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1.
Neuropsychologia ; 138: 107343, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952981

RESUMO

Developmental dyslexia is known to involve dysfunctions in multiple brain regions; however, a clear understanding of the brain networks behind this disorder is still lacking. The present study examined the functional network connectivity in Chinese dyslexic children with resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. EEG data were recorded from 27 dyslexic children and 40 age-matched controls, and a minimum spanning tree (MST) analysis was performed to examine the network connectivity in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands. The results show that, compared to age-matched controls, Chinese dyslexic children had global network deficiencies in the beta band, and the network topology was more path-like. Moderate correlations are observed between MST degree metric and rapid automatized naming and morphological awareness tests. These observations, together with the findings in alphabetic languages, show that brain network deficiency is a common neural underpinning of dyslexia across writing systems.

2.
Neurosci Bull ; 34(3): 517-526, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589216

RESUMO

The process of reading words depends heavily on efficient visual skills, including analyzing and decomposing basic visual features. Surprisingly, previous reading-related studies have almost exclusively focused on gross aspects of visual skills, while only very few have investigated the role of finer skills. The present study filled this gap and examined the relations of two finer visual skills measured by grating acuity (the ability to resolve periodic luminance variations across space) and Vernier acuity (the ability to detect/discriminate relative locations of features) to Chinese character-processing as measured by character form-matching and lexical decision tasks in skilled adult readers. The results showed that Vernier acuity was significantly correlated with performance in character form-matching but not visual symbol form-matching, while no correlation was found between grating acuity and character processing. Interestingly, we found no correlation of the two visual skills with lexical decision performance. These findings provide for the first time empirical evidence that the finer visual skills, particularly as reflected in Vernier acuity, may directly contribute to an early stage of hierarchical word processing.


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Semântica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Adolescente , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Estatística como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
3.
Oncol Lett ; 15(2): 2550-2554, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434972

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of tanshinone II, isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Control, LPS and tanshinone II. Animals in the tanshinone II and LPS groups were administered 10 mg/kg LPS, whereas those in the control group received an equal volume of normal saline. Tanshinone II treatment group were injected with 30 nm/kg tanshinone II at 1 h after LPS administration. The results revealed that LPS administration increased the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentration significantly compared with the control group. However, tanshinone II treatment significantly inhibited the LPS-induced increase in protein level. Treatment of the LPS-administered rats with tanshinone II prevented the formation of pulmonary edema, which was evidenced by low values for wet to dry lung weight ratio. The activity of myeloperoxidase and expression of malondialdehyde were significantly lower in lung homogenates from the tanshinone II group compared with the LPS group. Furthermore, tanshinone II treatment inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the blood plasma. Tissue sections of the tanshinone II group exhibited normal morphology and absence of neutrophil accumulation. However, in the LPS group, neutrophils accumulated and penetrated into the pulmonary tissues. These results suggested that tanshinone II protects the rats from LPS-induced ALI. Therefore tanshinone II may have clinical applications in the treatment of ALI.

4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 55: 339-353, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28477830

RESUMO

To compare the inorganic chemical compositions of TSP (total suspended particulate), PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10µm) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5µm) in southern and northern cities in China, atmospheric particles were synchronously collected in Dalian (the northern city) and Xiamen (the southern city) in spring and autumn of 2004. The mass concentrations, twenty-three elements and nine soluble ions were assessed. The results show that in Dalian, the mass concentrations of Mg, Al, Ca, Mn and Fe in spring were 4.0-10.1, 2.6-8.0, 4.1-12, 1.2-3.6 and 2.9-7.9 times higher, respectively, than those in Xiamen. The dust storm influence is more obvious in Dalian in spring. However, in Xiamen, heavy metals accounted for 13.9%-17.9% of TSP, while heavy metals contributed to 5.5%-9.3% of TSP in Dalian. These concentrations suggest that heavy metal pollution in Xiamen was more serious. In addition, the concentrations of Na+, Cl-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were higher in Dalian due to the influence of marine aerosol, construction activities and soil dust. The NO3-/SO42- ratios in Dalian (0.25-0.49) were lower than those in Xiamen (0.51-0.62), indicating that the contributions of vehicle emission to particles in Xiamen were higher. Coefficient of divergence values was higher than 0.40, implying that the inorganic chemical composition profiles for the particles of Dalian and Xiamen were quite different from each other.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , China , Cidades , Tamanho da Partícula , Emissões de Veículos/análise
5.
Psychophysiology ; 54(8): 1128-1137, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369927

