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2.
J Rural Med ; 15(4): 194-200, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033541

RESUMO

Objective: In 2016, Japan started conducting musculoskeletal examinations that included "limb status" of students as an essential item. Our institution implemented a unified musculoskeletal examination for all public elementary and junior high schools in T-city. In this study, we aimed to report the progress in the past 4 years. Patients and Methods: The Tsukuba Childhood Locomotive-Organ Screening Sheet (T-CLOSS), which is a questionnaire that includes some nationwide-recommended questions, was prepared and distributed to students. Results of the questionnaires were analyzed, and the orthopedic surgeon conducted examinations for the extracted items. From these questionnaires, the ratio of each item, rate of advisory for screening, and content of the advisory were investigated. Results: During 2016-2019, musculoskeletal examinations were conducted in every public schools, with nearly 20,000 students in T-city. The consultation advisory rate was 6.7% in 2019. Of the 524 students who received the third screening recommendation, the actual consultation rate was 248 (40.8%). After the third screening, the proportion of students requiring treatment and outpatient visits was 46.7% (n=248), which accounted for 1.2% of all elementary and junior high school students in the city. Conclusion: We reported the results of 4-year musculoskeletal examinations in a city. In our screening, we distributed a uniform questionnaire throughout the city, and orthopedic surgeons performed secondary examinations of identified students in all schools. This appears to be an advanced effort to prevent musculoskeletal impairment in students. We hope to conduct more sophisticated musculoskeletal examinations using our results, aiming at early detection, early treatment, and improvement of musculoskeletal function in elementary and junior high school students.

3.
Jpn J Radiol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079316

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Medial epicondyle (ME) and elbow joint proximal (UCL-p) and distal ulnar collateral ligament (UCL-d) asymptomatic injuries are frequently observed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the injury rates vary among these structures in elbow screening of adolescent baseball players, despite being adjacent medial structures of the elbow. This study aimed to retrospectively determine the actual injury site and rate, and investigate the underlying reason for discrepancies anatomically and biomechanically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four male adolescent baseball players were scanned using MRI. Two interpreters independently and retrospectively assessed the ME, UCL-p, and UCL-d injuries using the gradient echo axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. RESULTS: The injury prevalence was significantly higher in the ME and UCL-p (> 50% of the participants) than in the UCL-d (22.7%), P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively. Additionally, there was a tendency toward a high-frequency injury rate of the ME or UCL-p. CONCLUSION: The injury site of the medial structures tended to be proximal. The ME and UCL-p were observed to be more frequently injured compared to the UCL-d in adolescent baseball players according to the dedicated MRI findings in this study.

4.
CEN Case Rep ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125665

RESUMO

Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) is a mitochondrial genetic disorder with variable clinical presentations, which can delay its diagnosis. Herein, we report the case of a 57-year-old Japanese man with MIDD who developed chronic kidney disease. He developed proteinuria long before his diabetes and deafness; at the age of 36 years, a renal biopsy showed minor glomerular abnormality and electron microscopy showed mild mitochondrial degeneration in the distal tubular epithelial cells. Twenty years later, a second renal biopsy showed nephrosclerosis with interstitial fibrosis and arteriolar hyaline thickening, despite the absence of hypertension and relatively good glycemic control. Granular swollen epithelial cells were found in the medullary collecting duct epithelium. Electron microscopy showed accumulating mitochondria in podocytes and tubular cells, leading to the diagnosis of MIDD. A muscle biopsy also showed ragged-red fibers, despite the absence of muscle weakness. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed an m.3243A > G mutation, and taurine supplementation was initiated. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is mainly associated with progressive renal damage.

