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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Falls Risk for Older People in the Community assessment (FROP-Com) was originally developed using 13 risk factors to identify the fall risks of community-dwelling older people. To suit the practical use in busy clinical settings, a brief version adopting 3 most fall predictive risk factors from the original FROP-Com, including the number of falls in the past 12 months, assistance required to perform domestic activities of daily living and observation of balance, was developed for screening purpose (FROP-Com screen). The objectives of this study were to investigate the inter-rater and test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity, and minimum detectable change of the FROP-Com screen in community-dwelling people with stroke. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling people with stroke (n = 48) were recruited from a local self-help group, and community-dwelling older people (n = 40) were recruited as control subjects. RESULTS: The FROP-Com screen exhibited moderate inter-rater (Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]2,1 = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.87) and test-retest reliability (ICC3,1 = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.46-0.83) and weak associations with two balance measures, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) (rho = -0.38, p = 0.008) and the Timed "Up & Go" (TUG) test (rho = 0.35, p = 0.016). The screen also exhibited a moderate association with the Chinese version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC-C) (ABC-C; rho = -0.65, p<0.001), a measure of subjective balance confidence. CONCLUSIONS: The FROP-Com screen is a reliable clinical tool with convergent validity paralleled with subjective balance confidence measure that can be used in fall risk screening of community-dwelling people with stroke. However, one individual item, the observation of balance, will require additional refinement to improve the potential measurement error.

2.
Diabetes ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404351

RESUMO

Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is one of the major contributors to dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and impaired endothelial regeneration. Thus, we tested whether increasing antioxidant protein metallothionein (MT) in EPCs promotes angiogenesis in a hind limb ischemia (HLI) model in endothelial MT transgenic (JTMT) mice with high fat diet and streptozocin-induced diabetes. Compared with littermate wild-type (WT) diabetic mice, JTMT diabetic mice had improved blood flow recovery and angiogenesis after HLI. Similarly, transplantation of JTMT bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) stimulated greater blood flow recovery in db/db mice with HLI than did WT BM-MNCs. The improved recovery was associated with augmented EPC mobilization and angiogenic function. Further, cultured EPCs from diabetic patients exhibited decreased MT expression, increased cell apoptosis and impaired tube formation; while cultured JTMT-EPCs had enhanced cell survival, migration, and tube formation in hypoxia/hyperglycemic conditions compared with WT-EPCs. Mechanistically, MT overexpression enhanced hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and reduced oxidative stress in ischemic tissues. MT's pro-EPC effects were abrogated by siRNA knockdown of HIF-1α without affecting MT's anti-oxidant action. These results indicate that endothelial MT overexpression is sufficient to protect against diabetes-induced impairment of angiogenesis by promoting EPC functions most likely through upregulation of HIF-1α/SDF-1/VEGF signaling and reducing oxidative stress.

4.
Life Sci ; : 117783, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413404

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to examine the anti-fibrotic role of Nuclear Factor-Erythroid derived 2 (NF-E2) in human renal tubule (HK-11) cells and in type 1 and type 2 diabetic (T1D, T2D) mouse kidneys. MAIN METHODS: Anti-fibrotic effects of NF-E2 were examined in transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) treated HK-11 cells by over-expressing/silencing NF-E2 expression and determining its effects on profibrotic signaling. NF-E2 proteasomal degradation was confirmed by proteasome inhibition in HK-11 cells and diabetic mice. Clinical relevance of changes in NF-E2 expression to fibrotic changes in the kidney were assessed in T1D and T2D mouse kidneys. KEY FINDINGS: NF-E2 expression was significantly decreased in TGF-ß treated HK-11 cells and in kidneys of diabetic mice with concurrent increase in expression of fibrotic proteins. TGF-ß treatment of HK-11 cells did not inhibit NF-E2 mRNA expression, suggesting that the post-translational changes may contribute to NF-E2 protein degradation. The down-regulation of NF-E2 expression was attributed to its proteasomal degradation, as TGF-ß- and diabetes-induced NF-E2 down regulation was prevented by proteasome inhibitor treatment. In HK-11 cells TGF-ß treatment decreased E-cadherin expression and induced pSer82Hsp27/NF-E2 association, likely to promote NF-E2 degradation, as Hsp27 can target proteins to the proteasome. A critical role for NF-E2 in regulation of renal fibrosis was demonstrated as over-expression of NF-E2 or silencing NF-E2 expression, decreased or increased profibrotic proteins in TGF-ß-treated HK-11 cells, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: NF-E2, a novel anti-fibrotic protein, is down-regulated in diabetic kidneys. Preserving/inducing NF-E2 expression in diabetic kidneys may provide a therapeutic potential to combat DN.

