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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 239, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to describe variations in the healthcare resource utilization (HRU) among individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS) over the first 12 years of life. Data for this study were drawn from the AS Natural History study (ASNHS), which is an observational study on the developmental progress, behavior, and medical morbidity of individuals with AS conducted over eight years. Caregiver-reported information on hospitalization, surgery, and medication utilization was used to assess HRU. Repeated measures mixed effect models were used to assess the relationship between age and probability of hospitalization, surgery, and prescription medication utilization. RESULTS: Mean age at study enrollment was 6 years of age and both sexes were equally represented. The mean number of visits per participant was three. Results from this study suggest that individuals with AS have a high HRU burden. Hospitalization and surgery burden were highest in the first year of life. Use of medications for seizures and sleep disturbance increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the significant healthcare burden among individuals with AS. Future studies that estimate cost and caregiver burden associated with AS are needed to assess the lifelong economic impact of AS on families and healthcare system.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735293

RESUMO

The redox state of the neural progenitors regulates physiological processes such as neuronal differentiation and dendritic and axonal growth. The relevance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated oxidoreductases in these processes is largely unexplored. We describe a severe neurological disorder caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in thioredoxin (TRX)-related transmembrane-2 (TMX2); these variants were detected by exome sequencing in 14 affected individuals from ten unrelated families presenting with congenital microcephaly, cortical polymicrogyria, and other migration disorders. TMX2 encodes one of the five TMX proteins of the protein disulfide isomerase family, hitherto not linked to human developmental brain disease. Our mechanistic studies on protein function show that TMX2 localizes to the ER mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), is involved in posttranslational modification and protein folding, and undergoes physical interaction with the MAM-associated and ER folding chaperone calnexin and ER calcium pump SERCA2. These interactions are functionally relevant because TMX2-deficient fibroblasts show decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity and compensatory increased glycolytic activity. Intriguingly, under basal conditions TMX2 occurs in both reduced and oxidized monomeric form, while it forms a stable dimer under treatment with hydrogen peroxide, recently recognized as a signaling molecule in neural morphogenesis and axonal pathfinding. Exogenous expression of the pathogenic TMX2 variants or of variants with an in vitro mutagenized TRX domain induces a constitutive TMX2 polymerization, mimicking an increased oxidative state. Altogether these data uncover TMX2 as a sensor in the MAM-regulated redox signaling pathway and identify it as a key adaptive regulator of neuronal proliferation, migration, and organization in the developing brain.

3.
J Perinatol ; 39(12): 1611-1619, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of infant deaths occurring in the setting of a confirmed genetic disorder. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of the electronic medical records of infants born from 1 January, 2011 to 1 June, 2017, who died prior to 1 year of age. RESULTS: Five hundred and seventy three deceased infants were identified. One hundred and seventeen were confirmed to have a molecular or cytogenetic diagnosis in a clinical diagnostic laboratory and an additional seven were diagnosed by research testing for a total of 124/573 (22%) diagnosed infants. A total of 67/124 (54%) had chromosomal disorders and 58/124 (47%) had single gene disorders (one infant had both). The proportion of diagnoses made by sequencing technologies, such as exome sequencing, increased over the years. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of confirmed genetic disorders within our cohort of infant deaths is higher than that previously reported. Increased efforts are needed to further understand the mortality burden of genetic disorders in infancy.

4.
J Pediatr ; 213: 235-240, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235381

RESUMO

We describe an infant with a phenotype typical of early onset Marfan syndrome whose genetic evaluation, including Sanger sequencing and deletion/duplication testing of FBN1 and exome sequencing, was negative. Ultimately, genome sequencing revealed a deletion missed on prior testing, demonstrating the unique utility of genome sequencing for molecular genetic diagnosis.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00734, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to describe healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and supportive therapy utilization (STU) among individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS), and to compare such usage by molecular etiology. METHODS: Participants were categorized into deletion and non-deletion genotypes. Statistical differences were assessed using an independent samples t test. RESULTS: Data were available on 302 individuals. Mean age of participants was 5.5 years, 92% of whom were less than 13 years, and 71% had the deletion etiology. About 68% of participants had at least one hospitalization since birth to enrollment in the study; the average number of hospitalizations during that time period was 2.3 and average length of stay was 4.5 days. The most common reasons for hospitalization were seizures, lower respiratory infections, and surgery. The most common reasons for surgery were myringotomy, strabismus surgery, tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, and gastrostomy tube insertion/fundoplication. Anticonvulsants, gastroesophageal reflux disease, sleep, and behavioral medications were the most commonly prescribed drugs. STU was high among individuals with AS. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that individuals with AS have high HRU/STU, and apart from a few differences, HRU/STU was similar across molecular etiology. These results reflect usage in younger individuals and studies that describe HRU/STU in older individuals are needed.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 983-992, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942555

