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1.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 76, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several retrospective studies have reported spine-femur discordance in bone mineral density (BMD) values. However, the average age of individuals in these studies was the mid-50s, which is younger than the typical age of individuals requiring treatment for primary osteoporosis. Therefore, we aimed to investigate factors associated with discordance in the percentage of young adult mean (YAM) between the lumbar spine and femoral neck in the elderly population. METHODS: We evaluated 4549 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements obtained from 2161 patients (269 men and 1892 women) between January 2014 and December 2017 at our hospital. For individuals with more than one eligible set of measurements, the first record was used. We investigated each patient's age, sex, body mass index, current smoking status, alcohol consumption, use of steroids, presence of diabetes mellitus, and presence of rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 76.4 ± 8.9 years. Older age (p <  0.001), male sex (p <  0.001), and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with spine-femur discordance in the percentage of YAM. CONCLUSION: The frequency and magnitude of spine-femur discordance in the percentage of YAM from DXA scans increased with age. Notably, more than 77.4% of patients in their 90s had spine-femur discordance > 10% of YAM. Furthermore, the frequency of spine-femur discordance was higher in men and in patients with diabetes mellitus, suggesting that the percentage of YAM at the lumbar spine may not be reliable for diagnosis of osteoporosis in patients with these factors.

2.
Vaccine ; 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, a monovalent mumps vaccine is provided on a voluntary basis. Due to public concerns over post-vaccination aseptic meningitis, the vaccination coverage is not high enough. The present study investigated the incidence of adverse events, including aseptic meningitis, after Torii strain-derived mumps vaccination. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study used data collected by a vaccine manufacturer regarding adverse events following mumps vaccinations at medical institutions between 1992 and 2018. In addition, the number of Torii strain-derived mumps vaccines shipped each year was obtained. The incidence (per 100,000 doses) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for all adverse events and each adverse event, categorized as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, mumps, mumps complications, and others. RESULTS: During the study period, 8,262,121 mumps vaccine doses were shipped, and 688 subjects reported adverse events. The incidence for all adverse events (per 100,000 doses) was 8.33, and the incidence was 4.19 for aseptic meningitis, 0.33 for encephalitis, 0.80 for mumps, 0.25 for mumps complications, and 3.78 for others. The incidence of aseptic meningitis (per 100,000 doses) was 7.90 (95% CI: 5.61-10.18) between 1998 and 2000 but declined by half, to 3.91 (2.46-5.36), between 2001 and 2003. The most recent incidence (per 100,000 doses) of aseptic meningitis, for the period 2016 to 2018, was 2.78 (1.94-3.62). CONCLUSION: The incidence of post-vaccination aseptic meningitis has declined significantly since 2001, and the incidence has remained stable at fewer than 3 cases per 100,000 doses since 2010. Multiple factors might have contributed to the decline in aseptic meningitis incidence, including (i) lowered misclassification of aseptic meningitis resulting from echovirus infection; (ii) changes in the vaccine manufacturing process in 2000; and (iii) publication in 2008 of the recommendation for vaccination of children at 1 year of age.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine antibody titers at six months and their percentage change from three to six months after the second dose of the BNT162b2 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech) and to explore clinical variables associated with titers in Japan. METHODS: We enrolled 365 healthcare workers (250 women, 115 men) whose three-month antibody titers were analyzed in our previous study and whose blood samples were collected 183 ± 15 days after the second dose. Participant characteristics, collected previously, were used. The relationships of these factors with antibody titers at six months and percentage changes in antibody titers from three to six months were analyzed. RESULTS: Median age was 44 years. Median antibody titer at six months was 539 U/mL. Older participants had significantly lower antibody titers (20s, 752 U/mL; 60s-70s, 365 U/mL). In age-adjusted analysis, smoking was the only factor associated with lower antibody titers. Median percentage change in antibody titers from three to six months was -29.4%. The only factor significantly associated with the percentage change in Ab titers was not age or smoking, but sex (women, -31.6%; men, -25.1%). CONCLUSION: The most important factors associated with lower antibody titers at six months were age and smoking, as at three months, probably reflecting their effect on peak antibody titers. However, the only factor significantly associated with the attenuation in Ab titers from three to six months was sex, which reduced the sex difference seen during the first three months. Antibody titers may be affected by different factors at different time points.

