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1.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003765, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal diets are a leading risk factor for death and disability. Nutrition labelling is a potential method to encourage consumers to improve dietary behaviour. This systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) summarises evidence on the impact of colour-coded interpretive labels and warning labels on changing consumers' purchasing behaviour. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a literature review of peer-reviewed articles published between 1 January 1990 and 24 May 2021 in PubMed, Embase via Ovid, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and SCOPUS. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies were included for the primary outcomes (measures of changes in consumers' purchasing and consuming behaviour). A frequentist NMA method was applied to pool the results. A total of 156 studies (including 101 RCTs and 55 non-RCTs) nested in 138 articles were incorporated into the systematic review, of which 134 studies in 120 articles were eligible for meta-analysis. We found that the traffic light labelling system (TLS), nutrient warning (NW), and health warning (HW) were associated with an increased probability of selecting more healthful products (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]: TLS, 1.5 [1.2, 1.87]; NW, 3.61 [2.82, 4.63]; HW, 1.65 [1.32, 2.06]). Nutri-Score (NS) and warning labels appeared effective in reducing consumers' probability of selecting less healthful products (NS, 0.66 [0.53, 0.82]; NW,0.65 [0.54, 0.77]; HW,0.64 [0.53, 0.76]). NS and NW were associated with an increased overall healthfulness (healthfulness ratings of products purchased using models such as FSAm-NPS/HCSP) by 7.9% and 26%, respectively. TLS, NS, and NW were associated with a reduced energy (total energy: TLS, -6.5%; NS, -6%; NW, -12.9%; energy per 100 g/ml: TLS, -3%; NS, -3.5%; NW, -3.8%), sodium (total sodium/salt: TLS, -6.4%; sodium/salt per 100 g/ml: NS: -7.8%), fat (total fat: NS, -15.7%; fat per 100 g/ml: TLS: -2.6%; NS: -3.2%), and total saturated fat (TLS, -12.9%; NS: -17.1%; NW: -16.3%) content of purchases. The impact of TLS, NS, and NW on purchasing behaviour could be explained by improved understanding of the nutrition information, which further elicits negative perception towards unhealthful products or positive attitudes towards healthful foods. Comparisons across label types suggested that colour-coded labels performed better in nudging consumers towards the purchase of more healthful products (NS versus NW: 1.51 [1.08, 2.11]), while warning labels have the advantage in discouraging unhealthful purchasing behaviour (NW versus TLS: 0.81 [0.67, 0.98]; HW versus TLS: 0.8 [0.63, 1]). Study limitations included high heterogeneity and inconsistency in the comparisons across different label types, limited number of real-world studies (95% were laboratory studies), and lack of long-term impact assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review provided comprehensive evidence for the impact of colour-coded labels and warnings in nudging consumers' purchasing behaviour towards more healthful products and the underlying psychological mechanism of behavioural change. Each type of label had different attributes, which should be taken into consideration when making front-of-package nutrition labelling (FOPL) policies according to local contexts. Our study supported mandatory front-of-pack labelling policies in directing consumers' choice and encouraging the food industry to reformulate their products. PROTOCOL REGISTRY: PROSPERO (CRD42020161877).

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e046412, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reducing sodium intake has been identified as a highly cost-effective strategy to prevent and control high blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular mortality. This study aims to compare the sodium content in processed meat and fish products among five countries, which will contribute to the evidence-base for feasible strategies of sodium reduction in such products. METHODS: Sodium content on product labels of 26 500 prepackaged products, 19 601 meat and 6899 fish, was collected in supermarkets from five countries using the FoodSwitch mobile application from 2012 to 2018. To be specific, it was 1898 products in China, 885 in the UK, 5673 in Australia, 946 in South Africa and 17 098 in the USA. Cross-sectional comparisons of sodium levels and proportions meeting 2017 UK sodium reduction targets were conducted using Kruskal-Wallis H and the χ2 test, respectively across the five countries. RESULTS: The results showed that processed meat and fish products combined in China had the highest sodium level (median 1050 mg/100 g, IQR: 774-1473), followed by the USA, South Africa, Australia, with the lowest levels found in UK (432 mg/100 g, IQR: 236-786) (p<0.001). Similar variations, that is, a twofold to threefold difference of sodium content between the highest and the lowest countries were found among processed meat and fish products separately. Large sodium content variations were also found in certain specific food subcategories across the five countries, as well as across different food subcategories within each country. CONCLUSION: Processed meat and fish products differ greatly in sodium content across different countries and across different food subcategories. This indicates great potential for food producers to reformulate the products in sodium content, as well as for consumers to select less salted food.


