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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639303

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its underlying histopathology is the atherosclerotic plaque, which comprises lipid, fibrous and-when chronic-calcium components. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) performed during invasive coronary angiography are reference standards for characterizing the atherosclerotic plaque. Fine image spatial resolution attainable with contemporary coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has enabled noninvasive plaque assessment, including identifying features associated with vulnerable plaques known to presage acute coronary events. Manual interpretation of IVUS, IVOCT and CCTA images demands scarce physician expertise and high time cost. This has motivated recent research into and development of artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted methods for image processing, feature extraction, plaque identification and characterization. We performed parallel searches of the medical and technical literature from 1995 to 2021 focusing respectively on human plaque characterization using various imaging modalities and the use of AI-assisted computer aided diagnosis (CAD) to detect and classify atherosclerotic plaques, including their composition and the presence of high-risk features denoting vulnerable plaques. A total of 122 publications were selected for evaluation and the analysis was summarized in terms of data sources, methods-machine versus deep learning-and performance metrics. Trends in AI-assisted plaque characterization are detailed and prospective research challenges discussed. Future directions for the development of accurate and efficient CAD systems to characterize plaque noninvasively using CCTA are proposed.

2.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7879-7895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335970

RESUMO

Rationale: Previous studies have shown that human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes improved myocardial recovery when administered to infarcted pig and non-human primate hearts. However, the engraftment of intramyocardially delivered cells is poor and the effectiveness of clinically relevant doses of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) in large animal models of myocardial injury remains unknown. Here, we determined whether thymosin ß4 (Tb4) could improve the engraftment and reparative potency of transplanted hiPSC-CMs in a porcine model of myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Tb4 was delivered from injected gelatin microspheres, which extended the duration of Tb4 administration for up to two weeks in vitro. After MI induction, pigs were randomly distributed into 4 treatment groups: the MI Group was injected with basal medium; the Tb4 Group received gelatin microspheres carrying Tb4; the CM Group was treated with 1.2 × 108 hiPSC-CMs; and the Tb4+CM Group received both the Tb4 microspheres and hiPSC-CMs. Myocardial recovery was assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), arrhythmogenesis was monitored with implanted loop recorders, and tumorigenesis was evaluated via whole-body MRI. Results: In vitro, 600 ng/mL of Tb4 protected cultured hiPSC-CMs from hypoxic damage by upregulating AKT activity and BcL-XL and promoted hiPSC-CM and hiPSC-EC proliferation. In infarcted pig hearts, hiPSC-CM transplantation alone had a minimal effect on myocardial recovery, but co-treatment with Tb4 significantly enhanced hiPSC-CM engraftment, induced vasculogenesis and the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, improved left ventricular systolic function, and reduced infarct size. hiPSC-CM implantation did not increase incidence of ventricular arrhythmia and did not induce tumorigenesis in the immunosuppressed pigs. Conclusions: Co-treatment with Tb4-microspheres and hiPSC-CMs was safe and enhanced the reparative potency of hiPSC-CMs for myocardial repair in a large-animal model of MI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Timosina/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Regeneração , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Suínos , Timosina/metabolismo , Timosina/fisiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072304

