phytochemical compounds protecting and improving the vascular system. Of the numerous compounds reported, curcumin, resveratrol, cyanidin-3-glucoside, berberine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and quercetin are discussed in this review to provide recent information on their vascular protective mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. Phytochemical compounds are promising therapeutic agents for vascular dysfunction due to their antioxidative mechanisms. However, future human studies will be necessary to confirm the clinical effects of these vascular protective mechanisms.

5.
Hepatology ; 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As a global health threat, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been confirmed to be a chronic progressive liver disease that is strongly associated with obesity. However, no approved drugs or efficient therapeutic strategies are valid, practically because its complicated pathologic processes is underestimated. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We identified the RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase-tripartite motif-containing protein 31 (TRIM31), a member of E3 ubiquitin ligases family, as a novel and efficient endogenous inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (MAP3K7), and we further confirmed that TRIM31 is an MAP3K7-interacting protein and promotes MAP3K7 degradation by enhancing ubiquitination of K48-linkage in hepatocytes. Hepatocyte-specific Trim31 deletion blocks hepatic metabolism homeostasis, concomitant with glucose metabolic syndrome, lipid accumulation, upregulated inflammation, and dramatically facilitates NASH progression. Inversely, transgenic overexpression, lentivirus or adeno-associated virus-mediated Trim31 gene therapy restrains NASH in three dietary mice models. Mechanistically, in response to metabolic insults, TRIM31 interacts with MAP3K7, and conjugates K48-linked ubiquitination chains to promotes MAP3K7 degradation, thus blocks MAP3K7 abundance and its downstream signaling cascade activation in hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: TRIM31 may serve as a promising therapeutic target for NASH treatment and associated metabolic disorders.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419070

RESUMO

Aim: Interleukin (IL)-37 is a new anti-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family. This study aimed to determine the effects of IL-37 on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. Materials and Methods: IL-37 plasmids were injected into mice via a tail vein hydrodynamics-based gene delivery. Results: Our results showed that IL-37 pretreatment significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, and attenuated the histological liver damage. Compared to the APAP group, IL-37 administration decreased Kupffer cells numbers in the liver of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Furthermore, IL-37 pretreatment reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-17, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in APAP-induced mice. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that delivery of IL-37 plasmid can ameliorate APAP-induced liver injury by reducing proinflammatory cytokines production and preventing the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. IL-37 may be a promising candidate against APAP-induced liver injury.

7.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 93(4): 043104, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489950

RESUMO

The uncertainties of spot size and position need to be clarified for x-ray sources as they can affect the detecting precision of the x-ray probe beam in applications such as radiography. In particular, for laser-driven x-ray sources, they would be more significant as they influence the inevitable fluctuation of the driving laser pulses. Here, we have employed the penumberal coded aperture imaging technique to diagnose the two-dimensional spatial distribution of an x-ray emission source spot generated from a Cu solid target irradiated by an intense laser pulse. Taking advantage of the high detection efficiency and high spatial resolution of this technique, the x-ray source spot is characterized with a relative error of ∼5% in the full width at half maximum of the intensity profile in a single-shot mode for general laser parameters, which makes it possible to reveal the information of the unfixed spot size and position precisely. Our results show the necessity and feasibility of monitoring the spot of these novel laser-driven x-ray sources via the penumbral coded aperture imaging technique.

8.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 835976, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359595

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a complex multifactorial disease model, which pathogenesis has not been fully defined. There are few studies on the information interaction between nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and cartilage endplate (CEP) cells. Exosomes, as a carrier of information communication between cells, have become a research hotspot recently. The purpose of this study was to explore whether degenerative NP cells-derived exosomes promoted CEP cells apoptosis and aggravated IVD degeneration. The degenerative NP cells model was induced by TNFα. NPC exosomes were isolated from the supernatant of the NP cell culture medium. The viability of NP cells and CEP cells was examined by CCK-8 assays. The exosomes were identified by TEM, NTA, and western blot. Extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism was measured by cellular immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and TUNEL. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), Safranine O-Green staining was adopted to evaluate IVD degeneration grades. TNFα had a minor impact on NPC viability but inhibited ECM synthesis and promoted ECM degradation. TNFα-NPC-Exo had less effect on CEPC proliferation but promoted CEPC apoptosis and affect ECM metabolism, inhibiting aggrecan and collagen II expression and enhancing MMP-3 expression. TNFα-NPC-Exo aggravates IVD degeneration in a rat model and promoted CEPC apoptosis. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that degenerated NPC-exosome could induce apoptosis of CEPCs, inhibit ECM synthesis, and promote ECM degradation. In addition, it was proved that degenerated NPC-exosome aggravates IVD degeneration.