4.
Hepatol Res ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although systemic therapy is recommended for patients with multiple intermediate stage unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) classified as beyond the up-to-7 criteria (UT-7 out/multiple) as a transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) unsuitable condition, few reports have examined the therapeutic efficacy of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab combination therapy (Atez/Bev) in such cases. This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic response of Atez/Bev in u-HCC patients classified as UT-7 out/multiple. MATERIAL/METHODS: From September 2020 to September 2021, 95 u-HCC Japanese patients classified as UT-7 out/multiple/Child-Pugh A were enrolled from 21 institutions (median age 76 years, males 73, Child-Pugh 5:6 = 68:27, TNM stage II:III = 17:78). Therapeutic response was retrospectively evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), ver. 1.1 and modified RECIST (mRECIST). RESULTS: Atez/Bev was given as first-line treatment to 52 (54.7%). Objective response rate (ORR)/disease control rate (DCR) at six weeks of RECIST and mRECIST were 17.7%/84.7% and 42.5%/86.2%, respectively. Median PFS was 8.0 months (median observation period: 6.0 months). Child-Pugh A/modified Albumin-bilirubin grade (mALBI) 1 and 2a at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 weeks, were 100%/69.4%, 89.8%/57.3%, 94.8%/65.3%, and 91.4%/60.0%, respectively. Among adverse events (any-grade, >10%) during the present observation period, general fatigue was most frequent (23.2%), followed by urine protein (21.1%), appetite loss (20.0%), and hypertension (13.7%). CONCLUSION: Atez/Bev treatment showed favorable therapeutic response with less influence on hepatic function, suggesting it as a useful therapeutic option for patients with such condition.

5.
Oncology ; : 1-9, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: With the development of systemic treatment methods for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC), the concept of unsuitable for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has become important. This study aimed to establish a simple predictive scoring system for determining TACE unsuitable status. MATERIALS/METHODS: From 1998 to 2015, 196 patients with intermediate-stage uHCC with Child-Pugh A (score 5:6 = 108:88) and given TACE as the initial treatment were enrolled. At the baseline, tumor burden (Milan criteria-out, up-to-7 in/out, and up-to-11 in/out: 0-2 points) and modified albumin-bilirubin grade 1/2a or 2b (0-1 point) were added to determine the score for TACE unsuitable (CITRUS-MICAN score; low <2 and high ≥2). In addition, a previously reported tumor marker (TM) score, in which alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was ≥100 ng/mL, fucosylated AFP ≥10%, and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin ≥100 mAU/mL (each 1 point) (total 0, 1, or ≥2 points), was used for additionally evaluating tumor malignancy potential. Prognosis was retrospectively evaluated based on those scores. RESULTS: Median survival time (MST) was better for low compared to high CITRUS-MICAN score (42.0 vs. 26.4 months) (p = 0.002). A 2-step evaluation using the combination of CITRUS-MICAN and TM scores showed an MST of 43.2 months for low CITRUS-MICAN/TM score 0/1 (rank-A) and 39.6 months for low CITRUS-MICAN/TM score ≥2 (rank-B2), while it was 46.8 months for high CITRUS-MICAN/TM score 0 (rank-B1), 28.8 months for high CITRUS-MICAN/TM score 1 (rank-B2), and 22.8 months for high CITRUS-MICAN/TM score ≥2 (rank-C). For rank-A cases (n = 51), MST was 43.2 months, while it was 46.8 months for rank-B1 (n = 12), 31.2 months for rank-B2 (n = 82), and 22.8 months for rank-C (n = 51) (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results showed that rank-C indicates absolute TACE unsuitable status. For rank-A patients, good prognosis with TACE can be expected, while TACE refractoriness status during the clinical course should be carefully evaluated so as to anticipate the appropriate timing for switching to systemic treatment in rank-B1 and -B2 patients.

