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1.
Aging Male ; 24(1): 92-94, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319201

RESUMO

Digital rectal examination (DRE) is routinely performed as part of a urology clinical assessment in patients with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. An abnormal DRE or a raised prostate specific antigen (PSA) level are part of the criteria for primary care referral to secondary care due to a suspicion of prostate cancer. The current Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the rapid adoption of virtual consultations in the form of telephone or video consultations making clinical examination difficult. In the case of prostate cancer diagnostic pathways, often clinicians now rely on PSA measurements and MRI, where radiological services are available, without the requirement for a DRE. We discuss the limited role DRE has in the modern prostate cancer diagnostic pathway due to the widespread adoption of MRI particularly in the COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
Exame Retal Digital , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , COVID-19 , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BJU Int ; 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal urinary diversion (iRARC), and to identify factors impacting on return to baseline. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing iRARC between January 2016 and December 2017 completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30-item core (EORTC-QLQ-C30) and EORTC-QLQ-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Module (EORTC-QLQ-BLM30) questionnaires before surgery and had a minimum of 12 months follow-up postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 76 patients met the inclusion criteria at 12 months. Neobladder (NB) cases (n = 24) were younger (57.0 vs 71.0 years, P < 0.001) and fitter than ileal conduit (IC) cases (n = 52), and had higher physical (100.0 vs 93.3, P = 0.039) and sexual functioning (66.7 vs 50.0, P = 0.013) scores at baseline. Longitudinal analysis of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 showed that physical (NB: 93.3 vs 100.0, P = 0.020; IC: 80.0 vs 93.3, P < 0.001) and role functioning scores (NB: 83.3 vs 100.0, P = 0.010; IC: 83.3 vs 100.0, P = 0.017) decreased and fatigue score (NB: 22.2 vs 11.1, P = 0.026; IC: 33.3 vs 22.2, P = 0.008) increased at 3 months in both diversion groups. Scores returned to baseline at 6 months except physical functioning score in IC patients that remained below baseline until 12 months (86.7 vs 93.3, P = 0.012). The global HRQoL score did not show significant change postoperatively in both groups. A major 90-day Clavien-Dindo complication was a significant predictor (odds ratio [OR] 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.62; P = 0.012) of deteriorated global HRQoL score at 3 months, while occurrence of a late complication (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03-0.65; P = 0.013) was a predictor of deteriorated global HRQoL score at 12 months. Longitudinal analysis of the EORTC-QLQ-BLM30 showed that urinary problems (NB: 14.3 vs 38.3, P < 0.001; IC: 5.6 vs 19.1, P < 0.001) and future perspective (NB: 33.3 vs 44.4, P = 0.004; IC: 22.2 vs 44.4, P < 0.001) scores were better than baseline at 3 months. Sexual function deteriorated significantly at 3 months (NB: 8.3 vs 66.7, P < 0.001; IC: 4.2 vs 50.0, P < 0.001) and then showed improvement at 12 months but was still below baseline (NB: 33.3 vs 66.7, P = 0.001; IC: 25.0 vs 50.0, P < 0.001). Involvement in penile rehabilitation was shown to be a significant predictor (ß 18.62, 95% CI 6.06-30.45; P = 0.005) of higher sexual function score at 12 months. CONCLUSION: While most functional domains and symptoms scales recover to or exceed baseline within 6 months of iRARC, physical function remains below baseline in IC patients up to 12 months. Global HRQoL is preserved for both types of urinary diversion; however, postoperative complications seem to be the main driving factor for global HRQoL. Sexual function is adversely affected after iRARC suggesting that structured rehabilitation of sexual function should be an integral part of the RC pathway.