RESUMO

Arterial hypertension (HT) is a chronic condition of elevated blood pressure (BP), which may cause increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure and mortality. If the HT is diagnosed early, effective treatment can control the BP and avert adverse outcomes. Physiological signals like electrocardiography (ECG), photoplethysmography (PPG), heart rate variability (HRV), and ballistocardiography (BCG) can be used to monitor health status but are not directly correlated with BP measurements. The manual detection of HT using these physiological signals is time consuming and prone to human errors. Hence, many computer-aided diagnosis systems have been developed. This paper is a systematic review of studies conducted on the automated detection of HT using ECG, HRV, PPG and BCG signals. In this review, we have identified 23 studies out of 250 screened papers, which fulfilled our eligibility criteria. Details of the study methods, physiological signal studied, database used, various nonlinear techniques employed, feature extraction, and diagnostic performance parameters are discussed. The machine learning and deep learning based methods based on ECG and HRV signals have yielded the best performance and can be used for the development of computer-aided diagnosis of HT. This work provides insights that may be useful for the development of wearable for continuous cuffless remote monitoring of BP based on ECG and HRV signals.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Fotopletismografia , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Monitorização Fisiológica
4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(11): 14785-14805, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate differences in cardiovascular structure and function between diabetic and non-diabetic older adults. To investigate associations between acyl-carnitines and cardiovascular function as indexed by imaging measurements. METHODS: A community-based cohort of older adults without cardiovascular disease underwent current cardiovascular imaging and metabolomics acyl-carnitines profiling based on current and archived sera obtained fifteen years prior to examination. RESULTS: A total of 933 participants (women 56%, n=521) with a mean age 63±13 years were studied. Old diabetics compared to old non-diabetics had lower myocardial relaxation (0.8±0.2 vs 0.9±0.3, p=0.0039); lower left atrial conduit strain (12±4.3 vs 14±4.1, p=0.045), lower left atrial conduit strain rate (-1.2±0.4 vs -1.3±0.5, p=0.042) and lower ratio of left atrial conduit strain to left atrial booster strain (0.5±0.2 vs 0.7±0.3, p=0.0029). Higher levels of archived short chain acyl-carnitine were associated with present-day impairments in myocardial relaxation (C5:1; OR 1.03, p=0.011), worse left atrial conduit strain function (C5:1; OR 1.03, p=0.037). Increases in hydroxylated acyl-carnitines were associated with worse left atrial conduit strain [(C4-OH; OR 1.05, p=0.0017), (C16:2-OH; OR 1.18, p=0.037)]. Current, archived and changes in long chain acyl-carnitines were associated with cardiovascular functions [(C16; OR 1.02, p=0.002), (C20:3; OR 1.01, p=0.014), (C14:3; OR 1.12, p=0.033), (C18:1; OR 1.01, p=0.018), (C18:2; OR 1.01, p=0.028), (C20:4; OR 1.10, p=0.038)] (all p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Older diabetic adults had significant impairments in left ventricular myocardial relaxation and left atrial strain, compared to older non-diabetic adults. Short chain and long chain, di-carboxyl and hydroxylated acyl-carnitines were associated with these cardiovascular functional differences.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Idoso , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Carnitina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 336: 105-112, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D flow CMR) allows quantification of left ventricular (LV) blood flow. We aimed to 1) establish reference ranges for 4D flow CMR-derived LV relative flow components and kinetic energy parameters indexed to end-diastolic volume (KEiEDV) among healthy Asian subjects, 2) assess effects of age and sex on these parameters, and 3) compare these parameters between Asian and Caucasian subjects. METHODS: 74 healthy Asian subjects underwent cine and 4D flow CMR. Relative flow components (direct flow, retained inflow, delayed ejection flow, residual volume) and multiple phasic KEiEDV (LV global, peak systolic, systolic, diastolic, peak E-wave, peak A-wave) were analyzed. Sex- and age-specific reference ranges were reported. RESULTS: Relative flow components and systolic phase KEiEDV did not vary with age. Women had higher retained inflow and peak E-wave KEiEDV, lower residual volume, peak systolic and systolic KEiEDV than men. Peak A-wave KEiEDV increased significantly (r = 0.474) whereas peak E-wave KEiEDV (r = -0.458) and E-wave/A-wave ratio (r = -0.528) decreased with age. A sub-population (n = 44) was compared with 44 sex- and age-matched Caucasian subjects: no significant group differences were observed for all 4D flow CMR parameters. CONCLUSION: Asian sex- and age-specific 4D flow CMR reference ranges were established. Sex differences in retained inflow, residual volume, peak systolic, systolic KEiEDV and peak E-wave KEiEDV were observed. Ageing influenced diastolic KEiEDV but not systolic phase KEiEDV or relative flow components. All studied parameters were similar between sex- and age-matched Asian and Caucasian subjects, implying generalizability of the ranges.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Diástole , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Função Ventricular Esquerda
6.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 158: 63-71, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ageing and insulin resistant states such as diabetes mellitus frequently coexist and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease development among older adults. Here we investigate metabolic differences in amino acid profiles between ageing and diabetes mellitus, and their associations with cardiovascular function. METHODS: In a group of community older adults we performed echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as well as cross sectional and longitudinal metabolomics profiling based on current and archived sera obtained fifteen years prior to examination. RESULTS: We studied a total of 515 participants (women 50%, n = 255) with a mean age 73 (SD = 4.3) years. Diabetics had higher alanine (562 vs 448, p < 0.0001), higher glutamate (107 vs 95, p = 0.016), higher proline (264 vs 231, p = 0.008) and lower arginine (107 vs 117, p = 0.043), lower citrulline (30 vs 38, p = 0.006) levels (µM) compared to non-diabetics. Over time, changes in amino acid profiles differentiated diabetic older adults from non-diabetic older adults, with greater accumulation of alanine (p = 0.002), proline (p = 0.008) and (non-significant) trend towards greater accumulation of glycine (p = 0.057) among the older diabetics compared to the older non-diabetics. However, independent of diabetes status, amino acids were associated with cardiovascular functions in ageing, [archived valine (p = 0.011), leucine (p = 0.011), archived isoleucine (p = 0.0006), archived serine (p = 0.008), archived glycine (p = 0.006) methionine (p = 0.003)] which were associated with impairments in E/A ratio. CONCLUSION: Markers of branched chain amino acids and one ­carbon metabolism pathways were associated with changes in cardiovascular function in older adults regardless of diabetes status. However, nitrogen handling pathways were specifically altered among older adults with diabetes. These findings broaden our understanding into specific amino acid pathways that may be altered between diabetic and non-diabetic older adults, and their relevance to cardiovascular function in ageing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02791139.

