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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1033-1038, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781691

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Numerous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological tests exists commercially; however, their performance using clinical samples is limited. Although insufficient to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the early phase of infection, antibody assays can be of great use for surveillance studies or for some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients presenting late to the hospital. METHODS: This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of four commercial SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow antibody tests using 213 serum specimens from 90 PCR-positive confirmed COVID-19 patients. Of 59 negative control sera, 50 were obtained from patients with other respiratory infectious diseases before COVID-19 pandemic began while nine were from patients infected with other respiratory viruses, including two seasonal coronaviruses. RESULTS: The varied sensitivities for the four commercial kits were 70.9%, 65.3%, 45.1%, and 65.7% for BioMedomics, Autobio Diagnostics, Genbody, and KURABO, respectively, between sick days 1 and 155 in COVID-19 patients. The sensitivities of the four tests gradually increased over time after infection before sick day 5 (15.0%, 12.5%, 15.0%, and 20.0%); from sick day 11-15 (95.7%, 87.2%, 53.2%, and 89.4%); and after sick day 20 (100%, 100%, 68.6%, and 96.1%), respectively. For severe illness, the sensitivities were quite high in the late phase after sick day 15. The specificities were over 96% for all four tests. No cross-reaction due to other pathogens, including seasonal coronaviruses, was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated the large differences in the antibody test performances. This ought to be considered when performing surveillance analysis.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043600, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a type of acute respiratory failure characterised by non-cardiac pulmonary oedema caused by various underlying conditions. ARDS is often pathologically characterised by diffuse alveolar damage, and its pathological findings have been reported to be associated with prognosis, although the adverse effects of lung biopsies to obtain pathological findings are still unclear. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to reveal the safety and feasibility of lung biopsy in the diagnosis of ARDS. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will include studies that were published in MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 1 June 2020. We will include the reports for critically ill patients in an intensive care unit or emergency department who undergo lung biopsy and require a mechanical ventilation. Two review authors will independently scan titles and abstracts of all identified studies. Furthermore, these two authors will read and assess the full text of study reports to identify trials that appeared broadly to address the subject of the review. We will perform a risk of bias assessment using the McMaster Quality Assessment Scale of Harms. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will be based on the published data, therefore, it does not require ethical approval. The final results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000040650.


Assuntos
Biópsia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Pulmão , Metanálise como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 132, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602898

RESUMO

Genetic and epidemiological evidence has suggested that genetic factors are important in schizophrenia, although its pathophysiology is poorly understood. This study used whole-exome sequencing to investigate potential novel schizophrenia-causing genes in a Japanese family containing several members affected by severe or treatment-resistant schizophrenia. A missense variant, chr12:132064747C>T (rs200626129, P2805L), in the E1A-binding protein P400 (EP400) gene completely segregated with schizophrenia in this family. Furthermore, numerous other EP400 mutations were identified in the targeted sequencing of a schizophrenia patient cohort. We also created two lines of Ep400 gene-edited mice, which had anxiety-like behaviours and reduced axon diameters. Our findings suggest that rs200626129 in EP400 is likely to cause schizophrenia in this Japanese family, and may lead to a better understanding and treatment of schizophrenia.

4.
Pancreatology ; 21(1): 138-143, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is associated with acute pancreatitis (AP) in some cases, however its causes have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the association of the incidence of AP with epithelial subtypes and pancreatic volume in IPMN. METHODS: This retrospective study included 182 consecutive surgically resected IPMN patients between January 2000 and December 2018. The relationship between the incidence of AP and epithelial subtypes of IPMN and pancreatic volume was investigated. Epithelial subtypes of IPMN were classified into gastric (G type: N = 116), intestinal (I type: N = 49), pancreatobiliary (PB type: N = 14), and oncocytic types (O type: N = 3). Pancreatic volume of the contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan was measured using Ziostation2 software. Histological pancreatic parenchymal atrophy was also evaluated. RESULTS: AP occurred more frequently in I-types (I-type vs. G-type, 22.4% [11/49] vs 3.4% [4/116], P = 0.003) and PB-types (PB type vs. G-type, 35.7% [5/14] vs. 3.4% [4/116], P = 0.007) in comparison with G-types, which constituted the majority of the resected IPMNs. AP occurred more frequently in I-type patients with high pancreatic volumes (I-type with high pancreatic volume vs. I-type with low pancreatic volume, 37.0% [10/27] vs. 4.7% [1/21], P = 0.02). However, histological atrophy did not show an additional influence on the association between the incidence of AP and epithelial subtypes. The elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes was not significantly related to epithelial subtypes. CONCLUSION: Epithelial subtypes and the degree of pancreatic volume may be closely associated with the incidence of AP in IPMN.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 892, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pneumatocele is a transient thin-walled lesion and rare complication in adult pneumonia. A variety of infectious pathogens have been reported in children with pneumatoceles. We report the first case of adult pneumonia with pneumatocele formation that is likely caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and coinfection with influenza A virus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old Japanese man presented with a one-week history of fever, sore throat, and arthralgia. He was referred to our university hospital for respiratory distress. He required mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). Bacterial culture detected S. pyogenes in the bronchoscopic aspirates, which was not detected in blood. Although a rapid influenza antigen test was negative, an influenza A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was positive. Therefore, he was diagnosed with coinfection of influenza A and group A streptococcus (GAS) pneumonia complicated by probable streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. A chest radiograph on admission showed diffuse patchy opacification and consolidation in the bilateral lung fields. Multiple thin-walled cysts appeared in both middle lung fields on computed tomography (CT). On the following day, the bilateral cysts had turned into a mass-like opacity. The patient died despite intensive care. An autopsy was performed. The pathology investigation revealed multiple hematomas formed by bleeding in pneumatoceles. CONCLUSIONS: There have been no previous reports of a pneumatocele complicated by S. pyogenes in an adult patient coinfected with influenza A. Further molecular investigation revealed that the S. pyogenes isolate had the sequence type of emm3.

