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1.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0075821, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788070

RESUMO

The Methyloprofundus clade is represented by uncultivated methanotrophic bacterial endosymbionts of deep-sea bathymodiolin mussels, but only a single free-living species has been cultivated to date. This study reveals the existence of free-living Methyloprofundus variants in the Iheya North deep-sea hydrothermal field in the mid-Okinawa Trough. A clade-targeted amplicon analysis of the particulate methane monooxygenase gene (pmoA) detected 647 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) of the Methyloprofundus clade in microbial communities newly formed in in situ colonization systems. Such systems were deployed at colonies of bathymodiolin mussels and a galatheoid crab. These ASVs were classified into 161 species-like groups. The proportion of the species-like groups representing endosymbionts of mussels was unexpectedly low. A methanotrophic bacterium designated as INp10, a likely dominant species in the Methyloprofundus population in this field, was enriched in biofilm formed in a methane-fed cultivation system operated at 10°C. Genomic characterization with the gene transcription dataset of INp10 from biofilm suggested traits advantageous to niche competition in environments, such as mobility, chemotaxis, biofilm formation, offensive and defensive systems, and hypoxia tolerance. The notable metabolic traits INp10 shares with some Methyloprofundus members are the use of lanthanide-dependent XoxF as the sole methanol dehydrogenase due to the absence of the canonical MxaFI, the glycolytic pathway using fructose-6-phosphate aldolase instead of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and the potential to perform partial denitrification from nitrate under oxygen-limited conditions. These findings help better understand ecological strategies of this possibly widespread marine-specific methanotrophic clade. Importance The Iheya North deep-sea hydrothermal field in the mid-Okinawa Trough is characterized by abundant methane derived from organic-rich sediments and diverse chemosynthetic animal species, including those harboring methanotrophic bacterial symbionts such as bathymodiolin mussels Bathymodiolus japonicus and "Bathymodiolus" platifrons and a galatheoid crab Shinkaia crosnieri. Symbiotic methanotrophs have attracted significant attention, yet free-living methanotrophs in this environment have not been studied in detail. We focused on the free-living Methyloprofundus spp. that thrive in this hydrothermal field and identified an unexpectedly large number of species-like groups in this clade. Moreover, we enriched and characterized a methanotroph whose genome sequence indicated it corresponds to a new species in the genus Methyloprofundus. This species might be a dominant member of the indigenous Methyloprofundus population. New information on free-living Methyloprofundus spp. suggests that the hydrothermal field is a promising locale to investigate the adaptive capacity and associated genetic diversity of Methyloprofundus.

2.
J Dermatol Sci ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2014, universal varicella vaccination has reduced the varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) incidence in vaccine recipients and increased the incidence in the child-rearing generation until 2017. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the future epidemiologic trends of HZ after the disappearance of varicella epidemics and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: The Miyazaki Dermatologist Society has been monitoring and analyzing the incidence of HZ patients after universal vaccination since 1997. RESULTS: The HZ incidence in Oka varicella vaccine recipients aged 0-4 years decreased with the reduction in chickenpox incidence. The HZ incidence among those aged 5-9 years increased between 2015 and 2017 and decreased thereafter. From 2014-2020, the HZ incidence continued to increase to 36.6%, 51.3%, 70.2%, 56.7%, and 27.3% among those aged 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and 50-59 years, respectively. The HZ incidence in patients aged ≥ 60 years increased by 2.3% annually from 2014 to 2020, corresponding to an annual 2% increase since 1997, and was unaffected by varicella epidemics. COVID-19 infection control measures, lifestyle changes and the resulting stress did not affect the HZ incidence in 2020. CONCLUSION: Universal varicella vaccination eliminated varicella epidemics, and HZ was reduced in vaccine recipients. The HZ incidence for those aged 10-59 years increased from 2014 to 2020, in contrast to those aged ≥ 60 years, which is attributable to booster immunity expiration due to varicella contact in this age group.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although an inverse relationship between current smoking and the development of ulcerative colitis (UC) has been shown in North America and Europe, evidence is limited in Asian countries, where the incidence of UC is rapidly increasing. This Japanese case-control study examined the association between active and passive smoking and risk of UC. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on smoking and potential confounding factors in 384 cases with a diagnosis of UC within the past four years and 665 controls. RESULTS: Compared with having never smoked, having ever smoked was associated with an increased risk of UC (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-2.37). No association was observed between current smoking and risk of UC, but former smokers had a significant elevation in risk (adjusted OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.67-3.45). There was a positive dose-response relationship with pack-years smoked (P for trend = 0.006). Among never smokers, passive smoking exposure at home was significantly associated with an increased risk of UC (adjusted OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.30-2.79). A significant dose-response gradient was also observed between pack-years of passive smoking at home and risk of UC (P for trend = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that former smoking elevated the risk of UC, whereas an inverse association between current smoking and the risk of UC did not reach a statistically significant level. Passive smoking may be associated with an increased risk of UC.

