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1.
Food Chem ; 411: 135515, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693300

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to elucidate the influence of oxidative modifications of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) on their surface properties. Oxidative modifications (deamination, formation of disulfide bonds and Schiff bases), particle size, net surface charge, and binding ability of volatiles (2-enthylfuran, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, and octanal) of oxidized MPs was measured. Molecular docking of volatiles with actomyosin was performed using Qvina-W program and the specific oxidative modifications (monoxidation and deamination) of MPs were determined using LC-MS/MS. Results showed that oxidation of Cys (forming sulfinic, sulfonic, sulfenic acid, and disulfide bonds), monoxidation of Ala, Lys, Glu, and Asn, and deamination of Lys changed the surface properties of oxidized MPs including enhanced surface hydrophobicity and decreased affinity to volatile compounds and water. Overall, this study gives evidence of how protein oxidation affects the properties of MPs and therefore deteriorates fish meat quality.

2.
Food Chem ; 409: 135279, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603476

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroxyl radical oxidizing system (HROS) and endogenous oxidizing system (EOS, i.e., frozen storage at -20 °C) on protein oxidation, digestive properties, and peptide modification of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) fillets. The oxidation degree increased with the frozen time and H2O2 concentration as evidenced by carbonyl group generation and sulfhydryl group loss in MPs. The digestibility of protein declined gradually during frozen storage, while it increased after treatment with 5 mM H2O2 compared with no H2O2 intervention. More modification numbers and types were observed in the EOS group than HROS in digested MPs peptides, which might be due to the complexity of the frozen fillet system such as the presence of lipid. The potential conversion of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) to α-aminoadipic acids (AAA) was observed in HROS. Additionally, the myosin heavy chain was more susceptible to oxidation among all MPs by EOS oxidation.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cyprinidae , Animais , Radical Hidroxila , Oxirredução , Congelamento
3.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134556, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444012

RESUMO

Whey protein (WP) is ubiquitously applied in food products, but its sensitivity to food processing conditions has limited its application. Herein, we chose propylene glycol alginate (PGA) to combine with WP to enhance its stability. The ideal ratio of WP/PGA for coacervation was 3:1, and the soluble complex and insoluble complex were formed at pH 5.2 (pHc) and pH 4.4 (pHφ1) at this ratio, respectively. The UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, and XRD results revealed that the interaction between PGA and WP changed the tertiary conformation of WP. The FTIR and molecular docking results suggested electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were all involved in the formation of WP-PGA complexes, and the thermal stability of WP was improved based on the DSC results. These findings supported PGA to keep dairy products stable and transparent at the isoelectric point and WP-PGA complexes could be applied in encapsulating bioactive substances.


Assuntos
Alginatos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
4.
Microbiol Res ; 268: 127296, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580869

RESUMO

The protein lysine acetylation includes acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) or acetyl phosphate (AcP)-mediated nonenzymatic acetylation, and enzymatic acetylation. It is widespread in the proteomes but the acetylation levels of most sites are very low. A thorough understanding of the determinants of low acetylation levels is highly important for elucidating the physiological relevance of lysine acetylation. In this study, we constructed a non-native substrate library containing 24 synthesized polypeptides, and we showed that ATP could inhibit the AcCoA-mediated nonenzymatic acetylation of these polypeptides through LC-MS/MS analysis. The acetyltransferase PatZ could acetylated these non-native substrates, and the PatZ-catalyzed acetylation of the polypeptides was also inhibited by ATP. Furthermore, the Western blot showed that ATP also inhibited the nonenzymatic (AcCoA or AcP-mediated) and enzymatic (PatZ-catalyzed) acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase Acs, which is a native substrate for acetylation. ATP can also inhibit the autoacetylation of acetyltransferase PatZ. Besides, both ADP and AMP could enhance the AcP-mediated acetylation of Acs, but ADP slightly inhibited the AcCoA-mediated acetylation of Acs. However, both ADP and AMP had no evident inhibition on the PatZ-catalyzed acetylation of Acs. Based on these results, we proposed that ATP can act as an inhibitor of acetylation, and it may regulate the function of PatZ by inhibiting its autoacetylation and compensate for the function of deacetylase CobB.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Acetilação , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Acetiltransferases , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
5.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1025540, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339536