3.
World J Urol ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is no consensus on which items of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) should and should not be implemented in radical cystectomy (RC). The aim of this study is to report current practices across European high-volume RC centers involved in ERAS. METHODS: Based on the recommendations of the ERAS society, we developed a survey with 17 questions that were validated by the Young Academic Urologists-urothelial group. The survey was distributed to European expert centers that implement ERAS for RC. Only one answer per-center was allowed to keep a representative overview of the different centers. RESULTS: 70 surgeons fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Of note, 28.6% of surgeons do not work with a referent anesthesiologist and 25% have not yet assessed the implementation of ERAS in their center. Avoiding bowel preparation, thromboprophylaxis, and removal of the nasogastric tube were widely implemented (> 90%application). On the other hand, preoperative carbohydrate loading, opioid-sparing anesthesia, and audits were less likely to be applied. Common barriers to ERAS implementation were difficulty in changing habits (55%), followed by a lack of communication across surgeons and anesthesiologist (33%). Responders found that performing a regular audit (14%), opioid-sparing anesthesia (14%) and early mobilization (13%) were the most difficult items to implement. CONCLUSION: In this survey, we identified the ERAS items most and less commonly applied. Collaboration with anesthesiologists as well as regular audits remain a challenge for ERAS implementation. These results support the need to uniform ERAS for RC patients and develop strategies to help departments implement ERAS.

4.
World J Urol ; 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031748

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the cancellation or deferment of many elective cancer surgeries. We performed a systematic review on the oncological effects of delayed surgery for patients with localised or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the targeted therapy (TT) era. METHOD: The protocol of this review is registered on PROSPERO(CRD42020190882). A comprehensive literature search was performed on Medline, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL using MeSH terms and keywords for randomised controlled trials and observational studies on the topic. Risks of biases were assessed using the Cochrane RoB tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. For localised RCC, immediate surgery [including partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN)] and delayed surgery [including active surveillance (AS) and delayed intervention (DI)] were compared. For metastatic RCC, upfront versus deferred cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) were compared. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included for quantitative analysis. Delayed surgery was significantly associated with worse cancer-specific survival (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.23-2.27, p < 0.01) in T1a RCC, but no significant difference was noted for overall survival. For localised ≥ T1b RCC, there were insufficient data for meta-analysis and the results from the individual reports were contradictory. For metastatic RCC, upfront TT followed by deferred CN was associated with better overall survival when compared to upfront CN followed by deferred TT (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.86, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Noting potential selection bias, there is insufficient evidence to support the notion that delayed surgery is safe in localised RCC. For metastatic RCC, upfront TT followed by deferred CN should be considered.

6.
Nat Rev Urol ; 18(6): 323-324, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772157
7.
Eur Urol Open Sci ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458711

RESUMO

COVID-19 has resulted in the deferral of major surgery for genitourinary (GU) cancers with the exception of cancers with high risk of progression. We report outcomes for major GU cancer operations, namely radical prostatectomy (RP), radical cystectomy (RC), radical nephrectomy (RN), partial nephrectomy (PN), and nephroureterectomy performed at 13 major GU cancer centres across the UK between March 1 and May 5, 2020. A total of 598 such operations were performed. Four patients (0.7%) developed COVID-19 postoperatively. There was no COVID-19-related mortality at 30 d. A minimally invasive approach was used in 499 cases (83.4%). A total of 228 cases (38.1%) were described as training procedures. Training case status was not associated with a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (p = 0.194) or hospital length of stay (LOS; p > 0.05 for all operation types). The risk of contracting COVID-19 was not associated with longer hospital LOS (p = 0.146), training case status (p = 0.588), higher ASA score (p = 0.295), or type of hospital site (p = 0.303). Our results suggest that major surgery for urological cancers remains safe and training should be encouraged during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic provided appropriate countermeasures are taken. These real-life data are important for policy-makers and clinicians when counselling patients during the current pandemic. Patient summary: We collected outcome data for major operations for prostate, bladder, and kidney cancers during the COVID-19 pandemic. These surgeries remain safe and training should be encouraged during the ongoing pandemic provided appropriate countermeasures are taken. Our real-life results are important for policy-makers and clinicians when counselling patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
BJU Int ; 127(5): 585-595, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the postoperative complication and mortality rate following laparoscopic radical cystectomy (RARC) with intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD) in octogenarians. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis comparing postoperative complication and mortality rates depending on age in a consecutive series of 1890 patients who underwent RARC with ICUD for bladder cancer between 2004 and 2018 in 10 European centres. Outcomes of patients aged <80 years and those aged ≥80 years were compared with regard to postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grading) and mortality rate. Cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) after surgery were calculated using the non-parametric Aalen-Johansen estimator. RESULTS: A total of 1726 patients aged <80 years and 164 aged ≥80 years were included in the analysis. The 30- and 90-day rate for high-grade (Clavien-Dindo grades III-V) complications were 15% and 21% for patients aged <80 years compared to 11% and 13% for patients aged ≥80 years (P = 0.2 and P = 0.03), respectively. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for pre- and postoperative variables, age ≥80 years was not an independent predictor of high-grade complications (odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.1; P = 0.12). The non-cancer-related 90-day mortality was 2.3% for patients aged ≥80 years and 1.8% for those aged <80 years, respectively (P = 0.7). The estimated 12-month CSM and OCM rates for those aged <80 years were 8% and 3%, and for those aged ≥80 years, 15% and 8%, respectively (P = 0.009 and P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The minimally invasive approach to RARC with ICUD for bladder cancer in well-selected elderly patients (aged ≥80 years) achieved a tolerable high-grade complication rate; the 90-day postoperative mortality rate was driven by cancer progression and the non-cancer-related rate was equivalent to that of patients aged <80 years. However, an increased OCM rate in this elderly group after the first year should be taken into account. These results will support clinicians and patients when balancing cancer-related vs treatment-related risks and benefits.