4.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between perinatal maternal depression and children's behavioral development is limited. We investigated the association between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum and the risk of childhood behavioral problems using data from a birth cohort study. METHODS: Study subjects were 1199 mother-child pairs. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale during pregnancy and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 4 months postpartum. Children's behavioral development at 5 years of age was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. RESULTS: Compared with children whose mothers did not experience depressive symptoms during pregnancy, those whose mothers did experience depressive symptoms during pregnancy had increased risk of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and low prosocial behavior. Maternal depressive symptoms at around 4 months postpartum were associated with increased risk of childhood emotional problems. Compared with children whose mothers did not experience depressive symptoms during the perinatal period, those whose mothers did experience depressive symptoms both during pregnancy and postpartum had a fivefold increased risk of childhood emotional symptoms and a threefold increased risk of peer problems. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that perinatal maternal depression is associated with behavioral problems in children. IMPACT: Several epidemiological studies in Western countries have examined the association between perinatal maternal depression and children's behavioral development, yet the results are conflicting and inconclusive. There is limited evidence on this topic in Asia. In our study using data from a prospective pregnancy birth cohort, maternal depressive symptoms around 4 months postpartum were associated with an increased risk of emotional symptoms in children aged 5 years. Children whose mothers had exhibited depressive symptoms both during pregnancy and postpartum had a fivefold increased risk of childhood emotional symptoms and a threefold increased risk of peer problems.

5.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 97: 104502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is limited evidence on the association between tooth loss and hearing impairment (HI). The present cross-sectional study investigated the association between tooth loss and the prevalence of HI in 1004 Japanese adults aged 36 to 84 years. METHODS: HI was defined as present when pure-tone average was > 25 dB at a frequency of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz in the better hearing ear. Visual oral examinations were performed. Adjustments were made for age, sex, smoking status, leisure-time physical activity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, history of depression, body mass index, waist circumference, employment, education, and household income. RESULTS: Of 1004 study subjects, the prevalence of HI was 24.8% (n = 249). Compared with having 28 teeth, having < 22 teeth, but not having 26 to < 28 or 22 to < 26 teeth, was associated with an increased prevalence of HI; the multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having 26 to < 28, 22 to < 26, and < 22 teeth were 1.41 (0.85-2.38), 1.51 (0.90-2.57), and 1.96 (1.18-3.30), respectively (p for trend = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that tooth loss may be associated with an increased prevalence of HI.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Perda Auditiva , Estudos Transversais , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 88, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence for the relationship between education and income and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been limited and inconsistent. The present cross-sectional study investigated this issue using baseline data from the Aidai Cohort Study. METHODS: Study subjects were 2012 Japanese men and women aged 34-88 years. Right and left CIMT were measured at the common carotid artery using an automated carotid ultrasonography device. Maximum CIMT was defined as the largest CIMT value in either the left or right common carotid artery. Carotid wall thickening was defined as a maximum CIMT value > 1.0 mm. RESULTS: The prevalence of carotid wall thickening was 13.0%. In participants under 60 years of age (n = 703) and in those aged 60 to 69 years (n = 837), neither education nor household income was associated with carotid wall thickening or with maximum CIMT. Among those aged 70 years or older (n = 472), however, higher educational level, but not household income, was independently related to a lower prevalence of carotid wall thickening: the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for high vs. low educational level was 0.43 (95% confidence interval 0.21-0.83, p for trend = 0.01). A significant inverse association was observed between education, but not household income, and maximum CIMT (p for trend = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Higher educational level may be associated with a lower prevalence of carotid wall thickening and a decrease in maximum CIMT only in participants aged 70 years or older.


