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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(8): 2311-2321, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28360221

RESUMO

Disorders of water balance, an excess or deficit of total body water relative to body electrolyte content, are common and ascertained by plasma hypo- or hypernatremia, respectively. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study meta-analysis on plasma sodium concentration in 45,889 individuals of European descent (stage 1 discovery) and 17,637 additional individuals of European descent (stage 2 replication), and a transethnic meta-analysis of replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 79,506 individuals (63,526 individuals of European descent, 8765 individuals of Asian Indian descent, and 7215 individuals of African descent). In stage 1, we identified eight loci associated with plasma sodium concentration at P<5.0 × 10-6 Of these, rs9980 at NFAT5 replicated in stage 2 meta-analysis (P=3.1 × 10-5), with combined stages 1 and 2 genome-wide significance of P=5.6 × 10-10 Transethnic meta-analysis further supported the association at rs9980 (P=5.9 × 10-12). Additionally, rs16846053 at SLC4A10 showed nominally, but not genome-wide, significant association in combined stages 1 and 2 meta-analysis (P=6.7 × 10-8). NFAT5 encodes a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that coordinates the intracellular response to hypertonic stress but was not previously implicated in the regulation of systemic water balance. SLC4A10 encodes a sodium bicarbonate transporter with a brain-restricted expression pattern, and variant rs16846053 affects a putative intronic NFAT5 DNA binding motif. The lead variants for NFAT5 and SLC4A10 are cis expression quantitative trait loci in tissues of the central nervous system and relevant to transcriptional regulation. Thus, genetic variation in NFAT5 and SLC4A10 expression and function in the central nervous system may affect the regulation of systemic water balance.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Plasma/química , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato/genética , Sódio/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/sangue , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/genética , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar
2.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0155478, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27195708

RESUMO

South Asians are 1/4 of the world's population and have increased susceptibility to central obesity and related cardiometabolic disease. Knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of central obesity is largely based on genome-wide association studies of common SNPs in Europeans. To evaluate the contribution of DNA sequence variation to the higher levels of central obesity (defined as waist hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, WHR) among South Asians compared to Europeans we carried out: i) a genome-wide association analysis of >6M genetic variants in 10,318 South Asians with focused analysis of population-specific SNPs; ii) an exome-wide association analysis of ~250K SNPs in protein-coding regions in 2,637 South Asians; iii) a comparison of risk allele frequencies and effect sizes of 48 known WHR SNPs in 12,240 South Asians compared to Europeans. In genome-wide analyses, we found no novel associations between common genetic variants and WHR in South Asians at P<5x10-8; variants showing equivocal association with WHR (P<1x10-5) did not replicate at P<0.05 in an independent cohort of South Asians (N = 1,922) or in published, predominantly European meta-analysis data. In the targeted analyses of 122,391 population-specific SNPs we also found no associations with WHR in South Asians at P<0.05 after multiple testing correction. Exome-wide analyses showed no new associations between genetic variants and WHR in South Asians, either individually at P<1.5x10-6 or grouped by gene locus at P<2.5x10-6. At known WHR loci, risk allele frequencies were not higher in South Asians compared to Europeans (P = 0.77), while effect sizes were unexpectedly smaller in South Asians than Europeans (P<5.0x10-8). Our findings argue against an important contribution for population-specific or cosmopolitan genetic variants underlying the increased risk of central obesity in South Asians compared to Europeans.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Obesidade Abdominal/etnologia , Obesidade Abdominal/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Nat Genet ; 47(11): 1282-1293, 2015 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26390057