6.
Life Sci ; : 117772, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437794

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to explore that the human neural stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (hNSC-EVs) have therapeutic effect on neuronal hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R) injured neurons in vitro by mediating the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to regulate the expression of downstream oxidative kinases. MAIN METHODS: The neuroprotective effects of hNSC-EVs were evaluated in an in vitro neuronal H/R model. Three parameters of hNSC-EVs, structure, phenotype and particle size, were characterized. At the cellular level, a human neuron cerebral ischemic reperfusion (CIR) injury model was constructed. Cell viability, apoptosis, and the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected using real-time cell analysis (RTCA), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), respectively. The neuronal axonal elongation was assessed by Opera PhenixTM screening system. The angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was evaluated by co-culturing HUVECs with hNSC-EVs in Matrigel. The expression of apoptosis and oxidative stress-related proteins in cells and the nuclear transfer of Nrf2 following hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R) was verified by Western-blotting. KEY FINDINGS: We found that the hNSC-EVs can promote the survival of post-H/R injury neurons, inhibit neuronal apoptosis, and enhance nuclear transfer of Nrf2, in response to oxidative stress. We also found the hNSC-EVs can promote the elongation of neuronal axons and the angiogenesis of HUVECs. SIGNIFICANCE: At present, there is no effective therapy for CIR injury. We suggest that the hNSC-EVs could be considered a new strategy to achieve nerve repair for the treatment of neurological diseases, especially stroke.

7.
Headache ; 60(5): 864-877, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease of pandemic proportions. Healthcare workers in Singapore working in high-risk areas were mandated to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) such as N95 face mask and protective eyewear while attending to patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the risk factors associated with the development of de novo PPE-associated headaches as well as the perceived impact of these headaches on their personal health and work performance. The impact of COVID-19 on pre-existing headache disorders was also investigated. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study among healthcare workers at our tertiary institution who were working in high-risk hospital areas during COVID-19. All respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 158 healthcare workers participated in the study. Majority [126/158 (77.8%)] were aged 21-35 years. Participants included nurses [102/158 (64.6%)], doctors [51/158 (32.3%)], and paramedical staff [5/158 (3.2%)]. Pre-existing primary headache diagnosis was present in about a third [46/158 (29.1%)] of respondents. Those based at the emergency department had higher average daily duration of combined PPE exposure compared to those working in isolation wards [7.0 (SD 2.2) vs 5.2 (SD 2.4) hours, P < .0001] or medical ICU [7.0 (SD 2.2) vs 2.2 (SD 0.41) hours, P < .0001]. Out of 158 respondents, 128 (81.0%) respondents developed de novo PPE-associated headaches. A pre-existing primary headache diagnosis (OR = 4.20, 95% CI 1.48-15.40; P = .030) and combined PPE usage for >4 hours per day (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.35-11.31; P = .012) were independently associated with de novo PPE-associated headaches. Since COVID-19 outbreak, 42/46 (91.3%) of respondents with pre-existing headache diagnosis either "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that the increased PPE usage had affected the control of their background headaches, which affected their level of work performance. CONCLUSION: Most healthcare workers develop de novo PPE-associated headaches or exacerbation of their pre-existing headache disorders.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(4): 239, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303673