Assuntos
Sódio na Dieta , Sódio , Estudos Transversais , Produtos Pesqueiros , Humanos , Carne
3.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(12): 2113-2122, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the dose-response relationship for reduction in mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) with valsartan solution, in young children with hypertension with or without chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study, 127 young children aged 1-5 years with hypertension (MSBP ≥95th percentile) were randomized (1:1) to receive valsartan 0.25 or 4 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks, followed by a 20 week open-label phase, where patients received valsartan 1 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, and then optionally titrated to 2 mg/kg/day or up to 4 mg/kg/day. The primary endpoint was the change in MSBP from baseline at Week 6 during the double-blind phase. RESULTS: Overall, 120 patients (94.5%) completed the study; 63 had CKD. A clinically and statistically significant reduction in MSBP from baseline to Week 6 was observed with the valsartan 4 mg/kg group compared with the valsartan 0.25 mg/kg group (8.5 vs 4.1 mmHg; p = .0157). A positive dose-response relationship for MSBP reduction was observed between the 0.25 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg groups (p = .0012). In the CKD subgroup, a significant reduction in MSBP was observed with 4 mg/kg (9.2 mmHg) versus 0.25 mg/kg (1.2 mmHg; p = .0096). In the non-CKD subgroup, a numerically greater decrease in MSBP was observed with 4 mg/kg (7.8 mmHg) versus 0.25 mg/kg (6.9 mmHg; p = .6531). Incidence of adverse events was lower with valsartan 4 mg/kg than 0.25 mg/kg (41.9% vs 51.6%) and similar between CKD and non-CKD subgroups (48.4% vs 45.3%) irrespective of dose. Increase in serum potassium (>20% compared to baseline) was observed more frequently in patients with CKD compared to non-CKD patients. CONCLUSION: Valsartan was efficacious and well tolerated in children 1 to 5 years of age with hypertension, with or without CKD. Clinical trial registration: The study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01617681).

4.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455067

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dabrafenib plus trametinib was found to have robust antitumor activity in patients with BRAF V600E-mutant metastatic NSCLC (mNSCLC). We report updated survival analysis of a phase 2 study (NCT01336634) with a minimum of 5-year follow-up and updated genomic data. METHODS: Pretreated (cohort B) and treatment-naive (cohort C) patients with BRAF V600E-mutant mNSCLC received dabrafenib 150 mg twice daily and trametinib 2 mg once daily. The primary end point was investigator-assessed overall response rate per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Secondary end points were duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS: At data cutoff, for cohorts B (57 patients) and C (36 patients), the median follow-up was 16.6 (range: 0.5-78.5) and 16.3 (range: 0.4-80) months, overall response rate (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 68.4% (54.8-80.1) and 63.9% (46.2-79.2), median progression-free survival (95% CI) was 10.2 (6.9-16.7) and 10.8 (7.0-14.5) months, and median overall survival (95% CI) was 18.2 (14.3-28.6) and 17.3 (12.3-40.2) months, respectively. The 4- and 5-year survival rates were 26% and 19% in pretreated patients and 34% and 22% in treatment-naive patients, respectively. A total of 17 patients (18%) were still alive. The most frequent adverse event was pyrexia (56%). Exploratory genomic analysis indicated that the presence of coexisting genomic alterations might influence clinical outcomes in these patients; however, these results require further investigation. CONCLUSIONS: Dabrafenib plus trametinib therapy was found to have substantial and durable clinical benefit, with a manageable safety profile, in patients with BRAF V600E-mutant mNSCLC, regardless of previous treatment.