RESUMO

Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have identified the involvement of the right posterior region in the processing of visual words. Interestingly, in contrast, ERP studies of the N170 typically demonstrate selectivity for words more strikingly over the left hemisphere. Why is right hemisphere selectivity for words during the N170 epoch typically not observed, despite the clear involvement of this region in word processing? One possibility is that amplitude differences measured on averaged ERPs in previous studies may have been obscured by variation in peak latency across trials. This study examined this possibility by using single-trial analysis. Results show that words evoked greater single-trial N170s than control stimuli in the right hemisphere. Additionally, we observed larger trial-to-trial variability on N170 peak latency for words as compared to control stimuli over the right hemisphere. Results demonstrate that, in contrast to much of the prior literature, the N170 can be selective to words over the right hemisphere. This discrepancy is explained in terms of variability in trial-to-trial peak latency for responses to words over the right hemisphere.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Adolescente , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
6.
Dyslexia ; 22(4): 362-378, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27805322

RESUMO

Reading depends heavily on the efficient shift of attention. Mounting evidence has suggested that dyslexics have deficits in covert attentional shift. However, it remains unclear whether dyslexics also have deficits in overt attentional shift. With the majority of relevant studies carried out in alphabetic writing systems, it is also unknown whether the attentional deficits observed in dyslexics are restricted to a particular writing system. The present study examined inhibition of return (IOR)-a major driving force of attentional shifts-in dyslexic children learning to read a logographic script (i.e., Chinese). Robust IOR effects were observed in both covert and overt attentional tasks in two groups of typically developing children, who were age- or reading ability-matched to the dyslexic children. In contrast, the dyslexic children showed IOR in the overt but not in the covert attentional task. We conclude that covert attentional shift is selectively impaired in dyslexic children. This impairment is not restricted to alphabetic writing systems, and it could be a significant contributor to the difficulties encountered by children learning to read. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Atenção , Dislexia/psicologia , Linguagem , Leitura , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redação
7.
Water Environ Res ; 87(11): 1941-8, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26564582

RESUMO

The real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantitatively evaluate distribution patterns and nitrogen removal pathways of the amoA, nxrA, narG, napA, nirK, qnorB, nosZ, nas, and nifH genes and 16S rRNA in anaerobic ammonia oxidation bacteria in four multimedia constructed wetlands for rural wastewater treatment. The results indicated that the abundance of functional genes for nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere layer (0 to 30 cm), water distribution layer (30 to 50 cm), multime filler layer (50 to 130 cm), and catchment layer (130 to 170 cm) of the constructed wetlands were closely related. The rhizosphere layer was conducive to the absolute enrichment of dominant genes. The other three layers were favorable to the relative enrichment of rare genes.


Assuntos
Genes Bacterianos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Purificação da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Amônia/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Bactérias Anaeróbias/genética , Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 102(2): 550-7, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20797854

RESUMO

A multi-media biological aerated filter (MBAF) with clinoptilolite media was used to treat synthetic wastewater. Coal ash bioceramsite with supplemental metallic iron was added to the clinoptilolite media of MBAFs in a brick-wall embedded design. Performance parameters, such as hydraulic, organic, N and P loading capacity and microbial community composition were studied for different quantity of supplemental metallic iron contained in three MBAFs. The MBAFs with more metallic iron were found to have superior hydraulic and organic loading, and higher N and P capacities. COD, NH3-N and TP removal dropped by 7-10%, 6-7% and 4-5%, respectively, with when hydraulic loading was raised from 2.8 to 7.5 m3 m(-2) d(-1). NH3-N removal also decreased 8-9% when ammonia loading was elevated from 0.078 to 0.156 kg NH3-N m(-3) d(-1). Real-time PCR revealed a relatively stable bacterial community composed primarily of eubacteria that formed after an initial 120 d operational period. Doubling the amount of metallic iron in the bioceramsite media resulted in a twofold increase of eubacteria in the MBAF, but a decrease in the ratio of anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria to total bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Carvão Mineral , Filtração/instrumentação , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Zeolitas/química , Aerobiose , Amônia/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Bases , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante , Desenho de Equipamento , Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Fósforo/análise , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Água/química
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 101(1): 174-80, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19733065