7.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 38, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parameters of myocardial deformation may provide improved insights into right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. We quantified RV longitudinal myocardial function using a fast, semi-automated method and investigated its diagnostic and prognostic values in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), who respectively exemplify patients with RV volume and pressure overload conditions. METHODS: The study enrolled 150 patients (rTOF, n = 75; PAH, n = 75) and 75 healthy controls. RV parameters of interest were fast global longitudinal strain (GLS) and strain rates during systole (GLSRs), early diastole (GLSRe) and late diastole (GLSRa), obtained by tracking the distance from the medial and lateral tricuspid valve insertions to the RV epicardial apex on cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). RESULTS: The RV fast GLS exhibited good agreement with strain values obtained by conventional feature tracking approach (bias - 4.9%, error limits (± 2·standard deviation) ± 4.3%) with fast GLS achieving greater reproducibility and requiring reduced analysis time. Mean RV fast GLS was reduced in PAH and rTOF groups compared to healthy controls (PAH < rTOF < healthy controls: 15.1 ± 4.9 < 19.3 ± 2.4 < 24.4 ± 3.0%, all P < 0.001 in pairwise comparisons). In rTOF patients, RV fast GLS was significantly associated with metabolic equivalents, peak oxygen consumption (PVO2) and percentage of predicted PVO2 achieved during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Lower RV fast GLS was associated with subnormal exercise capacity in rTOF (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.822, sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 91%, cut-off = 19.3%). In PAH patients, reduced RV fast GLS was associated with RV decompensated hemodynamics (AUC = 0.717, sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 58%, cut-off = 14.6%) and higher risk of clinical worsening (AUC = 0.808, sensitivity = 79%, specificity = 70 %, cut-off = 16.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative RV fast strain and strain rate parameters assessed from CMR identify abnormalities of RV function in rTOF and PAH and are predictive of exercise capacity, RV decompensation and clinical risks in these patients. Trial registry Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03217240.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Direita , Pressão Ventricular , Adulto , Automação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tetralogia de Fallot/fisiopatologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(13): 1629-1640, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a common and serious complication in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether there are significant differences in complications, cardiac surgery, relapses, and mortality between IE cases in HD and non-HD patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort study (International Collaboration on Endocarditis databases, encompassing 7,715 IE episodes from 2000 to 2006 and from 2008 to 2012). Descriptive analysis of baseline characteristics, epidemiological and etiological features, complications and outcomes, and their comparison between HD and non-HD patients was performed. Risk factors for major embolic events, cardiac surgery, relapses, and in-hospital and 6-month mortality were investigated in HD-patients using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 6,691 patients were included and 553 (8.3%) received HD. North America had a higher HD-IE proportion than the other regions. The predominant microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (47.8%), followed by enterococci (15.4%). Both in-hospital and 6-month mortality were significantly higher in HD versus non-HD-IE patients (30.4% vs. 17% and 39.8% vs. 20.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). Cardiac surgery was less frequently performed among HD patients (30.6% vs. 46.2%; p < 0.001), whereas relapses were higher (9.4% vs. 2.7%; p < 0.001). Risk factors for 6-month mortality included Charlson score (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11 to 1.44; p = 0.001), CNS emboli and other emboli (HR: 3.11; 95% CI: 1.84 to 5.27; p < 0.001; and HR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.93; p = 0.04, respectively), persistent bacteremia (HR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.88; p = 0.02), and acute onset heart failure (HR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.49 to 3.78; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HD-IE is a health care-associated infection chiefly caused by S. aureus, with increasing rates of enterococcal IE. Mortality and relapses are very high and significantly larger than in non-HD-IE patients, whereas cardiac surgery is less frequently performed.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Endocardite/etiologia , Endocardite/mortalidade , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Estudos de Coortes , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/cirurgia
9.
Elife ; 102021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752798