6.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(2): e19430, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The app-based salt reduction intervention program in school children and their families (AppSalt) is a multicomponent mobile health (mHealth) intervention program, which involves multiple stakeholders, including students, parents, teachers, school heads, and local health and education authorities. The complexity of the AppSalt program highlights the need for process evaluation to investigate how the implementation will be achieved at different sites. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a process evaluation protocol of the AppSalt program, which aims to monitor the implementation of the program, explain its causal mechanisms, and provide evidence for scaling up the program nationwide. METHODS: A mixed methods approach will be used to collect data relating to five process evaluation dimensions: fidelity, dose delivered, dose received, reach, and context. Quantitative data, including app use logs, activity logs, and routine monitoring data, will be collected alongside the intervention process to evaluate the quantity and quality of intervention activities. The quantitative data will be summarized as medians, means, and proportions as appropriate. Qualitative data will be collected through semistructured interviews of purposely selected intervention participants and key stakeholders from local health and education authorities. The thematic analysis technique will be used for analyzing the qualitative data with the support of NVivo 12. The qualitative data will be triangulated with the quantitative data during the interpretation phase to explain the 5 process evaluation dimensions. RESULTS: The intervention activities of the AppSalt program were initiated at 27 primary schools in three cities since October 2018. We have completed the 1-year intervention of this program. The quantitative data for this study, including app use log, activity logs, and the routine monitoring data, were collected and organized during the intervention process. After completing the intervention, we conducted semistructured interviews with 32 students, 32 parents, 9 teachers, 9 school heads, and 8 stakeholders from local health and education departments. Data analysis is currently underway. CONCLUSIONS: Using mHealth technology for salt reduction among primary school students is an innovation in China. The findings of this study will help researchers understand the implementation of the AppSalt program and similar mHealth interventions in real-world settings. Furthermore, this process evaluation will be informative for other researchers and policy makers interested in replicating the AppSalt program and designing their salt reduction intervention. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/19430.

7.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e038744, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salt intake in China is high, and most of it comes from that added by consumers. Nevertheless, recent years have seen a rapid increase in the frequency at which people eat out. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed for salt reduction in restaurants through a randomised controlled trial in China. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: As a randomised controlled trial with restaurants as study subjects, we recruited 192 restaurants from 12 counties of 6 provinces in China. After the baseline survey, restaurants were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Using social cognitive theory, comprehensive intervention activities were designed to encourage salt reduction in all restaurant foods, and at the same time, to encourage consumers to choose lower salt options when eating out. The interventions will be conducted only in restaurants of the intervention group during the first year. The follow-up assessment will be conducted at the end of the trial. The primary outcome is the change in the average salt content of the five best-selling dishes of the restaurant, as measured by laboratory tests. Secondary outcomes include differences in the monthly use of salt and salty condiments between intervention and control restaurants, and the knowledge, attitude and practice on salt among restaurant consumers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was reviewed and approved by the Review Board of the National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee. Results will be disseminated through presentations, publications and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800019694; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Restaurantes , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , China , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1580-1588, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981359