6.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 76(Pt 11): 1712-1715, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209338

RESUMO

The title crystalline compound, [Cu2(NCS)2(C9H16N2)2], was obtained from the reaction of copper(I) thio-cyanate (CuSCN) with (N-prop-2-en-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbo-thio-amide as a chelating and bridging thio-urea ligand in chloro-benzene. The Cu2S2 core of the dimeric mol-ecule is situated on a crystallographic inversion centre. The copper atom is coordinated by a thio-cyanate nitro-gen atom, each sulfur atom of the two thio-urea ligands, and the C=C double bond of the ligand in a distorted tetra-hedral geometry. The dimers are linked by N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming a network extending in two dimensions parallel to (100).

7.
Pancreatology ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184007

RESUMO

Drug-induced pancreatitis is often mild to moderate in severity, but severe and even fatal cases can occur. Here, we report a 74-year-old woman undergoing chemotherapy for recurrent renal cell carcinoma, who presented with abdominal pain after administration of pazopanib following nivolumab and was diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis. Administration of methylprednisolone and conservative treatment were initiated, but clinical findings and laboratory tests rapidly worsened. When she died, an autopsy was performed. The autopsy findings suggested the possibility of pancreatitis as immune-related adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, no fatal cases of acute pancreatitis due to nivolumab or pazopanib have been reported. We considered that the effects of nivolumab were sustained in the pancreas, and pazopanib administration might have worsened the toxicity.

8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4165-4168, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018915

RESUMO

Wearable motion sensor-based complex activity recognition during working hours has recently been studied to evaluate and thereby improve worker productivity. In the application of this technique to practical fields, one of the biggest challenges is performing time-consuming modeling tasks such as data labeling and hand-crafted feature extraction. One way to enable faster modeling is to decrease the time required for the manual tasks by making use of unlabeled motion datasets and the characteristics of complex activities. In this study, we propose a working activity recognition method that combines unsupervised encoding of the activity patterns of motions (denoted as "atomic activities"), the representation of working activities by combination of atomic activities, and the integration of additional information such as sensor time. We evaluated our method using an actual dataset from the caregiving field and found that it had an equivalent recognition performance (70.3% macro F-measure) to conventional hand-crafted feature extraction method. This is also comparable to that of previous methods using large labeled datasets. We also found that our method could visualize daily work processes with the accuracy of 71.2%. These results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to contribute to the rapid implementation of working activity recognition in actual working fields.


Assuntos
Mãos , Atividades Humanas , Aprendizado de Máquina , Movimento , Carga de Trabalho , Humanos , Movimento (Física)
9.
Anal Methods ; 12(18): 2376-2384, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930263

RESUMO

We quantitatively analyze the effect of reabsorption on the Raman spectroscopy of (10, 3) and (8, 3) single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) solutions by varying the detection depth in confocal micro-Raman measurements and SWCNT concentration the in sample solution. The increase of the detection depth and concentration of SWCNTs enhances the reabsorption effect and decreases the intensities of the Raman features. More importantly, reabsorption exhibits different effects on different Raman features such as the radial breathing mode (RBM) and G+ band, strongly depending on the resonance degree of the scattered light energy and the interband transition of SWCNTs. When (10, 3) SWCNTs are excited with a 633 nm laser, the scattered light from RBM has stronger resonance with the interband transition of the SWCNTs than that from the G+ band, leading to a faster reduction in the RBM intensity and a lower intensity ratio of RBM to the G+ band. In contrast, when (8, 3) SWCNTs are excited with a 633 nm laser, reabsorption has the same effect on the RBM and G+ band intensities and thus maintains a constant intensity ratio of RBM to the G+ band. Furthermore, we precisely establish a quantitative relationship of the intensities of the Raman features such as RBM, the G+ band and their intensity ratio as a function of the focal depth and SWCNT concentration by theoretical calculations and numerical simulation, which reproduces the experimental results well. These results are very useful in the precise analysis of the Raman spectroscopy of SWCNTs and thus their applications in molecular detection and imaging.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238738, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915847