9.
Front Genet ; 13: 854531, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360870

RESUMO

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is an epithelial malignant tumor that occurs in the urinary system with high incidence and is the second most common cancer among men in the world. Thus, it is important to screen out potential key biomarkers for the pathogenesis and prognosis of PCa. The present study aimed to identify potential biomarkers to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PCa tissues and matched normal tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas Prostate Adenocarcinoma (TCGA-PRAD) dataset were screened out by R software. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis was performed primarily to identify statistically significant genes for clinical manifestations. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis and network screening were performed based on the STRING database in conjunction with Cytoscape software. Hub genes were then screened out by Cytoscape in conjunction with stepwise algorithm and multivariate Cox regression analysis to construct a risk model. Gene expression in different clinical manifestations and survival analysis correlated with the expression of hub genes were performed. Moreover, the protein expression of hub genes was validated by the Human Protein Atlas database. Results: A total of 1,621 DEGs (870 downregulated genes and 751 upregulated genes) were identified from the TCGA-PRAD dataset. Eight prognostic genes [BUB1, KIF2C, CCNA2, CDC20, CCNB2, PBK, RRM2, and CDC45] and four hub genes (BUB1, KIF2C, CDC20, and PBK) potentially correlated with the pathogenesis of PCa were identified. A prognostic model with good predictive power for survival was constructed and was validated by the dataset in GSE21032. The survival analysis demonstrated that the expression of RRM2 was statistically significant to the prognosis of PCa, indicating that RRM2 may potentially play an important role in the PCa progression. Conclusion: The present study implied that RRM2 was associated with prognosis and could be used as a potential therapeutic target for PCa clinical treatment.

10.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 148(5): 436-445, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389456

RESUMO

Importance: Olfactory impairment is highly prevalent and associated with multiple comorbidities, including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, nutritional, and immune disorders. However, epidemiologic associations between olfactory impairment and mortality are discordant. Objective: To systematically clarify the epidemiologic associations between olfactory impairment and mortality. Data Sources: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to August 13, 2021. Study Selection: Two blinded reviewers selected observational studies published as full-length, English-language articles in peer-reviewed journals that reported the presence or severity of chronic olfactory impairment, whether objectively measured or self-reported, in association with any mortality estimate, among adults aged 18 years or older. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently extracted data, evaluated study bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and appraised the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines and a PROSPERO-registered protocol. Maximally adjusted estimates were pooled using mixed-effects models, heterogeneity was measured using I2 statistics, sources of heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression and subgroup meta-analyses, and publication bias was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality. Results: One retrospective cohort study and 10 prospective cohort studies (with a total of 21 601 participants) from 1088 nonduplicated records were included. Ten studies had a low risk of bias, whereas 1 study had a moderate risk; exclusion of the latter did not alter conclusions. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. Olfactory loss was associated with a significantly higher pooled hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.28-1.80; I2 = 82%). Meta-regression sufficiently explained heterogeneity, with longer mean follow-up duration weakening the pooled association, accounting for 91.3% of heterogeneity. Self-reported and objective effect sizes were similar. Associations were robust to trim-and-fill adjustment and the Egger test for publication bias. The overall quality of evidence was moderate. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that olfactory impairment is associated with all-cause mortality and may be a marker of general health and biological aging. Further research is required to establish the underlying mechanisms and the scope for interventions.

11.
Redox Biol ; 51: 102274, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240537

RESUMO

Mulberrin (Mul) is a key component of the traditional Chinese medicine Romulus Mori with various biological functions. However, the effects of Mul on liver fibrosis have not been addressed, and thus were investigated in our present study, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Here, we found that Mul administration significantly ameliorated carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury and dysfunction in mice. Furthermore, CCl4-triggerd collagen deposition and liver fibrosis were remarkably attenuated in mice with Mul supplementation through suppressing transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1)/SMAD2/3 signaling pathway. Additionally, Mul treatments strongly restrained the hepatic inflammation in CCl4-challenged mice via blocking nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. Importantly, we found that Mul markedly increased liver TRIM31 expression in CCl4-treated mice, accompanied with the inactivation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. CCl4-triggered hepatic oxidative stress was also efficiently mitigated by Mul consumption via improving nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Our in vitro studies confirmed that Mul reduced the activation of human and mouse primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) stimulated by TGF-ß1. Consistently, Mul remarkably retarded the inflammatory response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation both in human and murine hepatocytes. More importantly, by using hepatocyte-specific TRIM31 knockout mice (TRIM31Hep-cKO) and mouse primary hepatocytes with Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2KO), we identified that the anti-fibrotic and hepatic protective effects of Mul were TRIM31/Nrf2 signaling-dependent, relieving HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. Therefore, Mul-ameliorated hepatocyte injury contributed to the suppression of HSCs activation by improving TRIM31/Nrf2 axis, thus providing a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis treatment.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Animais , Derivados de Benzeno , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
12.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(4): 204, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35280397