5.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(40): 8074-8078, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789391

RESUMO

We have developed thioxanthylium photoredox catalyzed [4 + 2] cycloaddition of pentafulvenes at room temperature under green light irradiation, which affords tetrahydrocyclopenta[b]chromenes with high regioselectivities. The present reaction provides a sustainable approach to carry out the cycloaddition of pentafulvenes without the use of transition metal catalysts or high-temperature conditions. This procedure enables a mild and straightforward access to 1,3a,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopenta[b]chromenes. The quantum yield of the reaction (Φ = 0.15) indicates that the reaction would mainly proceed via photocatalytic pathways.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761607

RESUMO

Smoking has been consistently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent in Asian people. To assess the association of smoking status, smoking intensity and smoking cessation with colorectal risk in the Japanese population, we performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 363 409 participants followed up for 2 666 004 person-years, 9232 incident CRCs were identified. In men, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed higher risk of CRC. The HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (1.10-1.29) for CRC, 1.19 (1.09-1.30) for colon cancer, 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for distal colon cancer and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for rectal cancer. Smoking was associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. In women, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed increased risk of distal colon cancer (1.47 [1.19-1.82]). There was no evidence of a significant gender difference in the association of smoking and CRC risk. Our results confirm that smoking is associated with an increased risk of CRC, both overall and subsites, in Japanese men and distal colon cancer in Japanese women.

7.
J Rural Med ; 15(3): 116-123, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704337

RESUMO

Background: In Japan, in 2016, the School Health and Safety Act was revised and examination of extremities in addition to scoliosis became mandatory. Musculoskeletal examinations were subsequently started using a mark sheet-type questionnaire. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the relationship between physical findings and musculoskeletal problems and propose a preventive strategy for musculoskeletal injuries. Methods: In 2017, a total of 4,073 elementary and middle school students underwent direct musculoskeletal examination. In a direct examination, the following elements were included: torticollis; scoliosis; stiffness of the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle; flexion and extension in standing position; flat foot; hallux valgus; and alignment of the upper and lower extremities. Of the 4,073 students who underwent direct examination in early 2017, only 3,754 were able to complete the mark sheet-type questionnaires in early 2018. A prospective longitudinal analysis of the data gathered was performed. Results: A total of 396 (11%) students had injuries. The ankle sprain/non-ankle sprain group comprised 119 (3%)/3,635 (97%) students, while the fracture/non-fracture group comprised 105 (2.8%)/3,650 (97.2%) students, respectively. Comparing the sprain group with the non-sprain group, ankle stiffness significantly correlated with ankle sprain in the univariable and multivariable analyses. Injuries occurred more frequently among boys, older students, students with stiff bodies, and students who were involved in sports activities of longer duration. Conclusion: Ankle stiffness was assumed to be a risk factor for ankle sprain. Stretching of the ankle might be effective for preventing ankle sprain. However, further interventional studies are needed to confirm this finding.

8.
Org Lett ; 22(13): 5207-5211, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525321

RESUMO

A redox potential controlled intermolecular [2 + 2] cross-cycloaddition has been developed in the presence of a thioxanthylium photoredox catalyst. Electron-rich styrenes such as ß-bromostyrene (Ep/2 = +1.61 V vs SCE) were selectively oxidized by a thioxanthylium photoredox catalyst (E1/2 (C*/C•-) = +1.76 V vs SCE) to styryl radical cations and reacted with styrene (Ep/2 = +1.97 V vs SCE) to furnish polysubstituted cyclobutanes in high yields. The present reaction can be successfully applied to intermolecular [2 + 2] cross-cycloaddition of ß-halogenostyrenes, which cannot be effectively achieved by the hitherto reported representative organophotoredox catalysts.

10.
J Rural Med ; 14(2): 176-180, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788139

RESUMO

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between exercise time and musculoskeletal problems and to determine the appropriate amount of exercise for children in both lower- and higher-grade levels of elementary and junior high schools. Materials and Methods: Mark-sheet-type questionnaires were distributed to and collected from all elementary and junior high schools in two cities. We collected 22,494 questionnaires in total. The relationship between exercise time and musculoskeletal problems was analyzed. The χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results: The mean exercise time in school, in addition to physical education time, was 3.1 hours per week. In 56% of the children, the exercise time was less than 2 hours per week, and in 13% of the children, the exercise time was more than 10 hours per week. Although the rate of sports injury increased with an increase in exercise time, the duration of one-leg stand (a test of balance and muscle strength) also increased with an increase in exercise time. The cut-off values for sports injuries in boys/girls were 2.9/2.9 hours, 4.0/2.9 hours, and 7.5/4.2 hours in lower grade elementary school, higher grade elementary school, and junior high school, respectively. Conclusions: Although an appropriate amount of exercise improves one's physical health and ability, excessive exercise leads to musculoskeletal problems. Approximately 7 hours/week of exercise is recommended for junior high school students. In elementary school, the exercise time should be carefully decided as the musculoskeletal system of the students is still immature.