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess current level of sodium and potassium intake and their associations with blood pressure (BP) using the 24-hour urinary data in a large sample of China. Data from participants aged 18 to 75 years were collected as the baseline survey of Action on Salt China in 2018. Of 5454 adults, 5353 completed 24-hour urine collection. The average sodium, potassium excretion, and sodium-to-potassium molar ratio were 4318.1±1814.1 mg/d (equivalent to 11.0±4.6 g/d of salt), 1573.7±627.1 mg/d, and 5.0±2.1, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors and correcting for regression dilution, each 1000-mg increase in sodium excretion was associated with increased systolic BP (1.32 mm Hg [95% CI, 0.92-1.81]) and diastolic BP (0.34 mm Hg [95% CI, 0.09-0.60]). Each 1000-mg increase in potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic BP (-3.19 mm Hg [95% CI, -4.38 to -2.20]) and diastolic BP (-1.56 mm Hg [95% CI, -2.29 to -0.90]). Each unit increase in sodium-to-potassium molar ratio was associated with an increase of systolic BP by 1.21 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.91-1.60) and diastolic BP by 0.44 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.24-0.64). The relationships between sodium and BP mostly increase with the rise of BP quantiles. Potassium shows the opposite trend. The current sodium intake in Chinese adults remains high and potassium intake is low. Sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratio were positively associated with BP, whereas potassium was inversely associated with BP. Registration- URL: https://tinyurl.com/vdr8rpr; Unique identifier: ChiCTR1800017553. URL: https://tinyurl.com/w8c7x3w; Unique identifier: ChiCTR1800016804. URL: https://tinyurl.com/s3ajldw; Unique identifier: ChiCTR1800018119.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adulto Jovem
9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1139-1148, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the previously reported primary analysis of this phase 3 trial, 12 months of adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib resulted in significantly longer relapse-free survival than placebo in patients with resected stage III melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations. To confirm the stability of the relapse-free survival benefit, longer-term data were needed. METHODS: We randomly assigned 870 patients who had resected stage III melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations to receive 12 months of oral dabrafenib (at a dose of 150 mg twice daily) plus trametinib (2 mg once daily) or two matched placebos. The primary end point was relapse-free survival. Here, we report 5-year results for relapse-free survival and survival without distant metastasis as the site of the first relapse. Overall survival was not analyzed, since the required number of events to trigger the final overall survival analysis had not been reached. RESULTS: The minimum duration of follow-up was 59 months (median patient follow-up, 60 months for dabrafenib plus trametinib and 58 months for placebo). At 5 years, the percentage of patients who were alive without relapse was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48 to 58) with dabrafenib plus trametinib and 36% (95% CI, 32 to 41) with placebo (hazard ratio for relapse or death, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.61). The percentage of patients who were alive without distant metastasis was 65% (95% CI, 61 to 71) with dabrafenib plus trametinib and 54% (95% CI, 49 to 60) with placebo (hazard ratio for distant metastasis or death, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.70). No clinically meaningful between-group difference in the incidence or severity of serious adverse events was reported during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: In the 5-year follow-up of a phase 3 trial involving patients who had resected stage III melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations, 12 months of adjuvant therapy with dabrafenib plus trametinib resulted in a longer duration of survival without relapse or distant metastasis than placebo with no apparent long-term toxic effects. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline and Novartis; COMBI-AD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01682083; EudraCT number, 2012-001266-15.).


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Adv Nutr ; 11(6): 1616-1630, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561920

