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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), whose targets include oncogenic AXL and unique ligand GAS6. Critical gaps in basic knowledge need to be addressed to devise an exclusive biomarker and candidate when targeting the AXL/GAS6 axis. METHODS: To clarify the effects of the AXL/GAS6 axis on RCC, we herein performed a large-scale immunogenomic analysis and single-cell counts including various metastatic organs and histological subtypes of RCC. We further applied genome-wide mutation analyses and methylation arrays. RESULTS: Varying patterns of AXL and GAS6 expression were observed throughout primary RCC tumours and metastases. Scoring individual AXL/GAS6 levels in the tumour centre and invasive margin, namely, the AXL/GAS6 score, showed a good ability to predict the prognosis of clear cell RCC. Metastasis- and histological subtype-specific differences in the AXL/GAS6 score existed since lung metastasis and the papillary subtype were weakly related to the AXL/GAS6 axis. Cell-by-cell immunohistological assessments clarified an immunosuppressive environment in tumours with high AXL/GAS6 scores. Genomic alterations in the PI3K-mTOR pathway and DNA methylation profiling revealed distinct differences with the AXL/GAS6 score in ccRCC. CONCLUSION: The AXL/GAS6 scoring system could predict the outcome of prognosis and work as a robust biomarker for the immunogenomic state in RCC.

2.
Women Health ; 61(8): 819-827, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517780

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of weight management on menstrual status in female athletes. A total of 225 collegiate athletes and 27 para-athletes who belonged to teams affiliated with the Japanese Paralympic Committee were included in this cross-sectional survey. A self-reported questionnaire (containing information on the demographic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits, weight management, menstruation status, physical symptoms related to menstrual cycle, and the influence of physical symptoms experienced during the luteal phase of menstruation during training or competition.) was used to assess the results. In the collegiate athletes, the rate of regular menstrual cycle was significantly lower in those with weight loss than in those without (56.7% vs. 75.0%, P < .05). Furthermore, stress fractures were found significantly more often in those with weight loss than those without (36.1% vs. 20.3%, P < .05). In the para-athletes, 46.2% of experience in weight loss had irregular menstruations (P < .01), and all of them had physical symptoms that negatively affected their training or competition (P < .05). To prevent menstrual dysfunction related to energy deficiency in female athletes with weight management, menstrual status must be considered.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5547, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545095

RESUMO

A cutting edge therapy for future immuno-oncology is targeting a new series of inhibitory receptors (IRs): LAG-3, TIM-3, and TIGIT. Both immunogenomic analyses and diagnostic platforms to distinguish candidates and predict good responders to these IR-related agents are vital in clinical pathology. By applying an automated single-cell count for immunolabelled LAG-3, TIM-3, and TIGIT, we reveal that individual IR levels with exclusive domination in each tumour can serve as valid biomarkers for profiling human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We uncover the immunogenomic landscape associated with individual IR levels in human RCC tumours with metastases in various organs and histological subtypes. We then externally validate our results and devise a workflow with optimal biomarker cut-offs for discriminating the LAG-3, TIM-3, and TIGIT tumour profiles. The discrimination of LAG-3, TIM-3, and TIGIT profiles in tumours may have a broad impact on investigations of immunotherapy responses after targeting a new series of IRs.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545658

RESUMO

IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates immune cell homeostasis. Its immunomodulatory function has been used clinically as an active immunotherapy agent for metastatic cancers. However, severe adverse effects, including the vascular leak syndrome and the preferential stimulation of anti-immunogenic Treg rather than effector T cells, have been obstacles. We newly designed a mutein IL-2, Mutakine-6 (MK-6), with reduced IL-2Rα-binding capability. MK-6 induced comparable cell growth potential toward IL-2Rßγ-positive T cells but was far less efficient in in vitro Treg proliferation and STAT5 activation. Unlike IL-2, in vivo administration of MK-6 produced minimal adverse effects. Using CT26 and B16F10-syngeneic tumor models, we found MK-6 was highly efficacious on tumor regression. Serum albumin conjugation to MK-6 prolonged in vivo half-life and accumulated in CT26 tumors, showing enhanced antitumor effect. Tumor-infiltrating leukocytes analysis revealed that albumin-fused MK-6 increased the ratio of effector CD8+ T cells to CD4+ Treg cells. These results demonstrated that MK-6 is an efficient immunomodulator potentially used for improved immunotherapy with decreased adverse effects and attenuated Treg stimulation.