RESUMO

Numerous reports of vascular events after an initial recovery from COVID-19 form our impetus to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on vascular health of recovered patients. We found elevated levels of circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a biomarker of vascular injury, in COVID-19 convalescents compared to healthy controls. In particular, those with pre-existing conditions (e.g., hypertension, diabetes) had more pronounced endothelial activation hallmarks than non-COVID-19 patients with matched cardiovascular risk. Several proinflammatory and activated T lymphocyte-associated cytokines sustained from acute infection to recovery phase, which correlated positively with CEC measures, implicating cytokine-driven endothelial dysfunction. Notably, we found higher frequency of effector T cells in our COVID-19 convalescents compared to healthy controls. The activation markers detected on CECs mapped to counter receptors found primarily on cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, raising the possibility of cytotoxic effector cells targeting activated endothelial cells. Clinical trials in preventive therapy for post-COVID-19 vascular complications may be needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4885, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649383

RESUMO

Impaired left atrial (LA) function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with adverse outcomes. A subgroup of HFpEF may have LA myopathy out of proportion to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction; therefore, we sought to characterize HFpEF patients with disproportionate LA myopathy. In the prospective, multicenter, Prevalence of Microvascular Dysfunction in HFpEF study, we defined disproportionate LA myopathy based on degree of LA reservoir strain abnormality in relation to LV myopathy (LV global longitudinal strain [GLS]) by calculating the residuals from a linear regression of LA reservoir strain and LV GLS. We evaluated associations of disproportionate LA myopathy with hemodynamics and performed a plasma proteomic analysis to identify proteins associated with disproportionate LA myopathy; proteins were validated in an independent sample. Disproportionate LA myopathy correlated with better LV diastolic function but was associated with lower stroke volume reserve after passive leg raise independent of atrial fibrillation (AF). Additionally, disproportionate LA myopathy was associated with higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure, higher pulmonary vascular resistance, and lower coronary flow reserve. Of 248 proteins, we identified and validated 5 proteins (involved in cardiomyocyte stretch, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammation) that were associated with disproportionate LA myopathy independent of AF. In HFpEF, LA myopathy may exist out of proportion to LV myopathy. Disproportionate LA myopathy is a distinct HFpEF subtype associated with worse hemodynamics and a distinct proteomic signature, independent of AF.

11.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 28(5): 417-434, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746137

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disease that is estimated to affect at least 15 million people in the Asia Pacific region. Affected individuals are at significantly increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A literature review was undertaken to provide an overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of FH across the region.Currently, epidemiological data relating to FH are lacking across the Asia Pacific. Of the 15 countries and regions considered, locally conducted studies to determine FH prevalence were only identified for Australia, China, India, and Japan. Although practically all national clinical guidelines for dyslipidemia include some commentary on FH, specific guidelines on the management of FH are available for only one third of the countries and regions evaluated. Estimates of current FH diagnosis rates suggest that most affected individuals remain undiagnosed and untreated. Although innovative medications such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors have been approved and are available in most countries and regions considered, they are currently reimbursed in only one quarter.Despite these shortcomings, there is cause for optimism. Early experience with cascade screening in Hong Kong, India, and Vietnam has proven an effective means of identifying family members of probands, as has a reverse screening of family members of children with FH in China. FH registries are gaining momentum across the region, with registries now established in almost half of the countries and regions evaluated. This review concludes with a Call to Action on FH for Asia Pacific to engage healthcare professionals, improve public awareness, and form national FH alliances, comprising all relevant healthcare professional organizations, as a platform to expedite national quality improvement programs in the management of FH.