11.
J Rural Med ; 14(2): 191-195, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788141

RESUMO

Background: The use of prophylactic contralateral pinning for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) remains controversial. This study evaluated the outcome of SCFE treatment and examined the use of prophylactic pinning. Methods: The study included 44 patients (33 men, 11 women; 54 hips [right, 31; left, 23]), with mean age of 12.9 (7.3-29) years, who underwent treatment between 1986 and 2017, with follow-up for more than 6 months. Patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 had bilateral SCFE at first presentation, group 2 developed contralateral side SCFE during follow-up, and group 3 had unilateral SCFE until final follow-up. Three patients who received prophylactic pinning were excluded. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Results: Overall, 93% (50/54) of hips underwent positional reduction and in situ fixation and 7.4% (4/54) underwent open reduction. Mean follow-up period was 4.8 (0.5-25) years. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had 7, 3, and 31 cases, respectively. Sex, age, and follow-up period showed no significant differences among the groups. The Rohrer index was significantly higher in group 1, the affected side posterior sloping angle (PSA) was significantly higher in group 3, and the contralateral side PSA and percentage with endocrinopathy were significantly higher in group 2. In multivariate logistic analysis, age, sex, Rohrer index, affected side PSA, and endocrinopathy were significantly correlated with bilateral SCFE. Conclusion: We recommend prophylactic contralateral side pinning in patients with risk factors of obesity, high PSA before slipping, and endocrinopathy. Careful observation until growth plate closure is required in patients without risk factors.

12.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 15: 2105-2112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579074

RESUMO

An efficient synthesis of methoxy-substituted thioxanthylium salts has been developed. The reaction of diaryl sulfides with benzoyl chlorides in the presence of TfOH smoothly proceeded to give the desired thioxanthylium salts in good yields. In their UV-vis spectra, the maximum absorption wavelengths of methoxy-functionalized thioxanthylium salts were observed at around 460 nm, which show a drastic red shift compared to the parent thioxanthylium salts. The present reaction provides a versatile access to functionalized thioxanthylium salts, and therefore it constitutes a promising tool for the synthesis of biologically and photochemically active molecules.

13.
J Org Chem ; 84(21): 13858-13870, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580068

RESUMO

We report the one-pot synthesis of 2,2-disubstituted chromanes with electron-withdrawing substituents. This reaction provides a simple yet efficient route to a wide range of electron-deficient chromanes in high yield and excellent regioselectivity. The reaction of salicylaldehyde with 1,1-disubstituted ethylenes smoothly furnishes these electron-deficient chromanes, which can be further transformed into functionalized chromanes or chromene. For example, BW683C was effectively synthesized from 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde with 4-chlorostyrene in two steps in excellent yield. The present reaction thus provides versatile access to functionalized electron-deficient chromanes and chromenes and therefore constitutes a promising tool for the synthesis of biologically and photochemically active molecules.

14.
J Org Chem ; 84(17): 10669-10678, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322873

RESUMO

An intermolecular oxa-[4+2] cycloaddition reaction promoted by a thioxanthylium photoredox catalyst under irradiation with green light has been developed. The reaction of ortho-quinone methides with styrenes smoothly affords the desired cycloadducts. Especially styrenes bearing electron-donating groups are efficiently transformed in this reaction. This method represents a sustainable way to carry out oxa-[4+2] cycloaddition reactions using only a catalytic amount of a photocatalyst and visible light.