RESUMO

BRD4 has long been implicated in many different pathological processes, in particular, the development of cancer and inflammation. Pyroptosis is a newly recognized type of inflammatory programmed cell death. However, the correlation between BRD4 and pyroptosis in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains elusive. The present study demonstrates that BRD4 expression levels are markedly upregulated, while pyroptosis-associated proteins are significantly reduced, in RCC tissues and cells. Inhibition of BRD4, via either genetic knockdown or use of bromodomain inhibitor JQ1, prevented cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression and induced caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis in RCC both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, BRD4 inhibition suppressed proliferation and EMT though pyroptosis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, NLRP3, which mediates caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis, was increased upon BRD4 inhibition. Furthermore, the transcriptional activity of NLRP3 was enhanced by BRD4 inhibition, and this enhancement was blocked by activation of NF-κB phosphorylation, indicating that NF-κB is an upstream regulator of NLRP3. Collectively, these results show that BRD4 inhibition prevents cell proliferation and EMT, and exerts an antitumor effect in RCC by activating the NF-κB-NLRP3-caspase-1 pyroptosis signaling pathway. Thus, BRD4 is a potential target for RCC treatment, and JQ1 shows promise as a therapeutic agent for this disease.

9.
Infect Immun ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341117

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus, an important cause of mastitis in mammals, is becoming increasingly problematic due to the development of resistance to conventional antibiotics. The ability of S. aureus to invade host cells is key to its propensity to evade immune defense and antibiotics. This study focused on functions of cathelicidins, small cationic peptides secreted by epithelial cells and leukocytes, in the pathogenesis of S. aureus mastitis in mice. We determined that endogenous murine cathelicidin (CRAMP; Camp) was important in controlling S. aureus infection, as cathelicidin knock-out mice (Camp-/- ) intramammarily challenged with S. aureus had a higher bacterial burden and more severe mastitis than wild-type mice. Exogenous administration of both synthetic human cathelicidin (LL-37) and synthetic murine cathelicidin (CRAMP) (8 µM), reduced invasion of S. aureus into murine mammary epithelium. Additionally, this exogenous LL-37 was internalized into cultured mammary epithelial cells and impaired S. aureus growth in vitro We concluded that cathelicidins may be potential therapeutic agents against mastitis; both endogenous and exogenous cathelicidins conferred protection against S. aureus infection by reducing bacterial internalization and potentially by directly killing this pathogen.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343022

RESUMO

The chemical ligation of two unprotected peptides to generate a natural peptidic linkage specifically at the C- and N-termini is a desirable goal in chemical protein synthesis but is challenging because it demands high reactivity and selectivity (chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity). We report an operationally simple and highly effective chemical peptide ligation involving the ligation of peptides with C-terminal salicylaldehyde esters to peptides with N-terminal cysteine/penicillamine. The notable features of this method include its tolerance of steric hinderance from the side groups on either ligating terminus, thereby allowing flexible disconnection at sites that are otherwise difficult to functionalize. In addition, this method can be expanded to selective desulfurization and one-pot ligation-desulfurization reactions. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated by the synthesis of VISTA (216-311), PD-1 (192-288) and Eglin C.

11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(10): 5605-5614, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239650

RESUMO

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are able to trigger angiogenesis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines have beneficial effects on angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7), receptor for stromal cell-derived factor-1, plays a critical role in enhancing EPC angiogenic function. Here, we examined whether CXCR7 mediates the pro-angiogenic effects of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in EPCs. EPCs were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and angiogenic capability was evaluated in vitro by Matrigel capillary formation assay and fibrin gel bead assay. IL-1ß elevated CXCR7 expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and blockade of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB dramatically attenuated the IL-1ß-mediated up-regulation of CXCR7 expression. IL-1ß stimulation significantly promoted EPCs tube formation and this effect was largely impaired by CXCR7-siRNA transfection. IL-1ß treatment stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) phosphorylation, and inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation partially impaired IL-1ß-induced tube formation of EPCs but without significant effects on CXCR7 expression. Moreover, blocking NF-κB had no significant effects on IL-1ß-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation. These findings indicate that CXCR7 plays an important role in the IL-1ß-enhanced angiogenic capability of EPCs and antagonizing CXCR7 is a potential strategy for inhibiting angiogenesis under inflammatory conditions.