RESUMO

Background: Periodontitis is a highly prevalent dental disease which is associated with diabetes and is challenging to cure in diabetic patients. However, the mechanism of comorbid diabetes and periodontitis is still unclear. This study aimed to uncover the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in high glucose-associated periodontitis. Methods: Periodontal tissues were obtained from diabetic patients with periodontitis, periodontitis patients without systemic disease, and healthy teeth. The expressions of ER stress-related factors GRP78, ATF6, PERK and XBP1 were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immumohistochemical staining. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from three states of periodontal tissues were isolated and cultured as diabetic PDLSCs (dPDLSCs), inflamed PDLSCs (iPDLSCs) and healthy PDLSCs (hPDLSCs), and the cell stemness was assayed. Different concentrations (8, 11, and 25 mmol/L) of D-glucose were used on hPDLSCs to simulate high glucose microenvironment. The changes of osteogenic ability of PDLSCs were observed, and the expressions of ER stress-related factors in different time point (6, 12, 24, and 72 h) were detected. Finally, GRP78 shRNA lentivirus was used to block ER stress on PDLSCs in the 25 mmol/L D-glucose microenvironment, and the osteogenic ability of PDLSCs was observed. Results: The results showed that the expressions of GRP78, ATF6, PERK, and XBP1 were highest in the diabetic periodontitis group and lowest in the healthy periodontal tissue group (P<0.05). The clone formation, osteogenic and lipogenic differentiation abilities were lowest in dPDLSCs and highest in hPDLSCs. With the increase of glucose concentration, the osteogensis ability of PDLSCs decreased. After 6 hours of stimulation with D-glucose 25 mmol/L, the ER stress pathways in PDLSCs were effectively activated, and the peak value was reached at 12 hours. The decrease in the osteogensis ability of PDLSCs in a high glucose microenvironment reversed when ER stress was blocked. Conclusions: The osteogenic differentiation ability of PDLSCs cells is inhibited in a high glucose microenvironment, and this effect is realized by ER stress activation. Blocking ER stress can partially restore the reduced osteogenic ability of PDLSCs. These results suggest that high glucose inhibits the osteogenic differentiation ability of PDLSCs by activating ER stress, which ultimately exacerbates periodontitis.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35251203

RESUMO

Chemical constituents in plants can be greatly affected by postharvest processing, and it is important to identify the factors that lead to significant changes in chemistry and bioactivity. In this study, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to analyze extracts of Clinacanthus nutan (C. nutans) leaves generated using different parameters (solvent polarities, solid-liquid ratios, ultrasonic durations, and cycles of extraction). In addition, the effects of these extracts on the viability of cardiac c-kit cells (CCs) were tested. The IR spectra were processed using SIMCA-P software. PCA results of all tested parameter sets were within acceptable values. Solvent polarity was identified as the most influential factor to observe the differences in chemical profile and activities of C. nutans extracts. Ideal extraction conditions were identified, for two sample groups (G1 and G2), as they showed optimal total phenolic content (TPC) yield of 44.66 ± 0.83 mg GAE/g dw and 45.99 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g dw and CC viability of 171.81 ± 4.06% and 147.53 ± 6.80%, respectively. Validation tools such as CV-ANOVA (p < 0.05) and permutation (R 2 and Q 2 plots were well intercepted to each other) have further affirmed the significance and reliability of the partial least square (PLS) model of solvent polarity employed in extraction. Hence, these approaches help optimize postharvest processes that encourage positive TPC and CCs results in C. nutans extracts.