12.
Eur Radiol ; 31(8): 6156-6168, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A fast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) feature tracking was applied to assess ventricular systolic and diastolic function. This study sought to detect right ventricular (RV) systolic and diastolic abnormalities in asymptomatic pediatric repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) patients with preserved RV ejection fraction (EF). METHODS: One hundred asymptomatic pediatric rTOF patients with preserved RVEF ≥ 45% and 52 control subjects underwent cine CMR examinations. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE); peak tricuspid annular systolic (Sm), early diastolic (Em), and late diastolic (Am) velocities; and biventricular global radial (GRS), circumferential (GCS), and longitudinal strains (GLS) were analyzed using CMR feature tracking. RESULTS: TAPSE, Sm, Em, Am, and RV GLS were significantly lower in rTOF patients compared with controls (all p < 0.01). The lower limits (mean-2·standard deviations) of TAPSE, Sm, Em, and Am among controls were 10.9 mm, 6.3 cm/s, 8.9 cm/s, and 2.4 cm/s, respectively, and 78%, 75%, 75%, and 19% of rTOF patients had corresponding measurements below these thresholds. Among rTOF patients, RV GLS was significantly lower in females than in males (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite preserved RVEF, there was a high prevalence of RV systolic and diastolic dysfunction among pediatric rTOF patients, which was detected using fast CMR feature tracking. KEY POINTS: • There was high prevalence of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic pediatric repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) patients despite preserved right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF). • Significant correlations were observed between right ventricular (RV) measurements (strains, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), peak tricuspid annular early diastolic velocity (Em), peak tricuspid annular late diastolic velocity (Am)), and left ventricular (LV) strain measurements, which indicates ventricular-ventricular interactions at systolic and diastolic function level. • Right ventricular (RV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) was lower in female repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) patients than in males, suggesting females with rTOF may be at a higher risk of developing RV systolic dysfunction than males.


Assuntos
Tetralogia de Fallot , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Criança , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Sístole , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Direita
13.
Singapore Med J ; 62(2): 56-62, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312028

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The top ten causes of death in Singapore include many cardiovascular-related diseases such as ischaemic heart disease. The increasing prevalence of CVD poses a burden to both the economy and healthcare system of a country. Dietary habits, in particular dietary fats and cholesterol intake, have been shown to greatly influence CVD risks. Therefore, reference and adherence to relevant dietary guidelines could be crucial in CVD prevention. Recent research findings have provided novel insights into the relationship between certain dietary fats or cholesterol intake and CVD risks, challenging or reinforcing previous guidelines. These findings may, however, be conflicting, and there are still controversies over the effects of dietary fats and cholesterol as well as their association with cardiovascular risk. This review paper aims to evaluate common controversies, identify gaps in relevant research areas and summarise evidence-based dietary recommendations.