RESUMO

Diets high in salt are a leading risk for death and disability globally. Taxing unhealthy food is an effective means of influencing what people eat and improving population health. Although there is a growing body of evidence on taxing products high in sugar, and unhealthy foods more broadly, there is limited knowledge or experience of using fiscal measures to reduce salt consumption. We searched peer-reviewed databases [MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews] and gray literature for studies published between January 2000 and October 2019. Studies were included if they provided information on the impact on salt consumption of: taxes on salt; taxes on foods high in salt, and taxes on unhealthy foods defined to include foods high in salt. Studies were excluded if their definition of unhealthy foods did not specify high salt or sodium. We found 18 relevant studies, including 15 studies reporting the effects of salt taxes through modeling (8), real-world evaluation (4), experimental design (2), or review of cost-effectiveness (1); 6 studies providing information relevant to country implementation of salt taxes; and 2 studies reporting stakeholder perceptions toward salt taxation. Although there is some evidence on the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of salt taxation, especially from modeling studies, uptake of salt taxation is limited in practice. Some modeling studies suggested that food taxes can have unintended outcomes such as reduced consumption of healthy foods, or increased consumption of unhealthy, untaxed substitutes. In contrast, modeling studies that combined taxes for unhealthy foods with subsidies found that the benefits were increased. Modeling suggests that taxing all foods based on their salt content is likely to have more impact than taxing specific products high in salt given that salt is pervasive in the food chain. However, the limited experience we found suggests that policy-makers favor taxing specific products.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Sódio , Austrália , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Impostos
11.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(11): e12664, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Economic development has brought rapid shifts in the food environment of Chinese children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the changes in childhood nutritional status across ethnic groups and economic status from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: 664 094 Chinese Han and 224 151 ethnic minority children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years were assessed in three national cross-sectional surveys (2005, 2010 and 2014). Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of each ethnic group was categorized into four strata of socioeconomic status. To assess ethnic disparities at each time point, we used logistic regression to estimate the prevalence odds ratios (OR) for thinness, overweight and obesity in the 24 ethnic minority groups vs Han Chinese. RESULTS: Children in the two upper economic strata (over about US$4000 GDP per capita) had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, while those in the two lower economic strata (below US$4000 GDP per capita) had a high prevalence of thinness. From 2005 to 2014, the prevalence of thinness decreased from 18.6% to 13.1% in Han children, and from 20.4% to 17.1% in ethnic minority students. At the same time, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 10.4% to 17.7% in Han children, and from 4.3% to 9.2% in ethnic minority students, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid nutritional transition has occurred from 2005 to 2014 with shifts from thinness to overweight and obesity in both Han and ethnic minority children and adolescents, reflecting local GDP per capita.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Estado Nutricional , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia
13.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(4): e15933, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salt intake in China is over twice the maximum recommendation of the World Health Organization. Unlike most developed countries where salt intake is mainly derived from prepackaged foods, around 80% of the salt consumed in China is added during cooking. OBJECTIVE: Action on Salt China (ASC), initiated in 2017, aims to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive and tailored salt reduction program for national scaling-up. METHODS: ASC consists of six programs working in synergy to increase salt awareness and to reduce the amount of salt used during cooking at home and in restaurants, as well as in processed foods. Since September 2018, two health campaigns on health education and processed foods have respectively started, in parallel with four open-label cluster randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in six provinces across China: (1) app-based intervention study (AIS), in which a mobile app is used to achieve and sustain salt reduction in school children and their families; (2) home cook-based intervention study (HIS), in which family cooks receive support in using less salt; (3) restaurant-based intervention study (RIS) targeting restaurant consumers, cooks, and managers; and (4) comprehensive intervention study (CIS), which is a real-world implementation and evaluation of all available interventions in the three other RCTs. To explore the barriers, facilitators, and effectiveness of delivering a comprehensive salt reduction intervention, these RCTs will last for 1 year (stage 1), followed by nationwide implementation (stage 2). In AIS, HIS, and CIS, the primary outcome of salt reduction will be evaluated by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in 6030 participants, including 5436 adults and 594 school children around 8-9 years old. In RIS, the salt content of meals will be measured by laboratory food analysis of the 5 best-selling dishes from 192 restaurants. Secondary outcomes will include process evaluation; changes in knowledge, attitude, and practice on salt intake; and economic evaluation. RESULTS: All RCTs have been approved by Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee and the Institutional Review Boards of leading institutes in China. The research started in June 2017 and is expected to be completed around March 2021. The baseline investigations of the four RCTs were completed in May 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The ASC project is progressing smoothly. The intervention packages and tailored components will be promoted for salt reduction in China, and could be adopted by other countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. AIS: ChiCTR1800017553; https://tinyurl.com/vdr8rpr. HIS: ChiCTR1800016804; https://tinyurl.com/w8c7x3w. RIS: ChiCTR1800019694; https://tinyurl.com/uqkjgfw. CIS: ChiCTR1800018119; https://tinyurl.com/s3ajldw. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/15933.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marketing, including the use of cartoon animations on packaging, has been shown to influence the food children choose to eat. This paper aims to determine the nutritional quality of UK food and drink products featuring child-friendly characters on pack. METHODS: A comprehensive cross-sectional survey of food and drink with packaging appealing to children available in the UK. Products were classified high in fat, salt and/or sugar (HFSS) according to the UK nutrient profiling model and guidance for front of pack nutrition labelling. Logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a significant relationship between nutritional quality of products, and animation type. RESULTS: Over half (51%) of 532 products with animations on packaging were classified as HFSS. Food products featuring unlicensed characters were significantly more likely to be deemed HFSS than those with licensed characters, according to both the nutrient profiling model (odds ratio (OR) 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.4) and front of pack nutrition labelling system (OR 2.3, 95% confidence interval CI: 1.4 to 3.7). CONCLUSIONS: The use of cartoon characters on HFSS products is widespread. Policies to restrict the use of such marketing tactics should be considered to prevent children being targeted with unhealthy foods and drinks.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Bebidas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Ingestão de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Marketing/métodos , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recomendações Nutricionais , Reino Unido
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(6): 632-647, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057379