5.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The indications of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for lymph node-positive upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) have not been investigated regarding improved survival outcomes. Our specific aim was to compare the clinical outcomes of clinically node-positive UTUC patients who were treated by NAC followed by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) or upfront RNU followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 966 UTUC patients, we identified 89 with clinical nodal involvement who received either NAC before RNU nor AC after upfront RNU. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy modality on the oncological outcomes. RESULTS: Of the patient cohort, 36 (40.4%) received NAC followed by RNU, whereas 53 (59.6%) underwent RNU followed by AC. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size ≥3 cm, clinical T4, and gemcitabine and cisplatin regimen were independent risk factors for disease recurrence, whereas NAC followed by RNU was an independent factor for favorable RFS. Furthermore, regarding cancer-specific survival (CSS), NAC followed by RNU remained an independent factor for favorable CSS. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, the 1-year and 2-year RFS were 67.9% and 47.0%, respectively, in the NAC+RNU group, which were significantly higher than those in the RNU+AC group (43.9% and 24.6%, respectively, P = 0.006). Moreover, the 1-year and 2-year CSS were 80.5% and 64.2%, respectively, in the NAC+RNU group, which were higher than those in the RNU+AC group (68.6% and 48.2%, respectively, P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: For node-positive UTUC patients, NAC followed by RNU was more clinically beneficial than RNU followed by AC.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360727

RESUMO

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HL (RCC)) entails cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis with aggressive type 2 papillary RCC-like histology. HLRCC is caused by pathogenic variants in the FH gene, which encodes fumarate hydratase (FH). Here, we describe an episode of young-onset RCC caused by a genomic FH deletion that was diagnosed via clinical sequencing. A 35-year-old woman was diagnosed with RCC and multiple metastases: histopathological analyses supported a diagnosis of FH-deficient RCC. Although the patient had neither skin tumors nor a family history of HLRCC, an aggressive clinical course at her age and pathological diagnosis of FH-deficient RCC suggested a germline FH variant. After counseling, the patient provided written informed consent for germline genetic testing. She was simultaneously subjected to paired tumor profiling tests targeting the exome to identify a therapeutic target. Although conventional germline sequencing did not detect FH variants, exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous germline FH deletion. As such, paired tumor profiling, not conventional sequencing, was required to identify this genetic deletion. RCC caused by a germline FH deletion has hitherto not been described in Japan, and the FH deletion detected in this patient was presumed to be of maternal European origin. Although the genotype-phenotype correlation in HLRCC-related tumors is unclear, the patient's family was advised to undergo genetic counseling to consider additional RCC screening.


Assuntos
Fumarato Hidratase/deficiência , Deleção de Genes , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Leiomiomatose/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Transtornos Psicomotores/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos
7.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 70(10): 3001-3013, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259900