14.
Comput Biol Med ; 128: 104095, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217660

RESUMO

While coronary angiography is the gold standard diagnostic tool for coronary artery disease (CAD), but it is associated with procedural risk, it is an invasive technique requiring arterial puncture, and it subjects the patient to radiation and iodinated contrast exposure. Artificial intelligence (AI) can provide a pretest probability of disease that can be used to triage patients for angiography. This review comprehensively investigates published papers in the domain of CAD detection using different AI techniques from 1991 to 2020, in order to discern broad trends and geographical differences. Moreover, key decision factors affecting CAD diagnosis are identified for different parts of the world by aggregating the results from different studies. In this study, all datasets that have been used for the studies for CAD detection, their properties, and achieved performances using various AI techniques, are presented, compared, and analyzed. In particular, the effectiveness of machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques to diagnose and predict CAD are reviewed. From PubMed, Scopus, Ovid MEDLINE, and Google Scholar search, 500 papers were selected to be investigated. Among these selected papers, 256 papers met our criteria and hence were included in this study. Our findings demonstrate that AI-based techniques have been increasingly applied for the detection of CAD since 2008. AI-based techniques that utilized electrocardiography (ECG), demographic characteristics, symptoms, physical examination findings, and heart rate signals, reported high accuracy for the detection of CAD. In these papers, the authors ranked the features based on their assessed clinical importance with ML techniques. The results demonstrate that the attribution of the relative importance of ML features for CAD diagnosis is different among countries. More recently, DL methods have yielded high CAD detection performance using ECG signals, which drives its burgeoning adoption.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Inteligência Artificial , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
16.
Circulation ; 142(21): 2029-2044, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A systemic proinflammatory state has been hypothesized to mediate the association between comorbidities and abnormal cardiac structure/function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We conducted a proteomic analysis to investigate this paradigm. METHODS: In 228 patients with HFpEF from the multicenter PROMIS-HFpEF study (Prevalence of Microvascular Dysfunction in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction), 248 unique circulating proteins were quantified by a multiplex immunoassay (Olink) and used to recapitulate systemic inflammation. In a deductive approach, we performed principal component analysis to summarize 47 proteins known a priori to be involved in inflammation. In an inductive approach, we performed unbiased weighted coexpression network analyses of all 248 proteins to identify clusters of proteins that overrepresented inflammatory pathways. We defined comorbidity burden as the sum of 8 common HFpEF comorbidities. We used multivariable linear regression and statistical mediation analyses to determine whether and to what extent inflammation mediates the association of comorbidity burden with abnormal cardiac structure/function in HFpEF. We also externally validated our findings in an independent cohort of 117 HFpEF cases and 30 comorbidity controls without heart failure. RESULTS: Comorbidity burden was associated with abnormal cardiac structure/function and with principal components/clusters of inflammation proteins. Systemic inflammation was also associated with increased mitral E velocity, E/e' ratio, and tricuspid regurgitation velocity; and worse right ventricular function (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and right ventricular free wall strain). Inflammation mediated the association between comorbidity burden and mitral E velocity (proportion mediated 19%-35%), E/e' ratio (18%-29%), tricuspid regurgitation velocity (27%-41%), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (13%) (P<0.05 for all), but not right ventricular free wall strain. TNFR1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1), UPAR (urokinase plasminogen activator receptor), IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7), and GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor-15) were the top individual proteins that mediated the relationship between comorbidity burden and echocardiographic parameters. In the validation cohort, inflammation was upregulated in HFpEF cases versus controls, and the most prominent inflammation protein cluster identified in PROMIS-HFpEF was also present in HFpEF cases (but not controls) in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Proteins involved in inflammation form a conserved network in HFpEF across 2 independent cohorts and may mediate the association between comorbidity burden and echocardiographic indicators of worse hemodynamics and right ventricular dysfunction. These findings support the comorbidity-inflammation paradigm in HFpEF.

17.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 197: 105740, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiac arrhythmia, which is an abnormal heart rhythm, is a common clinical problem in cardiology. Detection of arrhythmia on an extended duration electrocardiogram (ECG) is done based on initial algorithmic software screening, with final visual validation by cardiologists. It is a time consuming and subjective process. Therefore, fully automated computer-assisted detection systems with a high degree of accuracy have an essential role in this task. In this study, we proposed an effective deep neural network (DNN) model to detect different rhythm classes from a new ECG database. METHODS: Our DNN model was designed for high performance on all ECG leads. The proposed model, which included both representation learning and sequence learning tasks, showed promising results on all 12-lead inputs. Convolutional layers and sub-sampling layers were used in the representation learning phase. The sequence learning part involved a long short-term memory (LSTM) unit after representation of learning layers. RESULTS: We performed two different class scenarios, including reduced rhythms (seven rhythm types) and merged rhythms (four rhythm types) according to the records from the database. Our trained DNN model achieved 92.24% and 96.13% accuracies for the reduced and merged rhythm classes, respectively. CONCLUSION: Recently, deep learning algorithms have been found to be useful because of their high performance. The main challenge is the scarcity of appropriate training and testing resources because model performance is dependent on the quality and quantity of case samples. In this study, we used a new public arrhythmia database comprising more than 10,000 records. We constructed an efficient DNN model for automated detection of arrhythmia using these records.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Software
18.
Comput Biol Med ; 126: 103999, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HPT) occurs when there is increase in blood pressure (BP) within the arteries, causing the heart to pump harder against a higher afterload to deliver oxygenated blood to other parts of the body. PURPOSE: Due to fluctuation in BP, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has emerged as a useful tool for diagnosing HPT but is limited by its inconvenience. So, an automatic diagnostic tool using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals is used in this study to detect HPT automatically. METHOD: The pre-processed signals are fed to a convolutional neural network model. The model learns and identifies unique ECG signatures for classification of normal and hypertension ECG signals. The proposed model is evaluated by the 10-fold and leave one out patient based validation techniques. RESULTS: A high classification accuracy of 99.99% is achieved for both validation techniques. This is one of the first few studies to have employed deep learning algorithm coupled with ECG signals for the detection of HPT. Our results imply that the developed tool is useful in a hospital setting as an automated diagnostic tool, enabling the effortless detection of HPT using ECG signals.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Algoritmos , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Redes Neurais de Computação
19.
Comput Biol Med ; 123: 103924, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768053