6.
JGH Open ; 5(10): 1172-1178, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622004

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) is useful for assessing portal hypertension. It is unclear whether SSM values are appropriate because vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) does not generate B-mode images. This study aimed to confirm whether the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measured in the spleen can predict the accuracy of SSM. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 349 patients who underwent SSM using VCTE from January 2012 to December 2020. Consecutive patients were classified into the pilot set (SSM and hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] were measured) and the validation set (SSM was measured without HVPG). In the pilot set, scatter plots with a nonparametric contour line were created. Logistic regression analysis was performed to predict outliers outside the 50% contour line. Results: The values of CAP could distinguish the outliers in scatter plots between the HPVG and SSM in both univariate and multivariate analyses (cutoff, 118 dB/m). The correlation of SSM with HVPG (r = 0.718; P < 0.001) was significantly better in the low CAP (≤118 dB/m) group than in the high CAP (>118 dB/m) group (r = 0.330; P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of SSM in predicting high-risk varices was better in the low CAP group than in all patients or in the high CAP group in the pilot set (0.881, 0.854, and 0.843, respectively) and in the validation set (0.893, 0.821, and 0.814, respectively). Conclusion: For patients with CAP <118 dB/m, SSM is a feasible predictor of HVPG.

7.
Cancer Med ; 10(23): 8530-8541, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sequential therapy with molecular-targeted agents (MTAs) is considered effective for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. This study purposed to evaluate the efficacy of sequential therapy with sorafenib (SORA) as a first-line therapy and to investigate the therapeutic impact of SORA in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or nonalcoholic steato hepatitis (NASH)-related HCC. METHODS: We evaluated 504 HCC patients treated with SORA (Study-1). The times of administration for sorafenib from 2009 to 2015, 2016 to 2017, and 2018 and later were defined as the early-, mid-, and late-term periods, respectively. Among them, 180 HCC patients treated with SORA in addition to MTAs in the mid- and late-term periods were divided into groups based on disease etiology (NAFLD or NASH [n = 37] and viral or alcohol [n = 143]), and outcomes were compared after inverse probability weighting (IPW) (Study-2). RESULTS: Overall survival (OS) of HCC patients who received sequential MTA therapy after first-line SORA was significantly longer. The median survival times (MST) were 12.6 versus 17.6 versus 17.4 months in the early-term group, mid-term group, and the later-time group (early vs. mid, p = 0.014, early vs. later. p = 0.045), respectively. (Study-1). In Study-2, there was no significant differences in OS between the Virus/alcohol group and the NAFLD/NASH group in patients who received sequential therapy (MST was 23.4 and 27.0 months p = 0.173, respectively). The NAFLD or NASH, female sex, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade 2b, and major Vp (Vp3/Vp4) were significant factors for OS treated with SORA. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential therapy with SORA as the first-line treatment improved the prognosis of unresectable HCC patients and was effective regardless of HCC etiology.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine antibody (Ab) titres 3 months after the second dose of the BNT162b2 coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and to explore clinical variables predicting these titres in Japan. METHODS: We enrolled 378 healthcare workers (255 women, 123 men) whose blood samples were collected 91 ± 15 days after the second of two inoculations of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech) given 3 weeks apart. Medical histories and demographic characteristics were recorded using a structured self-reported questionnaire. The relationships between Ab titres and these factors were analysed. RESULTS: Median age (interquartile range (IQR)) of the participants was 44 (32-54) years. Median Ab titre (IQR) against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike antigen was 764 (423-1140) U/mL. Older participants had significantly lower Ab titres; median (IQR) Ab titres were 942 (675-1390) and 1095 (741-1613) U/mL in men and women in their 20s, respectively, but 490 (297-571) and 519 (285-761) U/mL in men and women in their 60-70s, respectively. In the age-adjusted analysis, the only risk factors for lower Ab titres were male sex and smoking. However, the sex difference may have arisen from the sex difference in smoking rate. Moreover, Ab titres were significantly lower in current smokers than in ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The most important factors associated with low Ab titres were age and smoking habit. In particular, current smoking status caused lower Ab titres, and smoking cessation before vaccination may improve the individual efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.