RESUMO

Despite the high sensitivity of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to immunotherapy, RCC has been recognized as an unusual disease in which CD8+ T-cell infiltration into the tumor beds is related to a poor prognosis. To approach the inner landscape of immunobiology of RCC, we performed multiplexed seven-color immunohistochemistry (CD8, CD39, PD-1, Foxp3, PD-L1, and pan-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 with DAPI), which revealed the automated single-cell counts and calculations of individual cell-to-cell distances. In total, 186 subjects were included, in which CD39 was used as a marker for distinguishing tumor-specific (CD39+) and bystander (CD39-) T-cells. Our clear cell RCC cohort also revealed a poor prognosis if the tumor showed increased CD8+ T-cell infiltration. Intratumoral CD8+CD39+ T-cells as well as their exhausted CD8+CD39+PD-1+ T-cells in the central tumor areas enabled the subgrouping of patients according to malignancy. Analysis using specimens post-antiangiogenic treatment revealed a dramatic increase in proliferative Treg fraction Foxp3+PD-1+ cells, suggesting a potential mechanism of hyperprogressive disease after uses of anti-PD-1 antibody. Our cell-by-cell study platform provided spatial information on tumors, where bystander CD8+CD39- T-cells were dominant in the invasive margin areas. We uncovered a potential interaction between CD8+CD39+PD-1+ T-cells and Foxp3+PD-1+ Treg cells due to cell-to-cell proximity, forming a spatial niche more specialized in immunosuppression under PD-1 blockade. A paradigm shift to the immunosuppressive environment was more obvious in metastatic lesions; rather the infiltration of Foxp3+ and Foxp3+PD-1+ Treg cells was more pronounced. With this multiplexed single-cell pathology technique, we revealed further insight into the immunobiological standing of RCC.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 95(5): 716-726, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumour that secretes catecholamines and originates in the adrenal gland. Although surgical resection is the only curative therapy for pheochromocytoma, it is associated with a risk of haemodynamic instability (HDI), such as extremely high blood pressure and/or post tumour removal hypotension and shock. We investigated the risk factors for HDI during pheochromocytoma surgery. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Eighty-two patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma between July 2002 and February 2020 were examined. We excluded 3 patients with bilateral disease and 11 without detailed 24 h urinary data. We defined HDI as systolic blood pressure ≥ 200 or <80 mmHg. We investigated the risk factors for HDI during laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. RESULTS: There were 29 males and 39 females with a median age of 50.5 years. Tumours were localised on the right adrenal gland in 28 patients and on the left in 40. The median tumour diameter was 37.5 mm and the median pneumoperitoneum time was 93.5 min. Twenty-five out of sixty-eight patients (37%) developed HDI. A multivariate analysis identified diabetes mellitus (DM; odds ratio: 3.834; 95% confidence interval: 1.062-13.83; p = .04) as an independent predictor of HDI. In terms of hormonal data, median 24 h urinary epinephrine levels (p = .04) and metanephrine levels (p = .01) were significantly higher in the HDI group. DM was also considered as a risk factor for prolonged HDI (p = .02). CONCLUSION: Surgeons and anaesthesiologists need to be aware of the risk of HDI and its prolongation during laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma for DM patients.

9.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of the on-treatment C-reactive protein (CRP) status during systemic treatment as the predictive marker for the response of subsequent nivolumab monotherapy in patients with refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 73 mRCC patients treated with nivolumab were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the serum CRP levels before and after molecular-targeted treatments. Patients whose CRP did not exceed baseline value were defined as the CRP-control group and the others were defined as the CRP-progression group. The clinical impact of CRP-control on the efficacy of nivolumab was assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (33%) were categorized into the CRP-control group. The CRP-control group patients (median PFS not reached) had significantly longer PFS than the CRP-progression group (median PFS 11.9 months, 95% confidence interval, CI 4.1-19.8, p = 0.038). The CRP-control group had a tendency of longer OS from nivolumab initiation than the CRP-progression group (p = 0.071). By multivariate analysis, the on-treatment CRP-control was the independent predictive factor for PFS (hazard ratio HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.99, p = 0.047). CONCLUSION: The on-treatment CRP-control could be the predictive factor for the efficacy of nivolumab in refractory mRCC patients.

10.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine use of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) before radical prostatectomy (RP) is not recommended, but it is sometimes performed to reduce the prostate size and tumor volume or to prevent tumor progression during the wait times for surgery in clinical practice. On the other hand, the impact of NHT on the pattern of biochemical recurrence (BCR) is unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 1749 consecutive patients who underwent RP between 1996 and 2017. Among the patients who met the inclusion criteria, BCR developed in 240 of non-NHT patients and in 120 of NHT patients during the mean follow-up period of 6.9 years. We examined the impact of NHT on the PSA-doubling time (DT) following BCR at different times after RP. RESULTS: The median PSA-DTs in non-NHT patients who experienced BCR in the first year after surgery, between 1 and 2 years, between 2 and 3 years, between 3 and 4 years, between 4 and 5 years, and at > 5 years were 5.5, 8.8, 11.3, 17.7, 18.2, and 18.4 months, respectively. On the other hand, those in NHT patients were 1.4, 4.1, 9.1, 13.4, 27.2, and 19.3 months, respectively. The differences of PSA-DTs in the first year after surgery (p < 0.001) and between 1 and 2 years (p = 0.005) were significant between non-NHT and NHT patients. CONCLUSION: Patients who received NHT had a higher risk of a rapid PSA increase when they experienced BCR, especially within 2 years after RP. In order to not miss the optimal timing of salvage treatment for BCR, intensive PSA follow-up is necessary.