Assuntos
Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Escolaridade , Renda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência
7.
J Immunol Methods ; 499: 113150, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560071

RESUMO

Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies are most frequently detected in autoantibody-related autoimmune encephalitis. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis mainly affects young women with ovarian teratoma, including acute to subacute onset of psychosis, seizures, consciousness disturbance, dyskinetic involuntary movements, autonomic dysfunction, and others. Diagnosis is based on the detection of anti-NMDAR autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The autoantibody recognizes the conformational epitope of the NMDA receptor. NMDA receptors contain hetero-tetramers of GluN1 (NR1) and GluN2/3 (NR2/3), in which GluN1 is essential to form functional receptors on the synaptic membrane in the brain. Thus, the autoantibodies are detected using neurons or culture cells expressing conformational receptors on their cell membrane, the natural form in the brain. The antibodies detected using artificial GluN1 monosubunit expressing cells as the antigens have been widely used for anti-NMDAR-antibody test. In the present study two detection systems were compared, a live-cell-based assay using human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing both of GluN1 and GluN2B, and a commercially available GluN1-monotransfected HEK cell biochip system. As the result, both the methods were equivalent, and the clinical features of both groups were similar, suggesting both tests have equal clinical significance.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/análise , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/imunologia
8.
Agric Human Values ; : 1-19, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456465

RESUMO

In the last few decades, the emergence of mid-scale, intermediated marketing channels that fall between commodity and direct markets has attracted growing interest from scholars for their potential to preserve small and mid-sized farms while scaling up alternative agrifood sourcing. When such mid-scale supply chains are formed among multiple business partners with shared ethics or values related to the qualities of the food and the business relationships along the supply chain, they may be termed "values-based supply chains (VBSCs)." Most of the research on VBSCs to date has relied primarily on a case study approach that investigates the performance of VBSCs from the perspective of VBSC founders or leaders. In contrast, this research seeks out the perspectives of farmers who participate in VBSCs. A nationwide farmer survey conducted in 2017 offers original insights on farmer motivations for participating in VBSCs and how they are being used by farmers relative to other marketing channels. We find that VBSCs serve farms of all sizes. Overall, smaller farms were more likely to market a higher percentage of overall sales through their VBSC and more likely to rank their VBSC as one of the top three marketing channels in their portfolio. But it was the larger farms that were more likely to perceive VBSC-specific benefits. Our findings confirm that while there is a limited volume of product that such regional supply chains can currently handle, farmers view VBSCs as a valuable marketing option that aligns with their own values and preserves their product's identity. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10460-021-10255-5.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445470

RESUMO

In regular IVF, a portion of oocytes exhibit abnormal numbers of pronuclei (PN) that is considered as abnormal fertilization, and they are routinely discarded. However, it is known that abnormal ploidy still does not completely abandon embryo development and implantation. To explore the potential of cytoplasm from those abnormally fertilized oocytes, we developed a novel technique for the transfer of large cytoplasm between pronuclear-stage mouse embryos, and assessed its impact. A large volume of cytoplast could be efficiently transferred in the PN stage using a novel two-step method of pronuclear-stage cytoplasmic transfer (PNCT). PNCT revealed the difference in the cytoplasmic function among abnormally fertilized embryos where the cytoplasm of 3PN was developmentally more competent than 1PN, and the supplementing of fresh 3PN cytoplasm restored the impaired developmental potential of postovulatory "aged" oocytes. PNCT-derived embryos harbored significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copies, ATP content, oxygen consumption rate, and total cells. The difference in cytoplasmic function between 3PN and 1PN mouse oocytes probably attributed to the proper activation via sperm and may impact subsequent epigenetic events. These results imply that PNCT may serve as a potential alternative treatment to whole egg donation for patients with age-related recurrent IVF failure.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/patologia , Citoplasma/patologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/patologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Zigoto/patologia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Zigoto/metabolismo
12.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress is considered one of the etiologic factors involved in ulcerative colitis (UC), yet there is limited epidemiologic information regarding the relationship between antioxidant intake and the risk of UC. The aim of the present case-control study in Japan was to examine the association between intake of green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruit, vitamin C, vitamin E, retinol, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and cryptoxanthin and UC risk. METHODS: A total of 384 cases within 4 y of diagnosis with UC and 665 controls were included in the study. Data on dietary intake and confounders were obtained using a self-reported questionnaire. Information on dietary factors was collected using a 169-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adjustment was made for sex, age, pack-y of smoking, alcohol consumption, history of appendicitis, family history of UC, education level, and body mass index. RESULTS: Higher intake levels of other vegetables, vitamin C, and retinol were independently associated with a reduced risk of UC. The adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.76; P for trend ≤ 0.001) for other vegetables, 0.45 (95% CI, 0.30-0.69, P for trend ≤ 0.001) for vitamin C, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.95, P for trend = 0.04) for retinol. There were no associations between intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruit, vitamin E, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, or cryptoxanthin and UC risk (P for trend = 0.29, 0.56, 0.89, 0.20, 0.69, and 0.22, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Intake of other vegetables, vitamin C, and retinol was inversely associated with UC risk.