RESUMO

Objective: Network pharmacology provides new methods and references for the research of traditional Chinese medicine, but some problems remain, such as single evaluation components and index methods, imperfect relevant databases, unscientific prediction results, and lack of verification of results. Herein, we used a modified network pharmacology research method to explore the potential network analysis mechanism of Huoxue Qingre decoction in the treatment of coronary heart disease and utilized clinical trials for assessment. Methods: Based on literature research, the targets corresponding to the drug were obtained with the assistance of the TCMSP database and Swiss Target Prediction, and the target proteins were corrected using the UniProt database. The targets related to coronary heart disease was obtained through the GeneCards database. A protein-protein interaction network diagram was constructed, and a "component-intersection target" network diagram was drawn based on Cytoscape 3.6.2 software. The mapped targets were imported into the DAVID bioinformatics platform, which underwent Gene Ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, and the network pharmacology prediction results were evaluated through clinical trials. Results: We obtained 151 compounds related to Huoxue Qingre decoction, 286 genes after evaluation and deduplication, and 426 genes related to coronary heart disease. Finally, 81 common target genes were obtained with 32 pathways according to the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. The validation results of the clinical trials showed that a total of 98 differential metabolites were found in the treatment of coronary heart disease with Huoxue Qingre decoction, involving a total of 16 metabolic pathways. Compared with the network pharmacology prediction results, it was found that only the pathways in cancer (hsa05200) were the common pathways in the top 32 signaling pathways predicted by network pharmacology. The expanded network pharmacology prediction results revealed that the sphingolipid signaling pathway (hsa04071) and prostate cancer pathway (hsa05215) matched the predicted metabolic pathways, with differential metabolites of N-oleoyl-D-sphingomyelin and 1-methyl-6-phenyl-1h-imidazole[4,5-b]pyridine-2-amine. Conclusion: Through the network analysis and metabolomic evaluation, there may be three signaling pathways that involve the Huoxue Qingre decoction in the treatment of coronary heart disease: pathways in cancer (hsa05200), sphingolipid signaling pathway (hsa04071), and prostate cancer pathway (hsa05215).

6.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111880, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192913

RESUMO

Silver carp is a type of Asian carp that poses a threat to the United States. Unfortunately, producing Asian carp surimi in the US has been unsuccessful due to the high cost. Thus, exporting Asian carp to China and other Asian countries in the form of frozen deboned fish mince (without washing) would be a new way to create commercial value. This study was to explore the effects of compound cryoprotectants CC (sucrose, sorbitol, and sodium tripolyphosphate) and CC + SD (salted egg white) on unwashed silver carp mince during frozen storage. In the presence of CC, unwashed mince exerted benefits on gel property and water holding property. CC was able to retard protein oxidation as indicated by the retarded carbonyl content and lower loss in sulfhydryl content. Based on indicators of content of salt-soluble protein, α-helix, myosin heavy chain and intrinsic fluorescence intensity, CC addition inhibited protein aggregation by protecting the protein structure. The inclusion of SD did not show a cryoprotective effect or synergistic antioxidant effect with sucrose-sorbitol, but SD improved the gel strength within 4 weeks of freezing. Thus, CC can provide cryoprotective protection during frozen storage of silver carp mince. CC + SD provides a reference for long-distance transport and off-site production of frozen silver carp mince.


Assuntos
Carpas , Crioprotetores , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Crioprotetores/química , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Congelamento , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina , Estresse Oxidativo , Agregados Proteicos , Proteínas , Sorbitol , Sacarose , Água
7.
Food Funct ; 13(21): 11049-11060, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196915