15.
Skeletal Radiol ; 48(12): 1925-1932, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Elbow screening of adolescent baseball players began in 2014 using ultrasound, palpation, and dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We frequently encountered subjects showing MCL injury on MRI but no clinical symptoms. We assessed variations in asymptomatic MCL injury findings at follow-up MRI, and clarified the pathogenesis of these findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a 0.2-T-dedicated MRI, 30 subjects with asymptomatic MCL injury at initial MRI who agreed to follow-up MRI were included. We classified the findings at repeat MRI as follows: (a) disappeared, (b) better, and (c) worse. RESULTS: There were 6, 16, and 8 subjects in groups a, b, and c, respectively. The average age at follow-up was 14.0, 12.1, and 12.4 years in groups a, b, and c, respectively. There were significant differences between groups a and b and between groups a and c. Average height at follow-up of groups a, b, and c was 1.64, 1.52, and 1.57 cm, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between groups a and b. The average size of the short axis of the MCL of subjects in group a was 2.0 cm on the dominant side and 1.5 cm on the contradominant side (P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: Players with asymptomatic MCL injury can continue to play baseball with no limitations, as these findings usually disappear around the age of 14.0 years, when the growth spurt occurs. This finding may be a precursor of 'adaptation', which is generally observed in high school baseball players, suggesting that the MCL adapts as growth occurs.


Assuntos
Beisebol/lesões , Ligamentos Colaterais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamentos Colaterais/lesões , Articulação do Cotovelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Orthop Sci ; 24(1): 159-165, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On April 1, 2016, the Ministerial ordinance was enforced, and musculoskeletal examination of the extremities was made mandatory. From 2008, the University of us started musculoskeletal direct examination. To expand the examination, from 2016, we started to use the marksheet-type questionnaire. This study aimed to report the results of a musculoskeletal examination and investigate the association between musculoskeletal examination and age/gender and reports the reliability of the collected questionnaire data. METHODS: Direct musculoskeletal examination was performed in K school by 7 orthopedic surgeons. A marksheet-type screening questionnaire was distributed to all the elementary and junior high school students in Tsukuba and Hitachiomiya cities. The rates of abnormal findings for scoliosis, standing flexion, full squatting with the heels on the floor, general joint laxity, and standing on one leg, torticollis, and flat feet were calculated. We compared the results of the questionnaire and direct examination and calculated sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio. RESULTS: A total of 1844 students in K school had direct examination, and 22,494 questionnaires were able to correct in Tsukuba and Hitachiomiya cities. The rates of abnormal findings in direct examination/questionnaire in scoliosis, standing flexion, full squat, general joint laxity, standing on one leg, torticollis and flat foot were 18.7% (344/1842)/5.1% (1094/21441), 20.2% (372/1841)/26.6% (5817/22078), 6.2% (114/1832)/6.9% (1516/22101), 7.5% (1648/22252), 4.9% (1100/22077), 2.2% (31/1844)/1.2% (272/21687), and 12.5% (231/1842)/8.7% (1785/20871), respectively. Sensitivities of the questionnaire for scoliosis, stand flexion, full squatting, torticollis, and flat feet were 16.8% (53/316), 67.9% (250/368), 48.2% (55/114), 18.9% (7/37), and 32.2% (65/202), respectively. CONCLUSION: We reported the result of musculoskeletal examination. Accuracy and reliability of this questionnaire were not satisfactory. To perform high quality musculoskeletal examinations, we will aim to increase the quality of screening methods.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudantes
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3909, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254374