12.
Int J Oncol ; 57(1): 80-86, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236606

RESUMO

The post­translational modification of proteins by ubiquitinating enzymes plays a central role in a number of cellular functions, such as cell proteolysis, DNA repair, and cell signaling and communication. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) disassemble ubiquitin chains and remove ubiquitin moieties from proteins. Targeting DUBs in cancer models has revealed an important role for these enzymes in tumorigenesis, and they therefore have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets. In the present study, the effects of three DUB inhibitors, PR­619, RA­9 and LDN­91946, on a non­small cell lung cancer cell line (A549) and a mesothelioma cell line (H2373) were investigated. PR­619 significantly inhibited cell adhesion and the proliferation of both cell lines. RA­9 exerted an inhibitory effect on the adhesion and proliferation of H2373 cells, whereas it had no effect on A549 cells. Notably, however, while PR­619 attenuated the proliferation of both cell lines, it exerted an opposite effect on cell motility; in the case of A549 cells, there was a significant increase in cell motility, while for the H2373 cells, there was a significant decrease. Furthermore, protein phosphorylation kinetic analyses revealed that the effects were cell line­specific. In H2373 cells, the phosphorylation of only one peptide corresponding to the P85A protein was significantly affected, and while LDN­91946 treatment increased phosphorylation, treatment with RA­9 or PR­619 decreased its phosphorylation compared to the DMSO control. By contrast, in the case of A549 cells, the phosphorylation of 21 peptides was significantly affected by the same compounds. In light of the potential for the negative side­effects of DUB inhibition, such as increased cancer cell motility, the data presented herein underscore the dire need for the development of specific DUB inhibitors and to elucidate the individual role of DUB family members in cancer biology before they can be specifically pharmacologically targeted.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110476, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278143

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated that PM2.5 inhalation is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease (CVD), in which inflammation plays an important role. The mechanisms of this disease are not fully understood to date. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in many pathophysiological processes, such as immune responses; however, their functions associated with inflammation are largely unexplored. High-throughput sequencing assay and obtained numerous lncRNAs that altered the expression in response to PM2.5 treatment in HUVECs. NONHSAT247851.1 was also identified, which was significantly up-regulated to control the expression of immune response genes. Mechanistically, the results indicated that NONHSAT247851.1 knockdown reduced the expression of IL1ß. In study, we investigated NONHSAT247851.1 as a promoter in regulating immune response genes via binding with raf-1 to regulate the phosphorylation level of p65 protein in HUVECs. The data collected suggests that NONHSAT247851.1 regulates inflammation via interaction with raf-1 to control the inflammatory expression in PM2.5 exposure.

14.
Eur J Pain ; 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken to evaluate the effect of intrathecal dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the duration of postoperative analgesia, postoperative pain scores and incidences of adverse effects. DATABASES AND DATA TREATMENT: Database search was performed from inception until January 2019. All RCTs analysing acute postoperative pain characteristics after intrathecal DEX administration in adults undergoing spinal anaesthesia for elective surgery were included. The primary outcome was postoperative analgesic duration, defined as the time to first analgesic request. The secondary outcomes included pain scores at 6, 12 and 24 postoperative hours and rates of hypotension, bradycardia, shivering and postoperative nausea and vomiting. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies comprising a total of 1,460 patients were included. Postoperative analgesic duration was prolonged with intrathecal DEX compared to placebo, with a pooled mean difference (MD) of 191.3 min (95% CI 168.8-213.8). Patients who received intrathecal DEX reported lower Visual Analogue Scale scores at 24 postoperative hours compared with those patients receiving placebo, with a MD (95% CI) of -1.05 (-1.89 to -0.20, p = 0.02). There were no differences in the incidence of adverse effects, except for a lower rate of postoperative shivering in the intrathecal DEX group (pooled relative risk 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to placebo, intrathecal DEX prolonged postoperative analgesic duration, reduced 24-hr pain intensity and reduced the incidence of shivering without an increase in other adverse effects. SIGNIFICANCE: The analgesic role of intrathecal DEX is promising due to its ability to significantly increase postoperative analgesic duration when compared with placebo. Its usage can be considered for patients undergoing surgeries with significant postoperative pain, particularly those intolerant of systemic analgesia. However, the optimal dose for various surgeries as well as its long-term neurological effects warrants further studies.