9.
J Urol ; 205(5): 1387-1393, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microhematuria is a prevalent condition and the American Urological Association has developed a new risk-stratified approach for the evaluation of patients with microhematuria. Our objective was to provide the first evaluation of this important guideline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multinational cohort study combines contemporary patients from 5 clinical trials and 2 prospective registries who underwent urological evaluation for hematuria. Patients were stratified into American Urological Association risk strata (low, intermediate or high risk) based on sex, age, degree of hematuria, and smoking history. The primary end point was the incidence of bladder cancer within each risk stratum. RESULTS: A total of 15,779 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, 727 patients (4.6%) were classified as low risk, 1,863 patients (11.8%) were classified as intermediate risk, and 13,189 patients (83.6%) were classified as high risk. The predominance of high risk patients was consistent across all cohorts. A total of 857 bladder cancers were diagnosed with a bladder cancer incidence of 5.4%. Bladder cancer was more prevalent in men, smokers, older patients and patients with gross hematuria. The cancer incidence for low, intermediate and high risk groups was 0.4% (3 patients), 1.0% (18 patients) and 6.3% (836 patients), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The new risk stratification system separates hematuria patients into clinically meaningful categories with differing likelihoods of bladder cancer that would justify evaluating the low, intermediate and high risk groups with incremental intensity. Furthermore, it provides the relative incidence of bladder cancer in each risk group which should facilitate patient counseling regarding the risks and benefits of evaluation for bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Hematúria/classificação , Hematúria/etiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Urologia
10.
Scand J Urol ; 54(4): 290-296, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538224

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine the temporal association between blood transfusion and 90-day mortality in patients with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy.Methods: This represents a retrospective cohort study of patients treated with radical cystectomy within the Premier Hospital network between 2003 and 2015. Patients outcomes were stratified those who received early blood transfusion (day of surgery) vs delayed blood transfusion (postoperative day ≥1) during the index admission. Primary end point was 90-day mortality following surgery.Results: The median age of 12,056 patients identified was 70 years. A total of 7,201 (59.7%) patients received blood transfusion. Within 90 days following surgery, 57 (2.2%), 162 (5.9%) and 123 (6.7%) patients in the early, delayed and both early and delayed transfused patients died respectively. Following multivariate logistic regression to account for patient (age and Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) and hospital (surgeon volume, surgical approach and academic status) factors, delayed blood transfusion was independently associated with 90-day mortality (Odds ratio [OR], 2.64; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.98-3.53; p < 0.001). A sensitivity analysis defining early blood transfusion as <2 days postoperatively, increased 90-day mortality persisted in patients receiving delayed transfusion (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.63-3.00; p < 0.001). Older patients (≥77 years) with the highest CCI (≥2) had a 7% absolute increase in the predicted probability of 90-day mortality if they were transfused late compared to patients transfused early.Conclusion: Patient undergoing cystectomy may benefit from expedited transfusion to prevent subsequent clinical deterioration which may lead to patient mortality. Future work is needed to elucidate the optimal timing of blood transfusion.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Cistectomia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Cistectomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Urol ; 204(1): 56-57, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282283
12.
Urology ; 141: e20-e21, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325139