11.
Jpn J Radiol ; 39(9): 868-876, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of pulmonary infectious and noninfectious complications with extensive ground-glass attenuation (GGA) in immunocompromised patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty-two immunocompromised patients with pulmonary complications that showed extensive GGA (> 50% of the whole lung on HRCT) were included in this study. The diagnoses of the 152 patients were as follows: pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), n = 82; drug-induced pneumonia, n = 38; bacterial pneumonia, n = 9; cytomegalovirus pneumonia, n = 6; idiopathic pneumonia syndrome, n = 6; diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), n = 4; fungal infection, n = 3; tuberculosis, n = 2 and pulmonary edema, n = 2. Two chest radiologists retrospectively evaluated the CT criteria, which consisted of 12 findings. RESULTS: The nodule (p = 0.015), the bronchovascular bundle (BVB) thickening (p = 0.001), and the interlobular septum (ILS) thickening (p = 0.002) were significantly infrequent in PCP. The ILS thickening was significantly frequent in drug-induced pneumonia (p < 0.001) though it was also frequent in other noninfectious and infectious diseases. The BVB thickening was significantly frequent in bacterial pneumonia (p = 0.005). The nodule was significantly frequent in DAH (p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: Nodules, BVB thickening, and ILS thickening could be useful HRCT findings for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary complications in immunocompromised patients with extensive GGA.

12.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between a sign and visceral pleural invasion (VPI) of peripheral non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that does not appear touching the pleural surface. METHODS: A total of 221 consecutive patients with NSCLC that did not appear touching the pleural surface, ≤ 3 cm in solid tumor diameter, and was surgically resected between January 2009 and December 2015 were included. We focused on the flat distortion of the tumor caused by an arch-shaped linear tag between the tumor and the pleura on CT and named it a bridge tag sign. We evaluated the associations between the clinicopathological features of the tumor, including the bridge tag sign, and VPI. We also evaluated the associations between histopathological findings and the bridge tag sign. The utility of the bridge tag sign in the diagnosis of VPI was statistically assessed. RESULTS: The bridge tag sign was observed in 48 (20.8%) patients. VPI was positive in 9 (4.1%) patients; among these, the bridge tag sign was positive in 8 patients. In multivariate analysis, a bridge tag sign was significantly associated with VPI. The bridge tag sign was associated with longer contact length of the pleura with the tumor and trapezoid type pleural retraction. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the bridge tag sign in the diagnosis of VPI were 88.9%, 83.5%, 83.7%, 18.6%, and 99.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A bridge tag sign on CT might improve the accuracy of the prediction of VPI. KEY POINTS: • We present the bridge tag sign which is defined as a flat distortion of an NSCLC tumor by an arch-shaped linear tag between the tumor and chest wall or interlobar fissure. • The bridge tag sign was an independent predictive factor for visceral pleural invasion. • The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the bridge tag sign in the diagnosis of visceral pleural invasion were 88.9%, 83.5%, 83.7%, 18.6%, and 99.4%, respectively.

13.
J Urol ; 206(2): 338-345, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In general, the index lesion of prostate cancer has the largest tumor volume, the highest Grade Group (GG), and the highest stage (concordant cases). However, these factors sometimes do not coincide within one lesion (discordant cases). In such discordant cases, the largest tumor may not be of biological significance and the secondary tumor may more greatly impact the prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, and we identified 580 (85.3%) concordant cases and 100 (14.7%) discordant cases. The end point of this study was biochemical recurrence, and median followup was 4.2 years. RESULTS: Among discordant cases in which GGs of the largest tumor and the highest GG tumor differed, the majority (67 patients) had the largest tumor of GG 2, and we set them as the study cohort. On the other hand, we regarded 212 concordant cases with an index tumor of GG 2 as the control cohort. The study cohort comprised 48 (71.6%) patients with a secondary tumor of GG 3 and 19 (28.4%) with a secondary tumor of GG 4/5. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that the 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rates were 76%, and 67%, respectively. The 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate of the control cohort was 91%, which was significantly better than that of the study cohort (p=0.013 and p=0.014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the prognosis of discordant cases is better determined by the secondary cancer lesion with the highest GG instead of the largest lesion.