13.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(7): 2035-2047, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151415

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the relationships between timing of the first physician visit after detection of an abnormal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) value at routine annual check and the time to antidiabetic treatment prescription; and understand treatment patterns in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This retrospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study examined data from JMDC Inc., an administrative claims database. Patients with HbA1c value of at least 6.5% at routine annual check, aged 20 years or older, and prescribed at least one antidiabetic drug were included. This cohort was classified into early physician visit and delayed physician visit groups based on the timing of the first physician visit relative to the median. Patients were monitored from the date of first HbA1c checkup of at least 6.5% to the date of first physician visit with an HbA1c test, and from the date of the first physician visit to the date of prescription of first-line and second-line T2DM treatments. The time to first prescription of antidiabetic treatment for the two groups was then compared. RESULTS: Of 4798 eligible patients, 54.8% were prescribed first-line T2DM therapy less than 2 months from the first physician visit for T2DM diagnosis. A lower percentage of the early group compared with the delayed group required T2DM pharmacological therapy in less than 2 months (46.1% vs. 63.4%). The early group had a longer median time to prescription of first-line therapy [92 days vs. 15 days, p < 0.0001; hazard ratio (HR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24, 1.39] and second-line therapy (1599 days vs. 1315 days, p < 0.0001; HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11, 1.34) compared with the delayed group. CONCLUSION: In Japanese patients with T2DM, early physician visit after abnormal HbA1c detection at routine annual check is associated with a longer period before T2DM medication requirement, and may improve disease course.

14.
Transfusion ; 61(7): 1998-2007, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic, a COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) procurement program was initiated in Japan in April 2020. The program was a collaboration between a government-managed national hospital, an infectious disease research institute, and a blood banking organization. Each party assumed different responsibilities: recruitment, SARS-CoV-2 antibody profiling, and plasmapheresis; conduction of screening tests; and SARS-CoV-2 blood testing, respectively. METHODS: We adopted a two-point screening approach before the collected CCP was labeled as a CCP product for investigational use, for which we mainly tested anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody eligibility and blood product eligibility. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein titer was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the IC50 value was denoted as the neutralizing activity. Blood donor eligibility was extended beyond the normal blood donation guidelines to include a broader range of participants. After both eligibility criteria were confirmed, participants were asked to revisit the hospital for blood donation, which is a unique aspect of the Japanese CCP program, as most donations are taking place in normal blood donation venues in other countries. Some donors were re-scheduled for repeat plasma donations. As public interest in anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies increased, test results were given to the participants. RESULTS: As of September 17, 2020, our collection of CCP products was sufficient to treat more than 100 patients. As a result, projects for administration and distribution are also being conducted. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully implemented a CCP procurement scheme with the goal to expand to other parts of the country to improve treatment options for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Convalescença , Soros Imunes/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Preservação de Sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Japão , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Plasmaferese , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(9): 1633-1639, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091702

RESUMO

This study used data from a large-scale multicenter medical information database in Japan to estimate the incidence rate of herpes zoster (HZ) and to examine the relationship between hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus (DM), and the risk of HZ among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The research dataset consisted of 221,196 records of potential target patients with RA extracted between April 1, 2008 and August 31, 2017 from the Medical Data Vision database. To assess the association between hypertension, dyslipidemia, and DM and the risk of HZ, a case-control study was set up. Records of 101,498 study subjects met the inclusion criteria. During the observation period, 2566 patients developed HZ and the overall incidence rate was 5.2 (95% confidence interval: 5.0-5.4 per 1000 patient-years). Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and DM were significantly associated with an increased risk of HZ after adjustment for sex, age, hospital size, and use of anti-rheumatic drugs. When mutual adjustment was made for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and DM, the positive associations between hypertension and dyslipidemia and the risk of HZ remained significant; however, the positive association with DM completely disappeared. RA patients with hypertension or dyslipidemia may be at higher risk of HZ.

16.
Neurotox Res ; 39(4): 1300-1309, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999356

RESUMO

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-related disease (MOG disease) are inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is considered a key step in the pathogenesis of NMO and MOG disease. Although a previous report indicated that circulating immunoglobulin G (IgG) from NMO patients disrupts the BBB, the effect of IgG from patients with MOG disease has not been elucidated. In addition, it has been reported that some disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis are harmful to NMO by an unknown mechanism. This study aimed to examine the effects of IgG from patients with NMO or MOG disease on BBB integrity. We also examined the effects of disease-modifying drugs (fingolimod [FTY720] and dimethyl fumarate [DMF]) on IgG-treated brain capillary endothelial cells. We used in vitro BBB models constructed with rat brain capillary endothelial cells (RBECs) to examine the effects on BBB function. The integrity of the RBECs was assessed by measuring transendothelial resistance (TEER) and cell viability. NMO or MOG-IgG treatment decreased TEER and cell viability in the endothelial monolayer model. Although FTY720 and DMF did not affect barrier function or cell viability under normal conditions, disease IgG-induced barrier dysfunctions were worsened by the presence of FTY720. These data indicate that circulating IgG in patients with NMO or MOG disease worsens BBB function. Furthermore, in patients with NMO or MOG disease treated with FTY720, changes in the integrity of the BBB were found to exacerbate the disease.