RESUMO

We present an unusual case of isolated urethral tuberculosis. The patient had a history of urethral strictures and persistent discharge from two peno-scrotal fistulas which was confirmed on urethrogram. He was treated with antitubercular treatment and a two stage urethroplasty.

13.
Urol Oncol ; 38(6): 582-589, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217041

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Compared to low-volume hospitals, high-volume hospitals are associated with lower rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. However, access to high-volume hospitals is unequal. We investigated racial and socioeconomic disparities among patients undergoing surgery for genitourinary malignancies at high-volume hospitals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We queried the National Cancer Database from 2004-2015 to identify patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, radical cystectomy, and nephrectomy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer, muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer, and kidney cancer, respectively. Hospitals were ranked based on their annual volume for the given procedure. The endpoint of our study was receipt of treatment at a high-volume hospital. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of treatment at a high-volume hospital. RESULTS: Our final cohort consisted of 397,242 prostate cancer patients, 39,480 bladder cancer patients, and 292,095 kidney cancer patients. For prostate and bladder cancer, Black race was associated with lower odds of treatment at a high-volume hospital (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.87 and 0.71, 95%CI 0.58-0.87; reference: White). Higher education level and private insurance status were associated with greater odds of treatment across all 3 procedures (strongest effect for prostate cancer; higher education level: OR 1.63 [1.58-1.68]; private insurance 1.86 [1.77-1.97]). Moreover, an interaction was found between race and study period for all cancers examined (P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed that Black patients were more likely to undergo radical prostatectomy at high-volume hospitals in 2013-2015 (OR 0.98, 95%CI 0.94-1.02) compared to 2004-2006 (OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.79-0.87). CONCLUSION: Across all procedures, patients with lower education status and lack of insurance were less likely to be treated at high-volume hospitals. For prostate cancer and bladder cancer, Black race was a negative predictor of treatment at high-volume hospitals. Further studies are needed to understand the root causes for this inequity.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Nefrectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
14.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 18(4): e418-e442, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists regarding the cost and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) effects of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We examined these effects using evidence from a recent randomized control trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The costs and HRQoL associated with bladder cancer were assessed using data from the BOXIT trial (bladder COX-2 inhibition trial; n = 472). The cost and HRQoL effects from clinical events were estimated using generalized estimating equations. The costs were derived from the recorded resource usage and UK unit costs. HRQoL was assessed using the EQ-5D-3L and reported UK preference tariffs. The events were categorized using the TMN classification. RESULTS: Cases of grade 3 recurrence and progression were associated with statistically significant HRQoL decrements (-0.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.13 to -0.03; and -0.10; 95% CI, -0.17 to -0.03, respectively). The 3-year average cost per NMIBC patient was estimated at £8735 (95% CI, 8325-9145). Cases of grade 1, 2, and 3 recurrence were associated with annual cost effects of £1218 (95% CI, 403-2033), £1677 (95% CI, 920-2433), and £3957 (95% CI, 2332-5583), respectively. Progression to MIBC was associated with an average increase in costs of £5407 (95% CI, 2663-8152). CONCLUSION: Evidence from the BOXIT trial suggests that patients with NMIBC will both experience decrements in HRQoL and incur significant costs, especially in the event of a grade 3 recurrence or a progression to MIBC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/economia , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/economia , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reino Unido , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia
15.
BJU Int ; 125(5): 669-678, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine patient experience and perception following a diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). PATIENT AND METHODS: Patients were part of a prospective multicentre observational study recruiting patients with NMIBC for a urine biomarker study (DETECT II; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02781428). A mixed-methods approach comprising: (i) the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief-IPQ) and (ii) semi-structured interviews to explore patients' experience of having haematuria, and initial and subsequent experience with a NMIBC diagnosis. Both assessments were completed at 6 months after NMIBC diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients completed the Brief-IPQ. Patients felt that they had minimal symptoms (median [interquartile range, IQR] score 2 [0-5]) and were not particularly affected emotionally (median [IQR] score 3 [1-6]) with a minimal effect to their daily life (median [IQR] score 2 [0-5]). However, they remained concerned about their cancer diagnosis (median [IQR] score 5 [3-8]) and felt that they had no personal control over the cancer (median [IQR] score 2 [2-5]) and believed that their illness would affect them for some time (median [IQR] score 6 [3-10]). A significant association with a lower personal control of the disease (P < 0.05) and a poorer understanding of the management of NMIBC (P < 0.05) was seen in patients aged >70 years. Many patients were uncertain about the cause of bladder cancer. Qualitative analysis found that at initial presentation of haematuria, most patients were not aware of the risk of bladder cancer. Patients were most anxious and psychologically affected between the interval of cystoscopy diagnosis and transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). Following TURBT, most patients were positive about their cancer prognosis. CONCLUSION: Patients with NMIBC have a poor perception of disease control and believe that their disease will continue over a prolonged period of time. This is particularly more pertinent in the elderly. Patients are most psychologically affected during the interval between cancer diagnosis following cystoscopy and TURBT. Health awareness about bladder cancer remained poor with a significant number of patients unaware of the causes of bladder cancer. Psychological support and prompt TURBT following bladder cancer diagnosis would help improve the mental health of patients with NMIBC.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Percepção , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cistoscopia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia
16.
Urology ; 138: e5-e7, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958535