RESUMO

Maladaptive behaviors are challenging and a source of stress for caregivers of individuals with Angelman Syndrome (AS). There is limited information on how these maladaptive behaviors vary over time among individuals with AS due to different genetic etiologies. In this study, caregivers of 301 individuals with AS were asked questions about their child's behavior and completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community version (ABC-C). Developmental functioning was evaluated with either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) or the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Family functioning was assessed using the parent-completed Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and the Family Quality of Life questionnaire (FQoL). Approximately 70% of participants had AS due to a deletion on the maternally-inherited copy of chromosome 15q11q13. Results revealed that at baseline, individuals with AS had low scores in the domains of lethargy (mean: 2.6-4.2 depending on genotype) and stereotypy (mean: 2.3-4.2 depending on genotype). Higher cognitive functioning was associated with increased irritability (r = 0.32, p < .01). Hyperactivity (p < .05) and irritability (p < .05) increased with age across all genotypes and should be ongoing targets for both behavioral and pharmacological treatment. Concerns for short attention span were endorsed by more than 70% of caregivers at baseline. Maladaptive behaviors, particularly hyperactivity, irritability and aggression, adversely affected parental stress, and family quality of life.

7.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(9): 752-759, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by either disruptions of the gene UBE3A or deletion of chromosome 15 at 15q11-q13, which encompasses UBE3A and several other genes, including GABRB3, GABRA5, GABRG3, encoding gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunits (ß3, α5, γ3). Individuals with deletions are generally more impaired than those with other genotypes, but the underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to test the hypothesis that genes other than UBE3A located on 15q11-q13 cause differences in pathophysiology between AS genotypes. METHODS: We compared spectral power of clinical EEG recordings from children (1-18 years of age) with a deletion genotype (n = 37) or a nondeletion genotype (n = 21) and typically developing children without Angelman syndrome (n = 48). RESULTS: We found elevated theta power (peak frequency: 5.3 Hz) and diminished beta power (peak frequency: 23 Hz) in the deletion genotype compared with the nondeletion genotype as well as excess broadband EEG power (1-32 Hz) peaking in the delta frequency range (peak frequency: 2.8 Hz), shared by both genotypes but stronger for the deletion genotype at younger ages. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong evidence for the contribution of non-UBE3A neuronal pathophysiology in deletion AS and suggest that hemizygosity of the GABRB3-GABRA5-GABRG3 gene cluster causes abnormal theta and beta EEG oscillations that may underlie the more severe clinical phenotype. Our work improves the understanding of AS pathophysiology and has direct implications for the development of AS treatments and biomarkers.

8.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(9): 792-795, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784096

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prenatal occurrence and timing of appearance of associated features in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are unknown. We reviewed our BWS patients with serial fetal imaging and correlated these with postnatal findings. METHODS: All BWS patients with fetal ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 2000 to 2016 were reviewed to determine the presence of polyhydramnios, placentamegaly, macrosomia, macroglossia, retrognathia, omphalocele, visceromegaly, and hemihypertrophy. These observations were correlated with postnatal findings. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Nine BWS patients underwent 42 fetal imaging studies with median of five (range of two to six) studies per patient between 13 and 35 weeks gestation. All prenatal findings were confirmed postnatally with complete concordance. All patients with omphalocele were detected early in gestation but other postnatal findings less predictably so. All omphaloceles were small, and were found significantly earlier in gestation than macrosomia (P = 0.004) and macroglossia (P = 0.012). Visceromegaly and retrognathia were less frequent, with no significant differences in median gestational age from omphalocele when prenatally identified. CONCLUSIONS: In BWS, omphalocele is the most common prenatal finding and routinely observed in early gestation with 100% accuracy. Associated findings of macrosomia, macroglossia, visceromegaly, and retrognathia, when present, are detected later in gestation. Imaging in later gestation may reveal additional abnormalities that support a BWS diagnosis.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 365-372, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588760