9.
Hepatol Res ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570948

RESUMO

AIM: To validate an appropriate spleen size measurement technique for the prediction of high-risk esophagogastric varices. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 369 patients who underwent ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) of the spleen and esophagogastroduodenoscopy between January 2018 and December 2020. Maximum spleen length, width, and craniocaudal length were measured in a longitudinal view. The two-dimensional (2D) spleen index (maximum length × maximum width in the longitudinal view) was calculated. A three-dimensional (3D) spleen index was then defined as follows: 2D spleen index × maximum length in the transverse view. The similarity in spleen volume measured by CT and ultrasonography (spleen index) was assessed by the correlation coefficient. The diagnostic accuracies of the spleen index, platelet/spleen length, and platelet/spleen index were calculated to determine the overall diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: Compared to the other spleen indices, our 3D spleen index was significantly better correlated with spleen volume on CT (r = 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89-0.92, p < 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses revealed no significant difference between the 3D and 2D indices (p = 0.228) but did show a significant difference between the 3D and one-dimensional indices (p = 0.020). Although the area under the curve for the platelet count combined with the spleen index or length was higher than that for our 3D index, there was no significant difference between platelet count and spleen index or length (p = 0.078). CONCLUSIONS: Platelet/spleen length has a reasonable ability to predict high-risk esophagogastric varices, even though measurement of two or three factors can be correlated with spleen volume.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16663, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404856

RESUMO

It was recently reported that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not responsive to immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of lenvatinib in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/NASH-related unresectable-HCC (u-HCC). Five hundred thirty u-HCC patients with Child-Pugh A were enrolled, and divided into the NAFLD/NASH (n = 103) and Viral/Alcohol (n = 427) groups. Clinical features were compared in a retrospective manner. Progression-free survival (PFS) was better in the NAFLD/NASH than the Viral/Alcohol group (median 9.3 vs. 7.5 months, P = 0.012), while there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) (20.5 vs. 16.9 months, P = 0.057). In Cox-hazard analysis of prognostic factors for PFS, elevated ALT (≥ 30 U/L) (HR 1.247, P = 0.029), modified ALBI grade 2b (HR 1.236, P = 0.047), elevated AFP (≥ 400 ng/mL) (HR 1.294, P = 0.014), and NAFLD/NASH etiology (HR 0.763, P = 0.036) were significant prognostic factors. NAFLD/NASH etiology was not a significant prognostic factor in Cox-hazard analysis for OS (HR0.758, P = 0.092), whereas AFP (≥ 400 ng/mL) (HR 1.402, P = 0.009), BCLC C stage (HR 1.297, P = 0.035), later line use (HR 0.737, P = 0.014), and modified ALBI grade 2b (HR 1.875, P < 0.001) were significant. Lenvatinib can improve the prognosis of patients affected by u-HCC irrespective of HCC etiology or its line of treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458101

RESUMO

Background: Cartilage degradation progresses rapidly following medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT). Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been performed for medial compartmental osteoarthritis following MMPRT. We evaluated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of UKA for medial compartmental osteoarthritis after an untreated MMPRT. Methods: Twenty-one patients who underwent UKA for isolated medial compartment osteoarthritis following MMPRT were retrospectively investigated. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and knee range of motion. The posterior tibial slope and tibial component inclination were evaluated using plain radiographs. Results: The mean follow-up periods were 25.5 ± 13.8 months. Clinical outcomes improved significantly postoperatively. The mean postoperative knee extension angle was -1.1° ± 2.1°, and the knee flexion angle was 134.3° ± 4.9°. The posterior tibial slope angle decreased from 9.0° ± 2.0° preoperatively to 5.4° ± 1.8° postoperatively, and postoperative tibial component inclination at the final follow-up was 2.9° ± 1.1° varus. No aseptic loosening or deep infections were observed. Conclusion: UKA significantly improved clinical outcomes and could be a viable surgical option for treating isolated medial compartmental osteoarthritis accompanied by untreated MMPRT.