RESUMO

Hypertension (HPT) is a serious risk factor for cardiovascular disease and if not controlled in the early stage, can lead to serious complications. Long-standing HPT can induce heart muscle hypertrophy which will be reflected on electrocardiography (ECG). However, early stage of HPT may have no clinically discernible ECG perturbations, and is difficult to diagnose manually from the standard ECG. Hence, we propose an automated ECG based system that can automatically detect the ECG changes in the early stages of HPT. This work is based on ECG signals obtained from 139 HPT patients (SHAREE database) and 52 healthy subjects (PTB database). The ECG signal is non-stationary with relatively short duration, and rhythmic. Two-band optimal bi-orthogonal wavelet filter bank (BOWFB) and machine learning are used to automatically diagnose low, high-risk hypertension, and healthy control using ECG signals. Five-level wavelet decomposition is used to produce six sub-bands (SBs) from each ECG signal using BOWFB. Sample and wavelet entropy features are calculated for all six SBs. The features calculated SBs are fed to the k-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), and ensemble bagged trees (EBT) classifiers. In this work, we have obtained the highest average classification accuracy of 99.95% and area under the curve of 1.00 using EBT classifier in classifying healthy control (HC), low-risk hypertension (LRHPT) and high-risk hypertension (HRHPT) classes with ten-fold cross validation strategy. Hence the developed system can be used in clinics, or even in remote detection of HPT stages using ECG signals.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Hipertensão , Algoritmos , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Análise de Ondaletas
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(14): e014726, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654613

RESUMO

Background There are sex differences in the efficacy and safety of aspirin for the prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke. Whether this is explained by underlying differences in platelet reactivity and aspirin response remains poorly understood. Methods and Results Healthy volunteers (n=378 208 women) and patients with coronary artery disease or coronary artery disease risk factors (n=217 112 women) took aspirin for 4 weeks. Light transmittance aggregometry using platelet-rich plasma was used to measure platelet reactivity in response to epinephrine, collagen, and ADP at baseline, 3 hours after the first aspirin dose, and after 4 weeks of daily aspirin therapy. A subset of patients underwent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment with levels of salicylate and cyclooxygenase-1-derived prostaglandin metabolites and light transmittance aggregometry in response to arachidonic acid and after ex vivo exposure to aspirin. At baseline, women had increased platelet aggregation in response to ADP and collagen. Innate platelet response to aspirin, assessed with ex vivo aspirin exposure of baseline platelets, did not differ by sex. Three hours after the first oral aspirin dose, platelet aggregation was inhibited in women to a greater degree in response to epinephrine and to a lesser degree with collagen. After 4 weeks of daily therapy, despite higher salicylate concentrations and greater cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition, women exhibited an attenuation of platelet inhibition in response to epinephrine and ADP. Conclusions We observed agonist-dependent sex differences in platelet responses to aspirin. Despite higher cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition, daily aspirin exposure resulted in a paradoxical attenuation of platelet inhibition in response to epinephrine and ADP over time in women but not in men.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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