Assuntos
Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918002

RESUMO

Inducing apoptosis is an effective treatment for cancer. Conventional cytotoxic anticancer agents induce apoptosis primarily through activation of tumor suppressor p53 by causing DNA damage and the resulting regulation of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family proteins. Therefore, the effects of these agents are limited in cancers where p53 loss-of-function mutations are common, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we demonstrate that ultraviolet (UV) light-induced p53-independent transcriptional activation of NOXA, a proapoptotic factor in the BCL-2 family, results in apoptosis induction. This UV light-induced NOXA expression was triggered by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Moreover, we identified the specific UV light-inducible DNA element of the NOXA promoter and found that this sequence is responsible for transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4)-mediated induction. In p53-mutated TNBC cells, inhibition of KLF4 by RNA interference reduced NOXA expression. Furthermore, treatment of TNBC cells with a KLF4-inducing small compound, APTO-253, resulted in the induction of NOXA expression and NOXA-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, our results help to clarify the molecular mechanism of DNA damage-induced apoptosis and provide support for a possible treatment method for p53-mutated cancers.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Fenantrolinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
15.
Vaccine ; 39(22): 2976-2982, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926749

RESUMO

In the activation of cell-mediated adaptive immune responses that play major roles in the elimination of virus-infected or tumor cells, it is important that dendritic cells present antigen peptides on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and activate pathogen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). As exogenous peptide antigens are generally presented on MHC class II but not class I, the development of a method for exogenous antigen delivery that facilitates MHC class I presentation is necessary for a potentially effective vaccine that is expected to provoke cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. Here, we developed extracellular vesicles that incorporate antigenic proteins by utilizing endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-mediated vesicle formation pathway. Furthermore, we proved that these vesicles could deliver their contents to the cytoplasm of dendritic cells and activate antigen-specific CTLs. These technologies could be applied to the development of novel CTL-inducing peptide vaccines.


Assuntos
Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte , Vesículas Extracelulares , Apresentação do Antígeno , Células Dendríticas , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II , Peptídeos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(5): 754-758, 2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692233

RESUMO

We examined the antimicrobial susceptibility of 848 Escherichia coli isolates from 237 feces samples of wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) captured between 2016 and 2019 in 39 of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Five of the 237 wild sika deer (2.1%) carried E. coli with resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and all the resistant isolates showed resistance to tetracycline. The resistant isolates contained antimicrobial resistance genes that were similar to those in E. coli derived from humans and farm animals. Although wild sika deer are not currently likely to be a source for the transmission of antimicrobial resistance in Japan, they can potentially mediate antimicrobial resistance spread by coming into contact with humans, animals, and their surroundings.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cervos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Japão/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247427, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is assessed by carefully examining a patient's cognitive impairment. However, previous studies reported inadequate diagnostic accuracy for dementia in primary care settings. Many hospitals use the automated quantitative evaluation method known as the Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), wherein brain MRI data are used to evaluate brain morphological abnormalities associated with AD. Similarly, an automated quantitative evaluation application called the easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS), which uses brain SPECT data to detect regional cerebral blood flow decreases associated with AD, is widely used. These applications have several indicators, each of which is known to correlate with the degree of AD. However, it is not completely known whether these indicators work better when used in combination in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: We included 112 participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 128 participants with early AD in this study. All participants underwent MRI, SPECT, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed by univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis with a combination of MMSE, VSRAD and eZIS indicators was performed to verify whether the diagnostic accuracy in discriminating between MCI and early AD was improved. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the MMSE score alone was 0.835. The AUC was significantly improved to 0.870 by combining the MMSE score with two quantitative indicators from the VSRAD and eZIS that assessed the extent of brain abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Compared with the MMSE score alone, the combination of the MMSE score with the VSRAD and eZIS indicators significantly improves the accuracy of discrimination between patients with MCI and early AD. Implementing VSRAD and eZIS does not require professional clinical experience in the treatment of dementia. Therefore, the accuracy of dementia diagnosis by physicians may easily be improved in real-world primary care settings.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Idoso , Encéfalo/patologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Curva ROC , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3991, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597599