RESUMO

We present a unique case of ureterocutaneous fistula secondary to an obstructed ureteric stone. A fistulagram confirmed a communication between right flank and the proximal ureter. Ureterocutanoues fistula in the absence of trauma, iatrogenic causes, granulomatous infection, or malignancy is highly unusual.

17.
Urol Oncol ; 38(3): 74.e13-74.e20, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Early surgical resection remains the recommended treatment option for most small renal mass (≤4 cm). We examined the long-term overall survival (OS) of patients managed with delayed and immediate nephrectomy of cT1a renal cancer. PATIENT AND METHODS: We utilized the National Cancer Database (2005-2010) to identify 14,677 patients (immediate nephrectomy: 14,050 patients vs. late nephrectomy: 627 patients) aged <70 years with Charlson Comorbidity Index 0 and cT1aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma. Immediate nephrectomy and late nephrectomy were defined as nephrectomy performed <30 days and >180 days from diagnosis, respectively. Inverse probability of treatment weighting-adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to compare OS of patients in the 2 treatment arms. Influence of patient age and Charlson Comorbidity Index on treatment effect was tested by interactions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the outcome of delaying nephrectomy for >12 months. RESULTS: Median patient age was 55 years with a median follow-up of 82.5 months. Inverse probability of treatment weighting-adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves suggest no significant difference between treatment arms (immediate nephrectomy [<30 days] vs. delayed nephrectomy [>180 days]) (Hazard ratio 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.26; P = 0.77). This outcome was consistent between all patients regardless of age (P = 0.48). Sensitivity analysis reports no difference in OS even if nephrectomy was delayed by >12 months (P = 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: We report that delayed and immediate nephrectomy for cT1a renal cell carcinoma confers comparable long-term OS. These findings suggest that a period of observation of between 6 and 12 months is safe to allow identification of renal masses, which will benefit from surgical resection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Nefrectomia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Eur Urol ; 77(5): 583-598, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791622