17.
Brain Nerve ; 73(5): 605-610, 2021 May.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006694

RESUMO

Anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies are now understood to be antibodies against associated proteins leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) and are detected using a cell-based assay. Anti-LGI1 or anti-CASPR2 antibody-positive patients present characteristics of limbic encephalitis, which is usually seen in middle-aged men and women who present with mainly amnesia and seizures. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures are seen specifically in LGI1 antibody-positive patients, and neuromyotonia is predominantly seen in CASPR2 antibody-positive patients. Both groups of patients greatly improve with immunotherapy; however, amnesia tends to last a long time and some patents experience a relapse. Some patients with limbic encephalitis present with only memory disturbance or seizures, and some are diagnosed with degenerative dementia or chronic epilepsy, suggesting the importance of early autoantibody testing for a diagnosis.


Assuntos
Encefalite Límbica , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana , Autoanticorpos , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Encefalite Límbica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
18.
Brain Nerve ; 73(5): 640-646, 2021 May.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006698

RESUMO

Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is a neurological disorder characterized by fluctuating muscle rigidity and painful spasms that occur spontaneously or are triggered by diverse stimuli. Partial or segmental forms of the disorder, such as stiff-limb syndrome (SLS) and the more severe disease called progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), are usually considered within the spectrum of SPS. SPS responds to immunotherapies, and several autoantigens have been identified. Most patients with SPS have high titers of antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme that limits the rate of the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and up to 15% have antibodies against the glycine receptor α-subunit.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite , Rigidez Muscular Espasmódica , Glutamato Descarboxilase , Humanos , Rigidez Muscular , Receptores de Glicina , Rigidez Muscular Espasmódica/diagnóstico , Rigidez Muscular Espasmódica/terapia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058319

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Conducting randomized controlled trials on palliative care is difficult owing to barriers like fragility of the patients' health status and health care providers' concerns for patients. However, quality randomized controlled trials are required for care improvement. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the willingness of cancer patients and their relatives to participate in a clinical study on cancer dyspnea and identify feasible clinical study designs for this condition. METHODS: A nationwide, cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted with 206 cancer patients and 206 relatives of cancer patients. Their willingness to participate in clinical studies on cancer dyspnea and factors influencing this willingness were assessed in two scenarios: outpatients receiving anticancer treatment and terminally ill inpatients. RESULTS: About 23% patients and 23% relatives were willing to participate in clinical trials while 40% and 32%, respectively, were unwilling. Factors related to patient participation were quick and easy trials (outpatient 57%, terminally ill 53%) and oral medication with minimal potential side effects (outpatient 48%). Factors related to unwillingness to participate were placebo-controlled trials (outpatient 51%, terminally ill 50%), disagreements about participation between patients and families (outpatient 49%, terminally ill 49%), and continuous injections (outpatient 61%, terminally ill 47%). Compared to patients, relatives responded more reluctantly, especially for patients in terminal care. Conversely, patients were less reluctant in the terminal setting than the outpatient setting. CONCLUSION: Some patients and relatives were reluctant to participate in clinical trials on cancer dyspnea. Thus, trials need to be minimally invasive, quick, and fully explained to and understood by patients and families.

20.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 42(4): 329-335, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846994

RESUMO

The effects of exposure to intermediate-frequency electromagnetic fields (IF-EMFs) during pregnancy on birth outcomes are uncertain. We investigated the association between the use of induction heating (IH) cookers, which are major sources of IF-EMFs, during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and birth weight, using data from a prebirth cohort study in Japan. Study participants were 1,565 mothers with singleton pregnancies and the babies born from these pregnancies. We collected the data presented here using self-administered questionnaires. An adjustment was made for maternal age, region of residence, number of children, family structure, maternal education, maternal employment, maternal alcohol intake, smoking during pregnancy, maternal body mass index, baby's sex, and gestational age at birth. IH cooker use during pregnancy was independently associated with a reduced risk of PTB: the adjusted odds ratio was 0.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.78). IH cooker use during pregnancy was not associated with LBW, SGA, or birth weight. This is the first study to show that IH cooker use during pregnancy is independently inversely associated with PTB.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Nascimento Prematuro , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Calefação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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