RESUMO

MYH7-related disease (MRD) is the most common hereditary primary cardiomyopathy (CM), with pathogenic MYH7 variants accounting for approximately 40% of familial hypertrophic CMs. MRDs may also present as skeletal myopathies, with or without CM. Since pathogenic MYH7 variants result in highly variable clinical phenotypes, from mild to fatal forms of cardiac and skeletal myopathies, genotype-phenotype correlations are not always apparent, and translation of the genetic findings to clinical practice can be complicated. Data on genotype-phenotype correlations can help facilitate more specific and personalized decisions on treatment strategies, surveillance, and genetic counseling. We present a series of six MRD pedigrees with rare genotypes, encompassing various clinical presentations and inheritance patterns. This study provides new insights into the spectrum of MRD that is directly translatable to clinical practice.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(7): 1641-1647, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737008

RESUMO

We present three children from two unrelated families with Angelman syndrome (AS) whose developmental skills are far more advanced than any other non-mosaic AS individual ever reported. All have normal gait and use syntactic language spontaneously to express their needs. All of them have a c.2T > C (p.Met1Thr) variant in UBE3A, which abrogates the start codon of isoform 1, but not of isoforms 2 and 3. This variant was maternally inherited in one set of siblings, but de novo in the other child from the unrelated family. This report underscores the importance of considering AS in the differential diagnosis even in the presence of syntactic speech.

11.
Pediatr Ann ; 47(5): e204-e216, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750288

RESUMO

It is estimated that at least 8% to 10% of children diagnosed with cancer have an inherited cancer predisposition syndrome. Pediatricians may be called upon to (1) identify children with symptoms suggestive of cancer that require further diagnostic testing, (2) identify children who should be referred to cancer genetics based on their personal and family histories, and (3) provide primary care to children who have an inherited cancer syndrome. This review article provides a list of clinical warning signs suggestive of childhood malignancy, discusses the personal and family history "red flags" suggestive of hereditary cancer, offers checklists to help identify patients who are candidates for cancer genetics evaluation, and describes features of the major pediatric cancer syndromes involving solid tumors and surveillance guidelines. This review aims to provide the pediatrician with the tools needed to recognize, refer, and help manage children at risk for pediatric cancer syndromes. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(5):e204-e216.].


Assuntos
Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/terapia , Pediatria/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Criança , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Anamnese , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Exame Físico , Encaminhamento e Consulta
12.
J Pediatr ; 198: 313-316, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681447

RESUMO

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism that causes elevated leucine in the setting of acute illnesses. We describe an 8-year-old boy with MSUD who developed acute pancreatitis and subsequent leucinosis. This case highlights the complexities of fluid management in patients with MSUD.

13.
Epilepsia ; 59(2): 389-402, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 31/34 cases with mean onset at 3.7 years. Cognitive assessment before epilepsy onset was available in 24/31 subjects and was normal in 25% (6/24), and consistent with mild ID in 46% (11/24) or moderate ID in 17% (4/24). Two patients had speech delay only, and 1 had severe ID. After epilepsy onset, cognition deteriorated in 46% (11/24) of cases. The most common seizure types were absence, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Sixteen cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MAE. Seven further patients had different forms of generalized epilepsy and 2 had focal epilepsy. Twenty of 31 patients became seizure-free, with valproic acid being the most effective drug. There was no clear-cut correlation between seizure control and cognitive outcome. Electroencephalography (EEG) findings were available in 27/31 patients showing irregular bursts of diffuse 2.5-3.5 Hz spikes/polyspikes-and-slow waves in 25/31. Two patients developed an EEG pattern resembling electrical status epilepticus during sleep. Ataxia was observed in 7/34 cases. We describe 7 truncating and 18 missense variants, including 4 recurrent variants (Gly232Val, Ala288Val, Val342Met, and Gly362Arg). SIGNIFICANCE: Most patients carrying pathogenic SLC6A1 variants have an MAE phenotype with language delay and mild/moderate ID before epilepsy onset. However, ID alone or associated with focal epilepsy can also be observed.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(1): 56-67, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150892