RESUMO

There is strong evidence for a causal relationship between salt intake and blood pressure. Randomized trials demonstrate that salt reduction lowers blood pressure in both individuals who are hypertensive and those who are normotensive, additively to antihypertensive treatments. Methodologically robust studies with accurate salt intake assessment have shown that a lower salt intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and other conditions, such as kidney disease, stomach cancer, and osteoporosis. Multiple complex and interconnected physiological mechanisms are implicated, including fluid homeostasis, hormonal and inflammatory mechanisms, as well as more novel pathways such as the immune response and the gut microbiome. High salt intake is a top dietary risk factor. Salt reduction programs are cost-effective and should be implemented or accelerated in all countries. This review provides an update on the evidence relating salt to health, with a particular focus on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, as well as the potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Legislação sobre Alimentos
18.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e025623, 2019 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the changes in the salt content of sauces in the UK in the past 10 years; (2) to compare the salt content of sauces in China with equivalent products sold in the UK and (3) to calculate the proportion of sauce products meeting the salt targets set by the UK Department of Health (DoH). DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys from the nutrition information panels of sauces. SETTING: Major retailers in London, Beijing and Shijiazhuang operating at data collection times. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Salt content of sauces. RESULTS: Relative change in the median salt content of UK products ranged from -70.6% to +3.0% in sauces for which salt targets were set, whereas it ranged from -27.1% to +111.5% in sauces without targets. Median salt contents were on average 4.4-fold greater in Chinese sauces compared with their UK equivalents surveyed during the same period (2015-2017). Only 13.4% of the Chinese products met the UK 2017 salt targets, compared with 70.0% of UK products. CONCLUSION: In the UK, the target-based approach contributed to the reduction in the salt content of sauces over the course of the past 10 years. Currently, large variations in salt content exist within the same categories of sauces and 70% of the products have met DoH's 2017 targets, demonstrating that further reductions are possible and lower salt targets should be set. In China, salt content of sauces is extremely high with similarly large variations within same categories of sauces, demonstrating the feasibility of reducing their salt content. As processed foods (including sauces) are expected to become an important contributor to salt intake in China, national salt reduction efforts such as setting salt targets would be a valuable, proactive strategy.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods/normas , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Londres , Marketing , Saúde Pública , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/normas
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(14): e012923, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295409

RESUMO

Background In China, high sodium and low potassium intakes result in elevated blood pressure, a major cause of cardiovascular disease, yet the intake estimates lack accuracy and nutritional strategies remain limited. Methods and Results We aimed to determine sodium and potassium intake by systematically searching for and quantitatively summarizing all published 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium data (ie, the most accurate method). MEDLINE , EMBASE , Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang were searched up to February 2019. All studies reporting 24-hour urinary sodium or potassium in China were included; hospitalized patients were excluded. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis and heterogeneity was explored with meta-regression. Sodium data were reported in 70 studies (n=26 767), 59 of which also reported potassium (n=24 738). Mean sodium and potassium excretions were 86.99 mmol/24 h (95% CI , 69.88-104.10) and 14.65 mmol/24 h (95% CI , 11.10-18.20) in children aged 3 to 6 years, 151.09 mmol/24 h (95% CI , 131.55-170.63) and 25.23 mmol/24 h (95% CI , 22.37-28.10) in children aged 6 to 16 years, and 189.07 mmol/24 h (95% CI , 182.14-195.99) and 36.35 mmol/24 h (95% CI , 35.11-37.59) in adults aged >16 years. Compared with southern China, sodium intake was higher in northern China ( P<0.0001) but is declining ( P=0.0066). Conclusions Average sodium intake in all age groups across China is approximately double the recommended maximum limits, and potassium intake is less than half that recommended. Despite a decline, sodium intake in northern China is still among the highest in the world, and the North-South divide persists. Urgent action is needed to simultaneously reduce sodium and increase potassium intake across China.


Assuntos
Potássio na Dieta , Potássio/urina , Sódio na Dieta , Sódio/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
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