14.
Front Oncol ; 12: 803473, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35251975

RESUMO

Lipid metabolism disorder is related to an increased risk of tumorigenesis and is involved in the rapid growth of cancer cells as well as the formation of metastatic lesions. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) are closely associated with breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and other malignancies, suggesting that LDL and ox-LDL play important roles during the occurrence and development of cancers. LDL can deliver cholesterol into cancer cells after binding to LDL receptor (LDLR). Activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway induces transcription of the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which subsequently promotes cholesterol uptake and synthesis to meet the demand of cancer cells. Ox-LDL binds to the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) to induce mutations, resulting in inflammation, cell proliferation, and metastasis of cancer. Classic lipid-lowering drugs, statins, have been shown to reduce LDL levels in certain types of cancer. As LDL and ox-LDL play complicated roles in cancers, the potential therapeutic effect of targeting lipid metabolism in cancer therapy warrants more investigation.

15.
Global Spine J ; : 21925682221079262, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259977

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective Exact Matched case-control study. OBJECTIVES: Surgical treatment delay in AIS due to family preferences is common. This study aims to quantify the increase in risks as the Cobb angle increases and provide a Quantifiable Risk Reference Table that can be utilized for counseling. METHODOLOGY: AIS patients were divided into 3 groups: Group A: Cobb angle 50-60°, Group 61-70°, and Group CFinal ≥80°. Each patient in Group CFinal who had curve progression were then traced-back-in-time (TBIT) to review the clinical data at earlier presentations at 50-60° (C1), and 61-70° (C2). Patient demographics, radiological, operative, and outcomes data were compared between Group A vs C1 and Group B vs Group C2. RESULTS: A total of 614 AIS surgeries were reviewed. Utilizing the EM technique, a total of 302 AIS patients were recruited. There were 147, 111, 31, and 32 patients matched in Groups A, B, C1, and C2, respectively. C2 Final patients had 34% curve pattern change, 23.2% higher incidence of requiring two surgeries, and 17.3% increase in complications. There was a statistically significant increase of 2.4 spinal levels fused, 12% increase in implant density, 35% increase in operative time, 97% increase in intra-operative blood loss, 10% loss of scoliosis correction, 40% longer hospitalization stay, and 36% increase in costs for patients who had curve progression. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to use a homogenously matched AIS cohort to provide a Quantifiable Risk Reference Table. The Risk Table provides essential knowledge for treating physicians when counseling AIS patients.

16.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35230560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cyclophosphamide (CYC) on organ involvement and SLE patients' overall and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: Information about CYC prescription was taken from the Jiangsu Lupus database, which was set up to collect medical records from SLE patients since their first admission during 1999-2009 in Jiangsu province, China. Follow-up studies were carried out in 2010 and 2015 to check the survival status of the patients. Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. Kaplan-Meier model was used to assess the effect of CYC on mortality between organ involvement and non-involvement. RESULTS: There were 221 deaths observed out of 2446 SLE patients. CYC users decreased overall mortality of SLE (8.4%) with adjusted HR (95% CI) of 0.74 (0.56-0.97), as compared to non-users. A decrease in overall mortality of SLE was found in the low dosage (< 600 mg) of CYC users, with adjusted HR (95% CI) of 0.54 (0.36-0.81). The protection of CYC on mortality of SLE was further observed in subgroups, such as female; SLEDAI score ≥ 15 group; and those with neuropsychiatric, renal, and hematological involvements, and low serum C3. In addition, CYC could eliminate the differences in mortality between organ involvement and non-involvement, including renal, neuropsychiatric, cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and hematological involvement, but not for mucocutaneous and musculoskeletal involvement. CONCLUSION: Low dosage use of CYC decreased the risk of overall mortality of SLE. CYC might improve the survival of SLE patients with renal, neuropsychiatric, cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and hematological involvements. Key Points • Cyclophosphamide decreases overall mortality of SLE patients. • Decreased mortality is mainly observed from low dosage use of cyclophosphamide. • Cyclophosphamide improves the survival of SLE patients when major systems such as renal, neuropsychiatric, cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and hematological are involved.

