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1.
Virus Res ; 286: 198074, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589897

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel human coronavirus causing the pandemic of severe pneumonia (Coronavirus Disease 2019, COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in human, having posed immeasurable public health challenges to the world. Innate immune response is critical for the host defense against viral infection and the dysregulation of the host innate immune responses probably aggravates SARS-CoV-2 infection, contributing to the high morbidity and lethality of COVID-19. It has been reported that some coronavirus proteins play an important role in modulating innate immunity of the host, but few studies have been conducted on SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we screened the viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and found that the viral ORF6, ORF8 and nucleocapsid proteins were potential inhibitors of type I interferon signaling pathway, a key component for antiviral response of host innate immune. All the three proteins showed strong inhibition on type I interferon (IFN-ß) and NF-κB-responsive promoter, further examination revealed that these proteins were able to inhibit the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) after infection with Sendai virus, while only ORF6 and ORF8 proteins were able to inhibit the ISRE after treatment with interferon beta. These findings would be helpful for the further study of the detailed signaling pathway and unveil the key molecular player that may be targeted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interferon beta/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Interferon beta/imunologia , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Fosfoproteínas , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Elementos de Resposta , Vírus Sendai/genética , Vírus Sendai/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção/métodos , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
2.
Anal Chem ; 80(10): 3873-81, 2008 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18412371

RESUMO

Voltammetric behavior at gold electrodes in aqueous media is known to be strongly dependent on electrode polishing and history. In this study, an electrode array consisting of 100 nominally identical and individually addressable gold disks electrodes, each with a radius of 127 microm, has been fabricated. The ability to analyze both individual electrode and total array performance enables microscopic aspects of the overall voltammetric response arising from variable levels of inhomogeneity in each electrode to be identified. The array configuration was initially employed with the reversible and hence relatively surface insensitive [Ru(NH 3) 6] (3+/2+) reaction and then with the more highly surface sensitive quasi-reversible [Fe(CN) 6] (3-/4-) process. In both these cases, the reactants and products are solution soluble and, at a scan rate of 50 mV s (-1), each electrode in the array is assumed to behave independently, since no evidence of overlapping of the diffusion layers was detected. As would be expected, the variability of the individual electrodes' responses was significantly larger than found for the summed electrode behavior. In the case of cytochrome c voltammetry at a 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide modified electrode, a far greater dependence on electrode history and electrode heterogeneity was detected. In this case, voltammograms derived from individual electrodes in the gold array electrode exhibit shape variations ranging from peak to sigmoidal. However, again the total response was always found to be well-defined. This voltammetry is consistent with a microscopic model of heterogeneity where some parts of each chemically modified electrode surface are electroactive while other parts are less active. The findings are consistent with the common existence of electrode heterogeneity in cyclic voltammetric responses at gold electrodes, that are normally difficult to detect, but fundamentally important, as electrode nonuniformity can give rise to subtle forms of kinetic and other forms of dispersion.

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