RESUMO

Saponins from the sea cucumber, Thelenota ananas, have been reported to modulate cholesterol metabolism and may be useful in treating atherosclerosis and related diseases, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study is designed to investigate the effect of the saponin desulfated holothurin A (desHA), prepared from Thelenota ananas, on cholesterol and lipid metabolism in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage-foam cells. The detection and prediction of miRNAs were conducted by high-throughput sequencing and associated bioinformatics analysis. We found that desHA could play an essential role in the species and expression of miRNAs. There were more abundant miRNAs in the desHA-treated groups. miR-365-2-5p, -125b-1-3p, -744-5p, -330-3p, -125a-3p and -3057-5p were extremely suppressed by desHA under the oxLDL treatment, while miR-212-3p and miR-132-3p were significantly upregulated by desHA. The clusters of orthologous groups (COG) analysis indicated that the detected miRNAs participated in lipid transport and metabolism (I) and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism (Q), which were closely linked with cholesterol metabolism. The network of the nine miRNAs with higher degree of differential expression (miR-125a-3p, -23b-5p, -3057-5p, -330-3p, -365-2-5p and -744-5p, -345-5p -212-3p and -132-3p) and their target genes further showed relationships with inflammatory response, cell proliferation and cholesterol metabolism. Due to miR-125a-3p and miR-365-2-5p being involved in the regulation of more genes, which are mostly related to the functions involved in cholesterol metabolism, they may be potential targets for desHA to prevent or treat atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Ananas , Aterosclerose , MicroRNAs , Saponinas , Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Ananas/genética , Ananas/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pepinos-do-Mar/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Colesterol , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/genética
8.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-20, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122384

RESUMO

In addition to microbial spoilage and lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation is increasingly recognized as a major cause for quality deterioration of muscle-based foods. Although protein oxidation in muscle-based foods has attracted tremendous interest in the past decade, specific oxidative pathways and underlying mechanisms of protein oxidation in aquatic products remain largely unexplored. The present review covers the aspects of the origin and site-specific nature of protein oxidation, progress on the characterization of protein oxidation, oxidized proteins in aquatic products, and impact of protein oxidation on protein functionalities. Compared to meat protein oxidation, aquatic proteins demonstrate a less extent of oxidation on aromatic amino acids and are more susceptible to be indirectly oxidized by lipid peroxidation products. Different from traditional measurement of protein carbonyls and thiols, proteomics-based strategy better characterizes the targeted oxidation sites within proteins. The future trends using more robust and accurate targeted proteomics, such as parallel reaction monitoring strategy, to characterize protein oxidation in aquatic products are also given.

9.
Phytomedicine ; 107: 154458, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scutellaria baicalensis, a medicinal herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family, has been recorded in the Chinese, European, and British Pharmacopoeias. The medicinal properties of this plant are attributed to the total flavonoids of Scutellaria baicalensis (TFSB), particularly the main component, baicalin. This study provides a systematic and comprehensive list of the identified TFSB components and their chemical structures. The quality control process, pharmacokinetics, clinical application, and safety of Scutellaria baicalensis are discussed, and its pharmacological effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is detailed. Finally, the future research trends and prospects of this medicinal plant are provided. METHODS: The Chinese and English papers related to TFSB were collected from the PubMed and CNKI databases using the relevant keywords. To highlight the pharmacological mechanism, clinical application, and safety of TFSB, the collected articles were screened and classified based on their research content. RESULTS: TFSB contains at least 100 different kinds of flavonoids, of which baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, wogonoside, scutellarin, and scutellarein are the main active ingredients. The preparation process of TFSB is relatively well established, and the extraction rate can be significantly increased by enzymatic pretreatment and ultrasonication. The low oral availability of TFSB may be effectively enhanced using nanoformulations. The available pharmacokinetic data show that flavonoid glycosides and aglycones with the same parent nucleus may be converted to structures that are conducive to absorption in vivo. Moreover, TFSB can protect against CVDs by inhibiting apoptosis, regulating oxidative stress response, participating in inflammatory response, protecting against myocardial fibrosis, inhibiting myocardial hypertrophy, and regulating blood vessels. In terms of clinical application and animal safety, the available studies show that TFSB can be applied in a wide range of clinical treatments and is safe to use is animals. CONCLUSION: This article systematically reviews the therapeutic effect and underlying pharmacological mechanism of TFSB against CVDs. The available studies clearly suggest that TFSB has great potential for the treatment of CVDs and is worthy of in-depth research and development.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Flavanonas , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Scutellaria baicalensis/química
10.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111647, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076379