17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(3)2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poor immunogenicity of solid tumors limits the efficacy ofanti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD1)-based immune checkpoint blockade (ICB); thus, less than 30% of patients with cancer exhibit a response. Currently, there is still a lack of effective strategies for improving tumor immunogenicity. METHODS: The antitumor effect of ultrasound-stimulated nanobubbles (USNBs) alone and in combination with an anti-PD1 antibody was evaluated in RM1 (prostate cancer), MC38 (colon cancer) and B16 (melanoma) xenograft mouse models. The phenotypes of antigen-presenting cells and CD8+ T cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) release, antigen release and tumor cell necrosis were assessed via western blot, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: USNB promoted the infiltration and antitumor activity of CD8+ T cells. The combination of USNB and anti-PD1 blockade improved systemic antitumor immunity and resulted in an abscopal effect and long-term immune memory protection after complete tumor remission. Mechanistically, tumor-targeting USNB induced tumor cell necrosis through an ultrasound-mediated cavitation effect, which significantly increased DAMP release and tumor antigen presentation, consequently sensitizing tumors to ICB treatment. CONCLUSION: The administration of USNB increased tumor immunogenicity by remodeling the tumor-immune microenvironment, providing a promising strategy for sensitizing poorly immunogenic solid tumors to immunotherapy in the clinic.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Melanoma Experimental , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Bioengineered ; 13(3): 4911-4922, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152841

RESUMO

Increasing evidence has shown that traditional Chinese medicines and their bioactive components exert an anti-tumor effect, representing a novel treatment strategy. Actinidia chinensis Planch Root extracts (acRoots) have been reported to repress cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. The effect of acRoots on hypopharyngeal carcinoma progression was explored in this study. Firstly, data from MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and colony formation assays showed that incubation with accRoots reduced cell proliferation of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Moreover, acRoots promoted the cell apoptosis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Secondly, cell migration and invasion of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells were suppressed by acRoots. Thirdly, E2F1 (E2F Transcription Factor 1) and lncRNA MNX1-AS1 (MNX1 antisense RNA 1) were up-regulated in hypopharyngeal carcinoma tissues, and reduced in hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells post acRoots incubation. Overexpression of E2F1 attenuated acRoots-induced decrease in MNX1-AS1 in hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Lastly, administration with acRoots retarded in vivo hypopharyngeal carcinoma growth through down-regulation of E2F1-mediated MNX1-AS1. In conclusion, acRoots exerted tumor-suppressive role in hypopharyngeal carcinoma through inhibition of E2F1-mediated MNX1-AS1.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , MicroRNAs , Extratos Vegetais , Actinidia/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Fatores de Transcrição E2F/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F1 , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Antissenso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Resusc Plus ; 9: 100202, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35118434

RESUMO

AIM: This study explored how body habitus in the paediatric population might potentially affect the use of one-third external anterior-posterior (APD) diameter when compared to age-appropriate absolute chest compression depth targets. It also explored how body habitus could potentially affect the relationship between one-third external and internal APD (compressible space) and if body habitus indices were independent predictors of internal APD at the lower half of the sternum. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a retrospective study of chest computed tomography (CT) scans of infants and children (>24-hours-of-life to less-than-18-years-old) from 2005 to 2017. Patients' scan images were reviewed for internal and external APDs at the mid-point of the lower half of the sternum. Body habitus and epidemiological data were extracted from the electronic medical records. RESULTS: Chest CT scans of 193 infants and 398 children were evaluated. There was poor concordance between one-third external APD measurements and age-specific absolute chest compression depth targets, especially in infants and overweight/obese adolescents. There was a co-dependent relationship between one-third external APD and internal APD measurements. Overweight/obese children's and adolescents' internal and external APDs were significant different from the normal/underweight groups. Body-mass-index (BMI) of children and adolescents (p = 0.009), but not weight-for-length (WFL) of infants (p = 0.511), was an independent predictor of internal APD at the compression landmark. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated correlations between external and internal APDs which were affected by BMI but not WFL (infants). Clinical studies are needed to validate current chest compression guidelines especially for infants and overweight/obese adolescents.(250 words).

20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(4): 378-383, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115723

RESUMO

Graphene-based samples have shown a plethora of exotic characteristics and these properties may help the realization of a new generation of fast electronic devices. However, graphene's centrosymmetry prohibits second-order electronic transport. Here, we show giant second-order nonlinear transports in graphene moiré superlattices at zero magnetic field, both longitudinal and transverse to the applied current direction. High carrier mobility and inversion symmetry breaking by hexagonal boron nitride lead to nonlinear conductivities five orders of magnitude larger than those in WTe2. The nonlinear conductivity strongly depends on the gate voltage as well as on the stacking configuration, with a giant enhancement originating from the moiré bands. Longitudinal nonlinear conductivity cannot originate from Berry curvature dipoles. Our theoretical modelling highlights skew scattering of chiral Bloch electrons as the physical origin. With these results, we demonstrate nonlinear charge transport due to valley-contrasting chirality, which constitutes an alternative means to induce second-order transports in van der Waals heterostructures. Our approach is promising for applications in frequency-doubling and energy harvesting via rectification.

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