12.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lenvatinib is a standard of care option in first-line therapy of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we aim to identify, in patients with HCC treated with lenvatinib, a possible association between occurrence and grading of adverse events (AEs) and outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 606 Japanese and Italian patients treated with lenvatinib in first-line setting and investigated the possible correlation between the onset of AEs, toxicity grade (G) and outcome measures such as overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: The appearance of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 independently predicted prolonged OS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.93, P = .0188], whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 independently predicted decreased OS (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.25-2.32, P = .0007) by multivariate analysis. Appearance of hand-foot skin reaction independently predicted prolonged PFS (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93, P = .0149), whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicted decreased PFS (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.77, P = .0277). CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings are that the occurrence of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 is a predictor of longer survival, whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicts for a poor prognosis. A careful management of AEs under lenvatinib treatment for HCC is required, to improve patients' quality of life, minimize the need for treatment discontinuation and achieve optimal outcome.

13.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(7): 1300-1309, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278177

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma has been considered to disseminate through the tumor blood drainage area. To improve curation rates, treatment should cover this area as it may contain satellite lesions. This retrospective study aimed to investigate whether radiofrequency ablation (RFA) completely covering the blood drainage area can improve the overall and disease-free survival. We enrolled 526 patients who underwent computed tomography during hepatic arteriography following RFA from April 2001 to May 2019. Patients were categorized into a covered group in which the blood drainage area was completely covered by RFA and a noncovered group in which coverage was incomplete. The primary endpoint was the overall survival rate; secondary outcomes included disease-free survival rate, distant intrahepatic and local recurrence rate, and changes in the Child-Pugh score. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Cumulative overall survival rates were significantly higher in the covered group than in the noncovered group (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.84; P = 0.002). On multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis, age <65 years, Child-Pugh class A, and coverage of the entire drainage area were independent protective factors. Child-Pugh worsened in 11 (4.2%) patients in the covered group compared to 18 (6.7%) patients in the noncovered group. Conclusion: RFA covering the complete drainage area improved overall survival without decreasing liver function.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7926, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846370

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in hepatocyte degeneration, especially in patients with chronic liver injury. Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is a key molecule in ER stress. PERK may contribute to apoptotic cell death in HCC, however the details of the mechanism are not clear. In this study, we identified PERK-associated molecules using transcriptome analysis. We modulated PERK expression using a plasmid, tunicamycin and siRNA against PERK, and then confirmed the target gene expression with real-time PCR and Northern blotting. We further analyzed the apoptotic function. Transcriptome analysis revealed that expression of the RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease (RMRP), which is a long noncoding RNA, was strongly correlated with the function of PERK. The expression of RMRP was correlated with the expression of PERK in experiments with the siRNA and PERK plasmid in both HCC cell lines and human HCC tissue. Furthermore, RMRP downregulation induced apoptotic cell death. RMRP is downregulated by PERK, which induces apoptosis in HCC. RMRP could be a new therapeutic target to regulate HCC in patients with chronic liver diseases associated with ER stress.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Tunicamicina/farmacologia
15.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 450-457, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642434