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Non-visible haematuria (NVH) is a common finding and may indicate undiagnosed urological cancer. The optimal investigation of NVH is unclear, given the incidence of cancer and the public health implications of testing all individuals with this finding. OBJECTIVE: We review contemporary literature to determine the association of NVH with the diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC), upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), and kidney cancer (KC). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of original articles in English was completed in May 2019. Meta-analyses for the diagnostic accuracy of NVH and urine cytology were performed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We screened 1529 articles and selected 78 manuscripts that fulfilled our inclusion criteria for narrative synthesis. Forty manuscripts were eligible for a meta-analysis (reporting 19 193 persons). The likelihood of a urological cancer in patients with NVH increased with age (<1% in those aged <40yr), male sex, and cigarette smoking. Less than 1% of patients are found to have a urological cancer after a negative NVH evaluation. Cancer detection rates in individuals evaluated for NVH ranged from 0% to 16% for BC in 37 studies, 0% to 3.5% for UTUC in 30 studies, and 0% to 9.7% for KC in 29 studies. Substantial statistical heterogeneity was present for the meta-analysis of detection rates. CONCLUSIONS: We present an up-to-date review of the association of NVH with the diagnosis of BC, UTUC, and KC. Individuals with dipstick positive haematuria aged ≥40yr, who have had potential precipitating causes excluded, should undergo an evaluation. Re-evaluation of patients with unremarkable initial investigations should be performed in high-risk patients or if new symptoms occur. PATIENT SUMMARY: One in five people have microscopic traces of blood in their urine. This is an important indicator of urological cancer. Investigating all patients is uncomfortable and expensive. We evaluate the risk of cancer and estimate risks to groups of individuals.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ureterais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/complicações , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Neoplasias Ureterais/complicações , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/complicações
19.
Bladder Cancer ; 5(3): 211-223, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867425

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are extremely expensive and most patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) do not benefit significantly from their use. Objective: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine response rates and survival outcomes on patients with mUC progressing despite prior platinum-based chemotherapy receiving ICI stratified by biomarker status. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search for all articles in PubMed and Embase up to 06/15/2019 to identify all studies pertaining to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor targeted therapies for mUC that reported biomarkers. Given that biomarkers are reported on different scales and with different metrics, we defined each biomarker as either positive or negative using the definitions implemented in each individual trial. We meta-analyzed the data, reconstructed overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) curves, and analyzed response rates by biomarker status. OS and PFS were analyzed in a pooled Kaplan-Meier analysis and pseudo-individualized patient data (IPD) extracted. Results: We identified 1429 manuscripts of which 8 met inclusion criteria, with a total of 1837 treated patients with outcomes data. On proportional hazards survival analysis, patients in the biomarker negative group were associated with a lower PFS (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.18 - 1.85, p < 0.001) and lower OS (HR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.32 - 1.80, p < 0.001) when compared to the biomarker positive group. Response data was available for 1641 patients and random effects proportion show complete response in 8% and 3% in biomarker positive and negative patients, respectively. Conclusions: ICI therapy for metastatic UC post platinum therapy has a higher overall response rate, OS and PFS in patients who are biomarker positive compared to those who are negative. However, some patients who are biomarker negative do achieve complete responses. A better biomarker for patient selection is essential before biomarkers can be used to stratify candidates for ICI therapy.

20.
J Clin Med ; 8(8)2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the differential effect of robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) versus open radical cystectomy (ORC) on survival outcomes in matched analyses performed on a large multicentric cohort. METHODS: The study included 9757 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BCa) treated in a consecutive manner at each of 25 institutions. All patients underwent radical cystectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. To adjust for potential selection bias, propensity score matching 2:1 was performed with two ORC patients matched to one RARC patient. The propensity-matched cohort included 1374 patients. Multivariable competing risk analyses accounting for death of other causes, tested association of surgical technique with recurrence and cancer specific mortality (CSM), before and after propensity score matching. RESULTS: Overall, 767 (7.8%) patients underwent RARC and 8990 (92.2%) ORC. The median follow-up before and after propensity matching was 81 and 102 months, respectively. In the overall population, the 3-year recurrence rates and CSM were 37% vs. 26% and 34% vs. 24% for ORC vs. RARC (all p values > 0.1), respectively. On multivariable Cox regression analyses, RARC and ORC had similar recurrence and CSM rates before and after matching (all p values > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with RARC and ORC have similar survival outcomes. This data is helpful in consulting patients until long term survival outcomes of level one evidence is available.

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