15.
Oral Dis ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176822

RESUMO

LncRNA MAFG-AS1 is predicted to interact with miR-146a, which can target Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a key player in periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the roles of MAFG-AS1 in periodontitis. It was observed that MAFG-AS1 was downregulated in the human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) derived from periodontitis-affected teeth. Dual-luciferase assay revealed that co-transfection of MAFG-AS1 expression vector and miR-146a mimic showed significantly lower relative luciferase activity comparing to co-transfection of MAFG-AS1 expression vector and negative control (NC) miRNA. However, MAFG-AS1 and miR-146a failed to affect each other. Interestingly, MAFG-AS1 overexpression led to the upregulated TLR4. In addition, MAFG-AS1 overexpression also led to the inhibited proliferation of PDLSCs. Therefore, MAFG-AS1 may regulate the proliferation of PDLSCs and the expression of TLR4 to participate in periodontitis.

16.
Genomics ; 112(4): 2763-2771, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198063

RESUMO

Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a crucial medical problem. Precise and concise prognostic models are urgently needed because of the intricate gene variations among liver cancer cells. We conducted this study to identify a prognostic gene signature with biological significance. We applied two algorithms to generate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and normal specimens in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (training set included) and performed enrichment analyses to expound on their biological significance. A protein-protein interactions network was established based on the STRING online tool. We then used Cytoscape to screen hub genes in crucial modules. A multigene signature was constructed by Cox regression analysis of hub genes to stratify the prognoses of HCC patients in the training set. The prognostic value of the multigene signature was externally validated in two other sets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE14520 and GSE76427), and its role in recurrence prediction was also investigated. A total of 2000 DEGs were obtained, including 1542 upregulated genes and 458 downregulated genes. Subsequently, we constructed a 14-gene signature on the basis of 56 hub genes, which was a good predictor of overall survival. The prognostic signature could be replicated in GSE14520 and GSE76427. Moreover, the 14-gene signature could be applied for recurrence prediction in the training set and GSE14520. In summary, the 14-gene signature extracted from hub genes was involved in some of the HCC-related signalling pathways; it not only served as a predictive signature for HCC outcome but could also be used to predict HCC recurrence.

17.
Oral Dis ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether skeletal-specific H-type blood vessels exist in alveolar bone and how they function in alveolar bone remodeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: H-type vessels with high expression of CD31 and Endomucin (CD31hi Emcnhi ) were immunostained in alveolar bone. Abundance and age-related changes in CD31hi Emcnhi endothelial cells (H-ECs) were detected by flow cytometry. Osteoprogenitors association with H-type vessels and bone mass were detected in tooth extraction model of alveolar bone remodeling by immunohistofluorescence and micro-CT, respectively. Transcription and expression of H-EC feature genes during in vitro Notch inhibition were measured by RT-qPCR and immunocytofluorescence. RESULTS: We verified that H-type vessels existed in alveolar bone, the abundance of which was highest at infancy age, then decreased but maintained a constant level during aging. In tooth extraction model, H-ECs significantly increased with concomitant perivascular accumulation of Runx2+ osteoprogenitors and gradually augmentation of bone mass. Notch inhibition of in vitro cultured H-ECs resulted in decreased expression levels of Emcn and hes1, but not Pecam1 or Kdr genes, with decreased expression levels of H-EC numbers, accordingly. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that H-type vessels promote osteogenesis during alveolar bone remodeling. Notch signaling pathway regulates expression of Emcn and possibly determines fate and functions of alveolar H-ECs.