RESUMO

To improve our current understanding of normal flora in children, we investigated bacterial isolates from the pharynx and nasopharynx of 173 and 233 healthy children, respectively. The bacterial isolation rates were compared among three age groups: infants (<1 year), toddlers (1-5 years), and school-aged children (6-15 years). Gram-positive cocci were the predominant bacteria in the pharynx (Streptococcus mitis/oralis, 87.3%; Streptococcus salivarius, 54.3%; Rothia mucilaginosa, 41.6%; Staphylococcus aureus, 39.3%). Among infants, S. salivarius and Neisseria subflava, which are related to the development of teeth, were significantly lower than in the other age groups (P <0.0001, S. salivarius; P <0.01, N. subflava). With the exception of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (44.2%, gram-positive rods), gram-negative rods largely predominated the nasopharynx (Moraxella catarrhalis, 32.1%; Moraxella nonliquefaciens, 28.3%). Among toddlers, M. catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, which are the most common pathogens in acute otitis media, were significantly higher than in the infant group (P <0.05). Among the bacterial species implicated in pediatric respiratory infections, Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 3.5% of the pharyngeal samples. S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were isolated in 22.3% and 17.2% of the nasopharyngeal samples, respectively. In conclusion, the normal flora of the respiratory tract differs not only by the sampling site but also by the age group.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is the gold standard index for evaluating portal hypertension; however, measuring HVPG is invasive. Although transient elastography (TE) is the most common procedure for evaluating organ stiffness, accurate measurement of spleen stiffness (SS) is difficult. We developed a device to demonstrate the diagnostic precision of TE and suggest this technique as a valuable new method to measure SS. METHODS: Of 292 consecutive patients enrolled in this single-centre, translational, cross-sectional study from June through September in 2019, 200 underwent SS measurement (SSM) using an M probe (training set, n = 130; inspection set, n = 70). We performed TE with B-mode imaging using an ultrasound-fusion method, printed new devices with a three-dimensional printer, and attached the magnetic position sensor to the convex and M probes. We evaluated the diagnostic precision of TE to evaluate the risk of esophagogastric varices (EGVs). RESULTS: The median spleen volume was 245 mL (range, 64-1,720 mL), and it took 2 minutes to acquire a B-mode image using the ultrasound-fusion method. The median success rates of TE were 83.3% and 57.6% in patients with and without the new device, respectively (p<0.001); it was 76.9% and 35.0% in patients with and without splenomegaly (<100 mL), respectively (p<0.001). In the prediction of EGVs, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.921 and 0.858 in patients with and without the new device, respectively (p = 0.043). When the new device was attached, the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 3.44 and 0.11, respectively. The cut-off value of SSM was 46.0 kPa. Data that were similar between the validation and training sets were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: The SS can be precisely measured using this new device with TE and ultrasound-fusion method. Similarly, we can estimate the bleeding risk due to EGV using this method.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/instrumentação , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Portal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão na Veia Porta , Curva ROC , Baço/patologia , Esplenomegalia/patologia , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia/métodos
17.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 48(2): 235-244, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417157

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with a Fontan circulation tend to develop liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. A noninvasive ultrasound technique for liver fibrosis and cardiac function assessment in Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) is needed to evaluate disease progression in real time. This study aimed to evaluate whether hepatic vein (HV) waveform analysis and elastography could be alternative markers to cardiac index (CI) in patients with FALD and assess factors influencing elastography measurements in FALD cases. METHODS: All patients underwent cardiac catheterization, B-mode ultrasound and ultrasound elastography measurement. Moreover, we measured serum markers related to fibrosis and examined HV blood flow using duplex Doppler ultrasonography. RESULTS: Forty-three patients (median age, 17 years; interquartile range, 12-25 years; 29 men, 6 with liver biopsy) were enrolled. The real-time tissue elastography (RTE) value was significantly higher in patients who underwent surgery > 7 years prior, suggesting that this value probably reflects the liver fibrosis due to FALD from the early fibrosis stage. The ultrasound elastography did not significantly correlate with hemodynamic parameters. The area under the receiver operating curve for the diagnosis of CI < 2.2 L/min/m2 using HV waveform was superior to the results from elastography and calculated fibrosis indices. CONCLUSION: HV waveform can be used as a noninvasive measurable surrogate marker for CI. The RTE value increased overtime after the operation and would reflect liver fibrosis. The combination of RTE and HV waveform type could be useful noninvasive tools to evaluate clinical conditions in FALD patients in real time.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Veias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Veias Hepáticas/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 271-276, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500118