RESUMO

The oyster protein hydrolysate (OPH) possesses various biological activities that have the potential to ameliorate alcoholic liver disease (ALD). This study aimed to assess the protective effects of OPH on liver injury in mice induced by chronic alcohol treatment and the underlying mechanism was further explored by transcriptome and proteome from a global view. Compared with the Model group, OPH treatment significantly decreased the liver weight (p < 0.01) and reduced the content of liver injury markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT, by 34.14%, p < 0.01), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, by 35.31%, p < 0.01) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, by 17.18%, p < 0.05) while increased the content of hepatic function marker total protein (TP, by 17.30%, p < 0.05) in serum. Meanwhile, only mild hepatocyte injury accompanied by less lipid droplet accumulation was observed in OPH treated ALD mice. The transcriptome and proteome results indicated that 482 target genes and 111 target proteins were involved in the ameliorative effect of OPH on ALD. After data integration, 43 co-regulated targets were identified, which were mainly related to lipid metabolism (reduction of cholesterol and triglyceride accumulation) and inflammatory response [inhibition of inflammatory responses through toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathways]. Consistent with omics data, the hepatic levels of total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) were declined by OPH treatment in ALD mice. Collectively, our results prove that OPH possesses potent hepatoprotective activities and has the potential to be used as a novel functional ingredient for the management of ALD.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Ostreidae , Animais , Colesterol , Etanol , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Ostreidae/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Foods ; 11(17)2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076856

RESUMO

Microbial growth strongly affects the quality and flavor of fish and fish products. This study aimed to explore the role and function of grass carp-borne microorganisms in the degradation of inosine monophosphate (IMP) related compounds in a fish juice system during chill storage (4 °C. Prokaryotic transcriptomic analysis was used to explore the microbial contribution to metabolic pathways and related enzymes. The degree of microbial contribution was verified by the activity of enzymes and metabolite content. Collectively, there were multiple IMP relative product degradation pathways. A. rivipollensis degraded IMP by producing 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT) while S. putrefaciens degraded IMP mainly by alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Hypoxanthine (Hx) was degraded to uric acid (Ua) induced by P. putida and S. putrefaciens mainly with producing xanthine oxidase (XOD), while A. rivipollensis almost could not produce XOD. This work can used as a guide and provide basic knowledge for the quality and flavor control of aquatic products.

12.
Food Funct ; 13(16): 8411-8424, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857308

RESUMO

Many bioactivities of hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) muscle have been reported, while there is no knowledge about their protective effects on alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). In the present study, the anti-oxidative activities in vitro and molecular weight distribution of oyster protein hydrolysates (OPH) were detected and the OPH released by alcalase (AOPH) was used to treat C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a Lindros control diet to establish an ethanol-exposed model. The content of small-weight components (<2.0 kDa) of OPH reached 90.85%. AOPH showed more potent antioxidant activities in vitro with higher reducing power and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and those capacities could be maintained at a high level after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Compared to the model mice, oral administration (4 weeks) of AOPH at 800 mg per kg body weight could lead to a decline in T-AOC, GSH-PX, and ADH in the liver. The hepatocellular lesions were effectively relieved and impaired liver tissue development was successfully inhibited. A total of 834 genes and 54 proteins showed differential expression in the AOPH group and the oxidative metabolic pathways of ethanol such as oxidative phosphorylation, glutathione metabolism, peroxisomes, the PPAR signaling pathway and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450 play a preeminent role in ALD according to the results of transcriptomics and proteomics. The beneficial effects of AOPH were available in the improvement of ALD. These results revealed that AOPH intervention ameliorated ALD by affecting oxidative metabolism and highlighting AOPH's potential application as a functional food.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Crassostrea/química , Etanol/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia
13.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111419, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761665