RESUMO

Tumour-promoting inflammation is a hallmark of cancer, and chronic inflammatory disease increases the risk of cancer. In this context, MYD88, a downstream signalling molecule of Toll-like receptors that initiates inflammatory signalling cascades, has a critical role in tumour development in mice and its gene mutation was found in human cancers. In inflammation-induced colon cancer, tumour suppressor p53 mutations have also been detected with high frequency as early events. However, the molecular mechanism of MYD88-induced cancer development is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that MYD88 induced the protein accumulation of the transcription factor HIF-1α through NF-κB in p53-deficient cells. HIF-1α accumulation was not caused by enhanced protein stability but by NF-κB-mediated transcriptional activation, the enhanced translation of HIF-1α and JNK activation. In contrast, MYD88-induced mRNA expressions of HIF-1α and HIF-1-target genes were attenuated in the presence of p53. Furthermore, constitutively active forms of MYD88 induced tumour-initiating cell (TIC) generation in p53-deficient cells, as determined by tumour xenografts in nude mice. TIC generating activity was diminished by the suppression of NF-κB or HIF-1α. These results indicate that MYD88 signals induce the generation of TICs through the NF-κB-HIF-1α activation cascade in p53-deficient cells and suggest this molecular mechanism underlies inflammation-induced cancer development.

19.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(4): 744-752, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The salvage treatments for biochemical recurrence (BCR) include local external beam radiation therapy (RT) and systemic androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: We reviewed patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) and developed BCR at three institutions. After excluding patients whose nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was higher than 0.2 ng/mL, those who received neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy, and those whose BCR was not treated until their PSA exceeded 4.0 ng/mL, the remaining 335 patients comprised the cohort of this study. Salvage RT and ADT were performed for 154 and 181 patients, respectively. After the failure of salvage RT, all patients received subsequent ADT. The starting point of this study was the timing of BCR and the endpoint was the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). RESULTS: During the mean follow-up period of 8.5 years after BCR, CRPC was observed in 13 patients administered RT and 24 patients administered ADT. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated no significant difference in CRPC-free survival between the RT and ADT groups (10-year CRPC-free survival 89.9 vs. 86.3%, p = 0.199). On the other hand, we found a significant difference in CRPC-free survival between the RT and ADT groups in 50 high-risk patients with two risk factors of Grade Group ≥ 4 and PSA-doubling time < 6 months (10-year CRPC-free survival 73.4 vs. 40.3%, p = 0.040). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that salvage RT increases the CRPC-free survival rate compared with salvage ADT in high-risk patients with Grade Group ≥ 4 and PSA-doubling time < 6 months.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação
20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(1): 465-473, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the oncological feasibility of pure laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (p-LRNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) compared with conventional LRNU (c-LRNU) using a propensity-adjusted multi-institutional collaboration dataset. METHODS: Among the 503 UTUC patients who underwent RNU, we identified 219 who underwent c-LRNU (laparoscopic nephrectomy with open bladder cuff resection) and 72 who underwent p-LRNU (dissecting the kidney, ureter, and bladder cuff under complete laparoscopy). We adopted a propensity score (PS) matching method to achieve homogeneity with respect to patient backgrounds. PS matching-adjusted Cox-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors that influenced oncological outcomes. RESULTS: Sixty-eight p-LRNU and 68 c-LRNU patients were matched. Overall, 51 (37.0%) developed intravesical recurrence (IVR), 21 (15.4%) had disease recurrence, and 20 (14.7%) died. Patients who underwent p-LRNU had a significantly shorter operation time and less blood loss than those who underwent c-LRNU. Although no significant differences in 3-year recurrence-free survival were found between the two methods, atypical recurrence sites were observed in the p-LRNU group, including the brain, sigmoid colon, vagina, and peritoneum. Regarding IVR, the 3-year IVR-free survival rate was 41.8% in the p-LRNU group, which was significantly lower than that in the c-LRNU group (66.6%, p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a history of bladder cancer, ureteral cancer, and p-LRNU were independent risk factors for subsequent IVR. CONCLUSION: Although p-LRNU is less invasive, the current technique may increase the incidence of atypical disease recurrence and subsequent IVR due to extravesical and intravesical tumor dissemination.


Assuntos
Nefroureterectomia , Neoplasias Ureterais , Neoplasias Urológicas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Ureterais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Urológicas/cirurgia
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