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mycoplasma pneumoniae contributes to numerous pneumonia cases among children and young adults. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infections among Japanese children, occurring since 2008. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were obtained from all cases, following which real-time PCR was performed to identify M. pneumoniae. Further, the p1 genotypes of isolates were determined using the PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism typing method. RESULTS: The annual rate of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MRMP) infections peaked at 81.8% in 2012 and decreased annually until 2015. Although the infection rate increased to 65.3% in 2016, it decreased again to 14.3% in 2018. Although >90% of isolates harbored the type 1 genotype until 2012, this rate decreased, and approximately 80% harbored p1 genotypes other than type 1 in 2018. Furthermore, the occurrence rate of MRMP among the type 1 isolates was very high (82.4%), whereas that among p1 genotypes other than type 1 was very low (6.5%). CONCLUSIONS: MRMP occurrence potentially decreased owing to changes in not only antibiotic usage but also in the distribution of p1 genotype among isolates.


Assuntos
Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 23S , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hepatol Res ; 51(3): 284-293, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368940

RESUMO

AIM: Liver stiffness measured using transient elastography (TE) is affected by tissue viscosity. The role of intrahepatic lymphatic fluid in liver stiffness is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of lymphatic vessel dilatation on liver stiffness. METHODS: Patients with chronic liver disease (n = 116) were enrolled from June 2018 to March 2020. All specimens were acquired by laparoscopic liver biopsy. Biopsy samples were stained with D2-40 for lymphatic vessel quantification based on a five-point scale for each specimen. Independent associations of liver stiffness measured by TE, strain elasticity (liver fibrosis index), and controlled attenuation parameter with fibrosis, lymphatic vessels, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, and steatosis were evaluated. RESULTS: Fibrosis, splenic stiffness measurement, and splenic volume were significantly correlated with the area of lymphatic vessels. Fibrosis, lymphatic vessels, and alanine aminotransferase were independent factors significantly associated with liver stiffness measurement (LSM; standardized coefficient [ß] = 0.375, P < 0.001; ß = 0.342, P < 0.001; and ß = 0.359, P < 0.001, respectively). Fibrosis was the only independent factor significantly associated with liver fibrosis index (ß = 0.360, P < 0.001), whereas the fat deposit area was the only independent factor significantly associated with controlled attenuation parameter (ß = 0.455, P < 0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for diagnosing controlled ascites based on LSM, liver fibrosis index, splenic stiffness measurement, collagen proportionate area, and area of lymphatic vessels were 0.94, 0.66, 0.76, 0.64, and 0.79, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphatic vessel dilatation can affect liver stiffness measured using TE. Liver stiffness measurement is a predictive factor for ascites.

20.
Vaccine ; 39(1): 11-17, 2021 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Japanese national immunization program recommends that children receive 4 doses of acellular pertussis vaccine between 3 months and 2 years of age. Nevertheless, the number of pertussis cases is increasing in elementary school children aged 6-12 years. Therefore, a test-negative case-control study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the pertussis vaccine program. METHODS: Subjects included children aged ≥3 months who visited a collaborating hospital due to pertussis-specific cough between October 2017 and November 2019. All subjects underwent diagnostic tests for pertussis, and those diagnosed as positive were regarded as cases. Subjects diagnosed as pertussis-negative were classified as controls. Vaccination history was collected using a questionnaire administered to parents with reference to immunization records. Logistic regression models were employed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval for laboratory-confirmed pertussis. RESULTS: Of 187 recruited subjects (120 cases and 67 controls), questionnaire responses were obtained for 145 subjects (95 cases and 50 controls). Compared with unvaccinated subjects, the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 4 doses was 70% among all subjects and reached to 90% with marginal significance among subjects under 6 years of age. However, among school-aged subjects, the VE was not suggestive of protection against pertussis (VE: 8%). For vaccinees given 4 doses, the OR for developing pertussis increased significantly with longer duration since the fourth dose (compared with <4.5 years, OR of 6.0-8.2 years = 5.74; OR of ≥8.3 years = 3.88; P for trend by duration < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Effectiveness of administering 4 doses of pertussis vaccine during infancy decreases with time passed since the fourth dose. This regimen does not protect school-aged children against pertussis.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Coqueluche , Coqueluche , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
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