RESUMO

Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) has been proved to possess various biological activities associated with the amelioration of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic and hepatoprotective effects of WPH on apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice fed with a Western diet for 15 weeks. Results revealed that WPH markedly inhibited the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and steatosis injury in the liver. The serum lipid and inflammation levels were both reduced after WPH supplemented in apoE-/- mice. In addition, WPH inhibited the lipid accumulation in the liver, thereby decreasing the hepatic inflammation level and oxidative stress injury. Mechanism investigation revealed that WPH down-regulated the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes while up-regulated the expression of cholesterol uptake and excretion genes in the liver. Meanwhile, the de novo lipogenesis was inhibited while the fatty acids ß-oxidation was activated in the liver by WPH supplementation. Notably, the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)/n-6 PUFA ratio in serum and liver of the WPH-H group were 2.69-fold (p < 0.01) and 3.64-fold (p < 0.01) higher than that of the Model group. Collectively, our results proved WPH possesses potent anti-atherosclerotic and hepatoprotective activities and has the potential to be used as a novel functional ingredient for the management of CVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Fígado Gorduroso , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Soro do Leite , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Colesterol , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Soro do Leite/química
14.
Foods ; 11(9)2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564045

RESUMO

Asian carp is a general designation for grass carp, silver carp, bighead carp, and black carp. These fish species belong to the family Cyprinidae. In 2018, more than 18.5 million tons of Asian carp were produced globally. Asian carp can be used for producing surimi, a stabilized myofibrillar protein concentrate that can be made into a wide variety of products such as imitation crab sticks, fish balls, fish cakes, fish tofu, and fish sausage. Surimi is usually made from marine fish, but Asian carp have been widely used for surimi production in China. The quality of surimi is affected by various factors, including the processing methods and food additives, such as polysaccharides, protein, salt, and cryoprotectant. With an impending shortage of marine fish due to overfishing and depletion of fish stocks, Asian carp have a potential to serve as an alternative raw material for surimi products thanks to their high abundancy, less emissions of greenhouse gases from farming, desirable flesh color, and sufficient gel forming ability. The utilization of Asian carp in surimi production could also contribute to relieving the overflow of Asian carp in the United States.

15.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405988

RESUMO

Whey protein and its hydrolysate are ubiquitously consumed as nutritional supplements. This study aimed to evaluate the potential effect of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) on the infant gut microbiome, which is more variable than that of adults. Colonic fermentation was simulated through a static digestion model and fecal culture fermentation, using feces from normal infants aged from 1-3 years old. During in vitro gut fermentation, measurements of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentrations and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were performed. Additionally, the growth curves of cultivated probiotics were analyzed to evaluate the prebiotic potential of WPH. Besides the decline of pH in fermentation, the addition of WPH induced a significant increase in the SCFA production and also the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, and Streptococcus (p < 0.05). The lower ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes in WPH-supplemented samples indicated the positive modulation of WPH on the gut microbiota, which could benefit the energy balance and metabolism of infants. The stimulation effect of WPH on the probiotics (particularly Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) during cultivation implied the prebiotic potential as well. Our findings shed light on WPH as a valuable dietary supplement with not only enriched resources of essential amino acids but also the potential to restore the infant gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Soro do Leite , Bactérias , Pré-Escolar , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Prebióticos/análise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Soro do Leite/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 382: 132341, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144187

RESUMO

This study established back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs) and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) models for evaluating the freshness of bighead carp head storage at different temperatures via the characteristic components of Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM). Two characteristic components of EEM data of fish eye fluid were extracted by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and were the most efficient components to stimulate fluorophores responsible for fish freshness detection during variable temperatures. EEM-RBFNNs and EEM-BPNNs models based on characteristic components of EEM used to predict the fish freshness. The results demonstrated the relative errors of EEM-BPNNs models for hiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total viable bacteria count (TAC) prediction were less than 10% which were better than those of EEM-RBFNNs models. It indicated that EEM-BPNNs model of bighead carp eye fluid by PARAFAC has a high potential for predicting fish freshness under variable storage conditions.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cyprinidae , Animais , Redes Neurais de Computação
17.
Food Res Int ; 152: 110915, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181086