RESUMO

Genome duplication is widespread in wild and crop plants. However, little is known about genome-wide selection in polyploids due to the complexity of duplicated genomes. In polyploids, the patterns of purifying selection and adaptive substitutions may be affected by masking owing to duplicated genes or homeologs as well as effective population size. Here, we resequence 25 accessions of the allotetraploid Arabidopsis kamchatica, which is derived from the diploid species A. halleri and A. lyrata. We observe a reduction in purifying selection compared with the parental species. Interestingly, proportions of adaptive non-synonymous substitutions are significantly positive in contrast to most plant species. A recurrent pattern observed in both frequency and divergence-diversity neutrality tests is that the genome-wide distributions of both subgenomes are similar, but the correlation between homeologous pairs is low. This may increase the opportunity of different evolutionary trajectories such as in the HMA4 gene involved in heavy metal hyperaccumulation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Poliploidia , Seleção Genética , Arabidopsis/classificação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
In Vivo ; 32(4): 765-770, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although there are many reports of anticancer drug-induced neurotoxicity, most previous data have been derived from neuronal cell models grown in a variety of culture conditions. This has prevented accurate assessment of the potency of their neurotoxicity and of changes in drug sensitivity of neuronal cells during differentiation. In this study, a simple neuronal differentiation induction system was established and the relative potency of neurotoxicity of eight anticancer drugs was compared during neuronal cell differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat PC12 cells were induced to differentiate into neuronal cells by 50 ng/ml nerve growth factor in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, followed by overlay of fresh nutrients at day 3, without medium change. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. RESULTS: During differentiation, PC12 cells became 1.1-to more than 10,000-fold resistant to anticancer drugs. Topoisomerase inhibitors (doxorubicin, SN-38, etoposide) were the most toxic to differentiated PC12 cells, followed by docetaxel, gefitinib, melphalan, 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate. Docetaxel showed the highest cytotoxicity against undifferentiated PC12 cells, but its cytotoxicity was dramatically reduced during differentiation. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated considerable variation in the neurotoxicity of anticancer drugs during the cell differentiation process. The present simple assay system may be useful to search for neuroprotective substances.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/efeitos adversos , Animais , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Etoposídeo/efeitos adversos , Etoposídeo/farmacologia , Humanos , Irinotecano , Neoplasias/patologia , Células PC12 , Ratos , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/uso terapêutico
19.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 38(7): e377-e381, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports on patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) showed that the prereduced femoral head was notably smaller and more nonspherical than the intact head, with growth failure observed at the proximal posteromedial area. We evaluated the shape of the femoral head cartilage in patients with DDH before and after reduction, with size and sphericity assessed using 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We studied 10 patients with unilateral DDH (all female) who underwent closed reduction. Patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head on the plain radiograph 1 year after reduction were excluded. 3D MRI was performed before reduction and after reduction, at 2 years of age. 3D-image analysis software was used to reconstruct the multiplanes. After setting the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes in the software (based on the femoral shaft and neck axes), the smallest sphere that included the femoral head cartilage was drawn, the diameter was measured, and the center of the sphere was defined as the femoral head center. We measured the distance between the center and cartilage surface every 30 degrees on the 3 reconstructed planes. Sphericity of the femoral head was calculated using a ratio (the distance divided by each radius) and compared between prereduction and postreduction. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 7±3 and 26±3 months at the first and second MRI, respectively. The mean duration between the reduction and second MRI was 18±3 months. The femoral head diameter was 26.7±1.5 and 26.0±1.6 mm on the diseased and intact sides, respectively (P=0.069). The ratios of the posteromedial area on the axial plane and the proximoposterior area on the sagittal plane after reduction were significantly larger than before reduction (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the size of the reduced femoral head was nearly equal to that of the intact femoral head and that the growth failure area of the head before reduction, in the proximal posteromedial area, was remodeled after reduction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV-case series.


Assuntos
Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cabeça do Fêmur/anormalidades , Cabeça do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Cabeça do Fêmur/cirurgia , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/fisiopatologia , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Osteotomia
20.
Skeletal Radiol ; 47(9): 1237-1244, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multimodality elbow screening of adolescent baseball players shows apparent laterality in morphology and signal intensity of the medial epicondyle on dedicated magnetic resonance imaging. We aimed to elucidate actual imaging laterality in the medial epicondyle by comparing magnetic resonance images of the dominant and contradominant elbows and to clarify the clinical meaning and mechanism of this phenomenon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a 0.2-T dedicated magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Eighty adolescent baseball players were enrolled and divided into four age groups: 9-10 years (13 patients); 11 years (28 patients); 12 years (24 patients) and 13-14 years (15 patients). The long and short axes of the ossification center and distance of the epiphyseal plate and the cartilage of the lower pole of the medial epicondyle were measured. Signal intensity of the ossification center was visually evaluated. RESULTS: Owing to their age, ossification and cartilage size on the dominant side were significantly larger in all boys (P < 0.01). All age groups had larger ossification and cartilage in the dominant elbow (P < 0.01). Ossification showed an apparent lower signal intensity on the dominant side (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Larger ossification and cartilage size of the medial epicondyle in the dominant elbow suggested that the medial collateral ligament to the medial epicondyle induces excessive repetitive tensile stress, but without clinical symptoms. Functional or microanatomical damage of the medial epicondyle may induce a lower ossification signal in the dominant elbow, thereby decreasing fatty bone marrow and inducing sclerotic changes.


Assuntos
Beisebol , Articulação do Cotovelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Itália , Masculino
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