RESUMO

Status of, and changes in, the bacterial communities at two acclimation stages (with- and without-ultrasound) in a small 70 degrees C ultrasound-enhanced anaerobic reactor for treating carbazole-containing wastewater reactor were analyzed by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR techniques. PCR-DGGE results indicated that a large number of bands occurred in the whole sludge samples. Pseudomonas sp., Comamonas sp., and Diaphorobacter sp. were identified as being able to utilize carbazole as a carbon source, survive in an anaerobic and ultra-high-temperature environment and become dominant bacterial taxa during the with-ultrasound stage in the reactor. Total bacterial density in the with-ultrasonic stages was 10 x higher than in the without-ultrasonic treatment. The proportion of Pseudomonas was relatively stable at 0.13%-0.15% in both acclimation stages, which indicates that Pseudomonas can flourish and promote carbazole degradation either with or without-ultrasound. These studies provide information on carbazole degradation under ultra-high-temperature conditions in an anaerobic environment.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/classificação , Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Carbazóis/metabolismo , Esgotos/microbiologia , Sonicação/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Bactérias Anaeróbias/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Microbiologia da Água
10.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 49(11): 5094-102, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18599562

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the molecular pharmacology underlying the antiangiogenic effects of nonpeptide imidazolidine-2,4-dione somatostatin receptor agonists (NISAs) and evaluate the efficacy of NISA in ocular versus systemic delivery routes in ocular disease models. METHODS: Functional inhibitory effects of the NISAs and the somatostatin peptide analogue octreotide were evaluated in vitro by chemotaxis, proliferation, and tube-formation assays. The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model and the laser model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) were used to test the in vivo efficacy of NISAs. Transscleral permeability of a candidate NISA was also measured. RESULTS: NISAs inhibited growth factor-induced HREC proliferation, migration and tube formation with submicromolar potencies (IC(50), 0.1-1.0 microM) comparable to octreotide. In the OIR model, systemic administration of the NISAs RFE-007 and RFE-011 inhibited retinal neovascularization in a dose-dependent manner, comparable to octreotide. In the CNV model, intravitreal RFE-011 resulted in a 56% reduction (P < 0.01) in CNV lesion area, whereas systemic administration resulted in a 35% reduction (P < 0.05) in lesion area. RFE-011 demonstrated transscleral penetration. CONCLUSIONS: Micromolar concentrations of octreotide and NISAs are necessary for antiangiogenic effects, whereas nanomolar concentrations are effective for endocrine inhibition. This suggests that the antiangiogenic activity of NISAs and octreotide is mediated by an overall much less efficient downstream coupling mechanism than is growth hormone release. As a result, the intravitreal or transscleral route of administration should be seriously considered for future clinical studies of SSTR2 agonists used for treatment of ocular neovascularization to ensure efficacious concentrations in the target retinal and choroidal tissue.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Neovascularização de Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazolidinas/agonistas , RNA/genética , Receptores de Somatostatina/genética , Neovascularização Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacocinética , Animais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Autorradiografia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Neovascularização de Coroide/metabolismo , Neovascularização de Coroide/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Injeções , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Octreotida/administração & dosagem , Octreotida/farmacocinética , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Soluções Oftálmicas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Coelhos , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Neovascularização Retiniana/metabolismo , Neovascularização Retiniana/patologia , Esclera , Resultado do Tratamento , Corpo Vítreo
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