RESUMO

We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 × 10(-11) to 5.0 × 10(-21)). The sentinel blood pressure SNPs are enriched for association with DNA methylation at multiple nearby CpG sites, suggesting that, at some of the loci identified, DNA methylation may lie on the regulatory pathway linking sequence variation to blood pressure. The sentinel SNPs at the 12 new loci point to genes involved in vascular smooth muscle (IGFBP3, KCNK3, PDE3A and PRDM6) and renal (ARHGAP24, OSR1, SLC22A7 and TBX2) function. The new and known genetic variants predict increased left ventricular mass, circulating levels of NT-proBNP, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality (P = 0.04 to 8.6 × 10(-6)). Our results provide new evidence for the role of DNA methylation in blood pressure regulation.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Metilação de DNA , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 3(7): 526-534, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26095709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indian Asians, who make up a quarter of the world's population, are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether DNA methylation is associated with future type 2 diabetes incidence in Indian Asians and whether differences in methylation patterns between Indian Asians and Europeans are associated with, and could be used to predict, differences in the magnitude of risk of developing type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did a nested case-control study of DNA methylation in Indian Asians and Europeans with incident type 2 diabetes who were identified from the 8-year follow-up of 25 372 participants in the London Life Sciences Prospective Population (LOLIPOP) study. Patients were recruited between May 1, 2002, and Sept 12, 2008. We did epigenome-wide association analysis using samples from Indian Asians with incident type 2 diabetes and age-matched and sex-matched Indian Asian controls, followed by replication testing of top-ranking signals in Europeans. For both discovery and replication, DNA methylation was measured in the baseline blood sample, which was collected before the onset of type 2 diabetes. Epigenome-wide significance was set at p<1 × 10(-7). We compared methylation levels between Indian Asian and European controls without type 2 diabetes at baseline to estimate the potential contribution of DNA methylation to increased risk of future type 2 diabetes incidence among Indian Asians. FINDINGS: 1608 (11·9%) of 13 535 Indian Asians and 306 (4·3%) of 7066 Europeans developed type 2 diabetes over a mean of 8·5 years (SD 1·8) of follow-up. The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence of type 2 diabetes was 3·1 times (95% CI 2·8-3·6; p<0·0001) higher among Indian Asians than among Europeans, and remained 2·5 times (2·1-2·9; p<0·0001) higher after adjustment for adiposity, physical activity, family history of type 2 diabetes, and baseline glycaemic measures. The mean absolute difference in methylation level between type 2 diabetes cases and controls ranged from 0·5% (SD 0·1) to 1·1% (0·2). Methylation markers at five loci were associated with future type 2 diabetes incidence; the relative risk per 1% increase in methylation was 1·09 (95% CI 1·07-1·11; p=1·3 × 10(-17)) for ABCG1, 0·94 (0·92-0·95; p=4·2 × 10(-11)) for PHOSPHO1, 0·94 (0·92-0·96; p=1·4 × 10(-9)) for SOCS3, 1·07 (1·04-1·09; p=2·1 × 10(-10)) for SREBF1, and 0·92 (0·90-0·94; p=1·2 × 10(-17)) for TXNIP. A methylation score combining results for the five loci was associated with future type 2 diabetes incidence (relative risk quartile 4 vs quartile 1 3·51, 95% CI 2·79-4·42; p=1·3 × 10(-26)), and was independent of established risk factors. Methylation score was higher among Indian Asians than Europeans (p=1 × 10(-34)). INTERPRETATION: DNA methylation might provide new insights into the pathways underlying type 2 diabetes and offer new opportunities for risk stratification and prevention of type 2 diabetes among Indian Asians. FUNDING: The European Union, the UK National Institute for Health Research, the Wellcome Trust, the UK Medical Research Council, Action on Hearing Loss, the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the Oak Foundation, the Economic and Social Research Council, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, the German Research Center for Environmental Health, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the German Center for Diabetes Research, the Munich Center for Health Sciences, the Ministry of Science and Research of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, and the German Federal Ministry of Health.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Epigênese Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Genome Biol ; 16: 37, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25853392

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the genome, but the optimal strategy for analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation data remains to be determined. We developed a comprehensive analysis pipeline for epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, based on 2,687 individuals, with 36 samples measured in duplicate. We propose new approaches to quality control, data normalisation and batch correction through control-probe adjustment and establish a null hypothesis for EWAS using permutation testing. Our analysis pipeline outperforms existing approaches, enabling accurate identification of methylation quantitative trait loci for hypothesis driven follow-up experiments.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Software
7.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e102645, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25115870

RESUMO

The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Alelos , Ásia , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Glob Cardiol Sci Pract ; 2014(1): 13-23, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25054115

RESUMO

The Indian Asian population accounts for a fifth of all global deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD deaths on the Indian subcontinent have doubled since 1990, and are predicted to rise a further 50% by 2030. Reasons underlying the increased CHD mortality among Indian Asians remain unknown. Although conventional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to CHD in Indian Asians as in other populations, these do not account for their increased risk. Type-2 diabetes, insulin resistance and related metabolic disturbances are more prevalent amongst Indian Asians than Europeans, and have been proposed as major determinants of higher CHD risk among Indian Asians. However, this view is not supported by prospective data. Genome-wide association studies have not identified differences in allele frequencies or effect sizes in known loci to explain the increased CHD risk in Indian Asians. Limited knowledge of mechanisms underlying higher CHD risk amongst Indian Asians presents a major obstacle to reducing the burden of CHD in this population. Systems biology approaches such as genomics, epigenomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics, provide a non-biased approach for discovery of novel biomarkers and disease pathways underlying CHD. Incorporation of these 'omic' approaches in prospective Indian Asian cohorts such as the London Life Sciences Population Study (LOLIPOP) provide an exciting opportunity for the identification of new risk factors underlying CHD in this high risk population.

9.
Nature ; 492(7429): 369-75, 2012 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23222517

RESUMO

Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related parameters in up to 135,367 individuals. Here we identify 75 independent genetic loci associated with one or more red blood cell phenotypes at P < 10(-8), which together explain 4-9% of the phenotypic variance per trait. Using expression quantitative trait loci and bioinformatic strategies, we identify 121 candidate genes enriched in functions relevant to red blood cell biology. The candidate genes are expressed preferentially in red blood cell precursors, and 43 have haematopoietic phenotypes in Mus musculus or Drosophila melanogaster. Through open-chromatin and coding-variant analyses we identify potential causal genetic variants at 41 loci. Our findings provide extensive new insights into genetic mechanisms and biological pathways controlling red blood cell formation and function.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Animais , Ciclo Celular/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Eritrócitos/citologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hematopoese/genética , Hemoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética
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