RESUMO

The NaCl addition is associated closely with oxidation of meat, and mitochondria are the key regulator in oxidation process of proteins. This study was set out to find a potential mechanism of oxidation induced by different concentrations NaCl (0 M, 0.5 M, 1.0 M and 2.0 M) based on the mitochondria pathway in fish. With the increase in concentrations of NaCl, the oxidation levels in bighead carp fillets moved to a higher degree. Samples showed significant lower mitochondrial membrane potential and permeability than control after being treated with 1.0 M and 2.0 M NaCl for 3 h. The activities of succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome-c reductase decreased significantly in 0.5 M, 1.0 M and 2.0 M NaCl-treated samples and reactive oxygen species content increased in 2.0 M NaCl-treated samples compared to 0 M group. NaCl also destroyed the structure of the mitochondrial membranes and together influenced the activities of peroxisomes. Overall, 2.0 M NaCl promotes the lipid or protein oxidation in fillets might due to its effects on structure, complexes and antioxidant enzymes activity in mitochondria.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Mitocôndrias , Oxirredução , Cloreto de Sódio
18.
Food Res Int ; 152: 110926, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181097

RESUMO

Protein degradation1 caused by spoilage bacteria is highly related to fish quality deterioration during chilled storage. However, the exact roles of bacteria in degrading grass carp proteins are not fully known. In this work, we used metagenomics to analyze the microbiota composition in grass carp fillets, construct protein degrading pathways, and calculate taxonomic contributions to protein degrading functions. Besides, three dominant bacteria species were isolated and inoculated into sterile grass carp flesh, respectively. LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics was then used to detect protein degradation metabolites produced by the inoculated bacteria. Combining the results of metagenomics and metabolomics, we found 1) Shewanella putrefaciens was active in hydrolyzing fish proteins (especially collagens) and produced quantities of putrescine through the arginine decarboxylase pathway; 2) Pseudomonas putida had potent potentials in utilizing oligopeptides and free amino acids; 3) Serine was a potential energy source for microbial growth and it was largely consumed by spoilage bacteria; 4) S. putrefaciens could form a metabiosis relationship with P. putida, due to their complementary roles in degrading fish proteins. Finally, we concluded that S. putrefaciens had the strongest spoilage potential among tested bacteria, suggesting the importance of S. putrefaciens inhibition in fish quality preservation. Meanwhile, this study contributed to a better understanding of microbial roles in fish spoilage and provided useful information for the development of new preservation methods.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Bactérias , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Metabolômica , Metagenômica
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112726, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183995

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability, and has always been a hotspot in clinical and scientific research. The illness brings a heavy economic burden and causes psychological pressure on society and families. The pathogenesis of CVD is complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. Mitochondria provide energy for cardiovascular function. cAMP signaling is closely related to the mechanism of action of mitochondria. Epac, an important effector of cAMP, is involved in a variety of physiopathological mechanisms of CVD. Epac acts on a variety of pathways, including ion level regulation, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and angiogenesis. In this article, we systematically discuss the mechanism of action of Epac in CVDs to provide (i) ideas for the treatment of CVDs such as arrhythmia and heart failure and (ii) a basis for studying biological pathways and carrying out targeted drug research. Although some of the studied mechanisms are inconsistent, they also illustrate the complexity and importance of the effects of Epac.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Foods ; 11(4)2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35206053

RESUMO

Excessive salt is usually required to maintain good gel properties and quality characteristics for unwashed fish mince gels (UFMG). This study aimed to investigate the effects of partial sodium chloride substitution (30%) with different substitutes (potassium chloride, disodium inosine-5'-monophosphate, basil) on the gel and flavor properties of UFMG from Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The results indicated that the texture and gel strength of NK (30% NaCl was replaced with 30% KCl) were fairly similar to that of N group (NaCl only), and the whiteness had improved significantly (p < 0.05), while the product eventually yielded a certain bitter taste. The addition of disodium inosine-5'-monophosphate (DIMP) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the hardness, chewiness, buriedness degree of tryptophan and gel strength, decreased the content of α-helix structure in the gels, while less change occurred in gel whiteness and network structure. Basil significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the buriedness degree of tryptophan, gel strength and whiteness, and deteriorated the gel structure. Nevertheless, the addition of DIMP or basil reduced the bitterness induced by KCl and improved the overall acceptability scores of gels of the N group. Moreover, there was no distinct difference in moisture content and water-holding capacity between all groups. Therefore, replacing sodium chloride in UFMG with 25% potassium chloride and 5% DIMP may be an ideal sodium salt substitution strategy.

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