RESUMO

PURA syndrome is a recently described developmental encephalopathy presenting with neonatal hypotonia, feeding difficulties, global developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, and frequent apnea and epilepsy. We describe 18 new individuals with heterozygous sequence variations in PURA. A neuromotor disorder starting with neonatal hyptonia, but ultimately allowing delayed progression to walking, was present in nearly all individuals. Congenital apnea was present in 56% during infancy, but all cases in this cohort resolved during the first year of life. Feeding difficulties were frequently reported, with gastrostomy tube placement required in 28%. Epilepsy was present in 50% of the subjects, including infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Skeletal complications were found in 39%. Disorders of gastrointestinal motility and nystagmus were also recurrent features. Autism was diagnosed in one individual, potentially expanding the neurodevelopmental phenotype associated with this syndrome. However, we did not find additional PURA sequence variations in a cohort of 120 subjects with autism. We also present the first neuropathologic studies of PURA syndrome, and describe chronic inflammatory changes around the arterioles within the deep white matter. We did not find significant correlations between mutational class and severity, nor between location of the sequence variation in PUR repeat domains. Further studies are required in larger cohorts of subjects with PURA syndrome to clarify these genotype-phenotype associations.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Gerenciamento Clínico , Epilepsia , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Síndrome , Substância Branca/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
15.
JIMD Rep ; 40: 17-22, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887792

RESUMO

Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is an X-linked urea cycle disorder with variable expressivity in heterozygous females. While liver function testing is often abnormal in patients with OTCD, liver failure is uncommon on presentation. A 13-month-old female with no significant past medical history presented with irritability, right arm weakness, and decreased appetite. Initial workup revealed hepatic dysfunction with an INR of 3.4, ammonia level of 75 µmol/L, and abnormal brain MRI with gyral edema with restricted diffusion, and patchy signal abnormality in basal ganglia. The MRI findings led to a putative diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis prompting corticosteroid treatment. As steroid treatment was begun, she developed significant hepatocellular dysfunction with ALT 2,222 U/L, AST 630 U/L, prolonged INR, and elevated ammonia (213 µmol/L). Neurologic signs resolved and her ammonia level decreased (43 µmol/L) without further intervention; however, she had ongoing acute liver failure with coagulopathy and episodic irritability, managed as seronegative autoimmune hepatitis with partial response to corticosteroid therapy. At 18 months of age she presented with severe irritability with markedly increased ammonia (417 µmol/L). Plasma amino acids obtained several days prior to this acute episode demonstrated elevation in glutamine (2,725 µmol/L) and alanine (1,459 µmol/L). Biochemical testing demonstrated elevation of urine orotic acid (>240.6 mmol/mol creatinine). Genetic testing confirmed a heterozygous nonsense mutation in the OTC gene (c.958C>T, R320X). After treatment with ammonia scavengers and a protein-restricted diet, hepatic function normalized and irritability resolved. The diagnosis of a urea cycle disorder should be considered in patients with unexplained hepatic dysfunction.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(1): 75-81, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130604

RESUMO

Individuals with Tumor Protein P63 (TP63)-related disorders are known to present with a range of phenotypic features, including ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate, Rapp-Hodgkin, Hay-Wells, and limb-mammary syndromes. We present six individuals from three families, including a set of monozygotic twins, with pathogenic TP63 variants who had novel clinical findings. The twins were discordant for cleft lip and palate, and the type of hand malformations, but concordant for choanal atresia, and bilateral volar nail. Both failed newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to T-cell lymphopenia. The second family included three family members across two generations. Two of these three family members had orofacial clefting, but the remaining child had a laryngeal web and hydrocele with no clefting or hand anomalies, highlighting the variable expressivity in TP63-related disorders. The individual from the third family had unilateral cleft lip and palate, hydronephrosis, and bilateral volar nails. Together, these cases illustrate that: there is significant familial variability, including discordant major but concordant minor anomalies in the first ever reported set of molecularly confirmed monozygotic twins with pathogenic variants in TP63; pathogenic variants in TP63 should be considered in individuals with volar nail, which was previously only strongly associated with 4q34 deletion syndrome; and failed SCID newborn screening due to abnormal immune functioning may be part of the phenotypic spectrum of TP63-related disorders, as it was reported in one prior individual and two of the individuals in our case series.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1099-1107, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944563