18.
Theranostics ; 10(8): 3779-3792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206122

RESUMO

Healing of the chronic diabetic ulceration and large burns remains a clinical challenge. Therapeutic fasting has been shown to improve health. Our study tested whether fasting facilitates diabetic and burn wound healing and explored the underlying mechanism. Methods: The effects of fasting on diabetic and burn wound healing were evaluated by analyzing the rates of wound closure, re-epithelialization, scar formation, collagen deposition, skin cell proliferation and neovascularization using histological analyses and immunostaining. In vitro functional assays were conducted to assess fasting and refeeding on the angiogenic activities of endothelial cells. Transcriptome sequencing was employed to identify the differentially expressed genes in endothelial cells after fasting treatment and the role of the candidate genes in the fasting-induced promotion of angiogenesis was demonstrated. Results: Two times of 24-h fasting in a week after but especially before wound injury efficiently induced faster wound closure, better epidermal and dermal regeneration, less scar formation and higher level of angiogenesis in mice with diabetic or burn wounds. In vitro, fasting alone by serum deprivation did not increase, but rather reduced the abilities of endothelial cell to proliferate, migrate and form vessel-like tubes. However, subsequent refeeding did not merely rescue, but further augmented the angiogenic activities of endothelial cells. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that fasting itself, but not the following refeeding, induced a prominent upregulation of a variety of pro-angiogenic genes, including SMOC1 (SPARC related modular calcium binding 1) and SCG2 (secretogranin II). Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the increase of SMOC1 and SCG2 expression in both diabetic and burn wounds after fasting treatment. When the expression of SMOC1 or SCG2 was down-regulated, the fasting/refeeding-induced pro-angiogenic effects were markedly attenuated. Conclusion: This study suggests that fasting combined with refeeding, but not fasting solely, enhance endothelial angiogenesis through the activation of SMOC1 and SCG2, thus facilitating neovascularization and rapid wound healing.

19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(3): 549-559, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091354

RESUMO

The convergence of carbapenem-resistance and hypervirulence genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae has led to the emergence of highly drug-resistant superbugs capable of causing invasive disease. We analyzed 556 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from patients in Singapore hospitals during 2010-2015 and discovered 18 isolates from 7 patients also harbored hypervirulence features. All isolates contained a closely related plasmid (pKPC2) harboring blaKPC-2, a K. pneumoniae carbapenemase gene, and had a hypervirulent background of capsular serotypes K1, K2, and K20. In total, 5 of 7 first patient isolates were hypermucoviscous, and 6 were virulent in mice. The pKPC2 was highly transmissible and remarkably stable, maintained in bacteria within a patient with few changes for months in the absence of antimicrobial drug selection pressure. Intrapatient isolates were also able to acquire additional antimicrobial drug resistance genes when inside human bodies. Our results highlight the potential spread of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae in Singapore.

20.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 34(5): e22473, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048404

RESUMO

γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA) is commonly used as a food supplement and a health care product by young females, due to its positive roles in relieving stress, alleviating anxiety, and improving sleep. However, its recommended daily dose in different products varies widely. Besides, it is unknown whether, and how, GABA consumption during early pregnancy influences pregnancy establishment. In this study, we found that when pregnant mice were treated with a high (12.5 mg/g) dose of GABA (orally) during preimplantation, there was a reduction in the number of implantation sites on day 5 of pregnancy. Also, among these unimplanted embryos, most exhibited morphological degeneration and developmental retardation, and only a few of them developed into blastocysts but could not implant into the uterus. Moreover, the expression of uterine receptivity-related factors-LIF, E-cadherin, and HOXA10-were all downregulated, while the number of uterine glands was reduced in the high GABA dose group. Finally, in vitro results demonstrated that GABA (ranging from 10 to 50 µg/µL) markedly inhibited preimplantation embryo development in a dose-response manner. However, this inhibitory effect was not observed when the embryos were pretreated with 40 µΜ 2-hydroxysaclofen, a GABAB antagonist, indicating that GABA exerts its inhibitory effects via its B-type receptor. Our results suggest that exposure to certain GABA concentrations, during early pregnancy, can impair preimplantation embryo development via its B-type receptor, and endometrial receptivity, which greatly disturbs early embryo implantation in mice. These findings could raise concerns about GABA consumption during the early stages of pregnancy.

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