RESUMO

Treatment for Angelman syndrome (AS) is currently limited to symptomatic interventions. A mouse model of AS has reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II activity due to excessive phosphorylation of specific threonine residues, leading to diminished long-term potentiation. In a rat model of Parkinson disease, levodopa reduced phosphorylation of various proteins, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Further studies demonstrated that AS mice treated with levodopa performed better on rotarod testing than untreated AS mice. We conducted a multi-center double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 1-year trial of levodopa / carbidopa with either 10 or 15 mg/kg/day of levodopa in children with AS. The outcome of this intervention was assessed using either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, as well as the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Of the 78 participants enrolled, 67 participants received study medication (33 on levodopa, 34 on placebo), and 55 participants (29 on levodopa, 26 on placebo) completed the 1-year study. There were no clinically or statistically significant changes in any of the outcome measures over a 1-year period comparing the levodopa and placebo groups. The number of adverse events reported, including the more serious adverse events, was similar in both groups, but none were related to treatment with levodopa. Our data demonstrate that levodopa is well-tolerated by children with AS. However, in the doses used in this study, it failed to improve their neurodevelopment or behavioral outcome.

18.
Clin Case Rep ; 5(4): 463-470, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396770

RESUMO

Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a rare condition for which the precise etiology is still unclear. Elucidating the genetic component of SOD is a difficult but necessary task for the future. We describe herein a novel HESX1 c.475C>T (p.R159W) mutation and demonstrate its potential pathogenicity in the development of this rare disease.

19.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 167(9-10): 205-218, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26758979

RESUMO

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a loss of the maternally inherited UBE3A; the paternal UBE3A is silenced in neurons by a mechanism involving an antisense transcript (UBE3A-AS). We reviewed the published information on clinical trials that have been completed as well as the publicly available information on ongoing trials of therapies for AS. Attempts at hypermethylating the maternal locus through dietary compounds were ineffective. The results of a clinical trial using minocycline as a matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor were inconclusive; another clinical trial is underway. Findings from a clinical trial using L-dopa to alter phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II are awaited. Topoisomerase inhibitors and antisense oligonucleotides are being developed to directly inhibit UBE3A-AS. Other strategies targeting specific pathways are briefly discussed. We also reviewed the medications that are currently used to treat seizures and sleep disturbances, which are two of the more debilitating manifestations of AS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Angelman/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inativação Gênica , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Oligorribonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/uso terapêutico , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
20.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 172(4): 384-401, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27860204

RESUMO

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a loss of the maternally-inherited UBE3A; the paternal UBE3A is silenced in neurons by a mechanism involving an antisense transcript (UBE3A-AS) at the unmethylated paternal locus. We reviewed all published information on the clinical trials that have been completed as well as the publicly available information on ongoing trials of therapies in AS. To date, all clinical trials that strove to improve neurodevelopment in AS have been unsuccessful. Attempts at hypermethylating the maternal locus through dietary compounds were ineffective. The results of an 8-week open-label trial using minocycline as a matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor were inconclusive, while a subsequent randomized placebo-controlled trial suggested that treatment with minocycline for 8 weeks did not result in any neurodevelopmental gains. A 1-year randomized placebo-controlled trial using levodopa to alter the phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II did not lead to any improvement in neurodevelopment. Topoisomerase inhibitors and antisense oligonucleotides are being developed to directly inhibit UBE3A-AS. Artificial transcription factors are being developed to "super activate" UBE3A or inhibit UBE3A-AS. Other strategies targeting specific pathways are briefly discussed. We also reviewed the medications that are currently used to treat seizures and sleep disturbances, which are two of the more common complications of AS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/terapia , Terapêutica/tendências , Síndrome de Angelman/complicações , Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Terapêutica/métodos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
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