RESUMO

The fatigue of truck, bus, and taxi drivers has been a causal trigger for road accidents. However, the relationship between collision risk and the extent of objective fatigue has yet to be confirmed. In this study, we aimed to identify the relationship between autonomic nerve function as an objective parameter of fatigue and the extent of rear-end collision risk, which includes not only objectively risky events but also situations in which truck drivers require safety guidance from safety transport managers. Data of 33 truck driver participants (2 females, 31 males, 46.0 ± 9.1 years old, min-max: 24-65 years old) were analyzed. Drive recorder and automotive sensor data were collected over an eight-month period, and the autonomic nerve function during resting state in drivers was evaluated daily, pre- and post-shift, using pulse waves and electrocardiographic waveform measurement. The rear-end collision risk Index was developed using decision tree analysis of the audiovisual drive recorder data and distance data from the front automotive sensors. The rear-end collision risk index of shift-day was positively correlated with the sympathetic nerve activity index of post-shift condition on the previous day. This suggests that fatigue-related sympathetic nerve overactivity of post-shift condition increases the rear-end collision risk in the following day. Measures, such as actively seeking rest and undertaking fatigue recovery according to the degree of sympathetic nerve activity of post-shift condition, are necessary in order to prevent truck drivers' rear-end collisions.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fadiga , Veículos Automotores , Adulto , Idoso , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 13(6): 1338-1342, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803643

RESUMO

A 60-year-old male visited a previous hospital with upper abdominal pain. He was diagnosed with localized mild acute pancreatitis. Three months later, abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed focal parenchymal atrophy of the pancreas with distal pancreatic duct dilation. No obvious solid mass could be found at the site of the pancreatic duct stenosis on imaging examinations. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography showed focal mild stenosis with distal pancreatic duct dilation in the tail of the pancreas. Carcinoma in situ of the pancreas was strongly suspected, especially based on the presence of focal atrophy of the pancreas around the site of stenosis of the main pancreatic duct and the distal pancreatic duct dilation. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was performed. Histologically, high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia was found in the epithelium of the stenotic main pancreatic duct and its branches. This case suggests that localized acute pancreatitis and focal atrophy of the pancreas with distal dilation of the pancreatic duct could be important clinical manifestations of pancreatic carcinoma in situ.

12.
JGH Open ; 4(4): 677-683, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782956

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Imaging tools for predicting pancreatic atrophy after steroid therapy in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) have not been established. As delayed equilibrium-phase contrast enhancement in computed tomography (CE-CT) may reflect interstitial fibrosis, we evaluated the ability of equilibrium-phase CT imaging for predicting pancreatic atrophy. Methods: Forty-six steroid-treated AIP patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT at our university hospital were included in this retrospective study. CT attenuation (Hounsfield units [HU]) values in noncontrast images (NC) and equilibrium-phase images (EP) and the differences in HU values between NC and EP images (SUB) were measured. Pancreatic volume was measured in CE-CT before (Volpre) and after (Volpost) steroid therapy. The volume reduction rate was calculated. The relationships of CT values with pancreatic atrophy, Volpost, volume reduction rate, and diabetes exacerbation were investigated. Results: CT values in the EP and SUB images before steroid therapy were associated with pancreatic atrophy after steroid therapy (atrophy vs nonatrophy 114.5 ± 12.8 vs 99.5 ± 11.1, P = 0.0002; 70.9 ± 14.72 vs 57.2 ± 13.1, P = 0.003, respectively), but CT values in NC images were not (P = 0.42). CT values in EP and SUB images before steroid therapy were correlated with Volpost (EP images r = -0.70, P = 0.002; SUB images r = -0.68, P = 0.03) and volume reduction rate after steroid therapy (EP images: r = -0.55, P < 0.0001; SUB images r = -0.45, P = 0.002). Diabetes exacerbation was associated with higher EP and SUB values (P = 0.009 and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion: Equilibrium-phase contrast CT imaging may facilitate prediction of pancreatic atrophy after steroid therapy in AIP.

13.
Intern Med ; 59(22): 2879-2883, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713915

RESUMO

A 66-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital with multiple giant liver cysts. The cysts had already been detected as multiple 3-cm cysts with small nodules at another hospital 12 years prior to this presentation. The cysts were diagnosed as an intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (IPNB) occupying the right lobe of the liver. Extended right lobectomy was performed. Based on the pathological findings, the tumor was diagnosed to be an oncocytic-type IPNB with minimal invasion. This experience suggests that the progression of IPNBs occur relatively slowly. The present case might provide important information for understanding the natural history of IPNBs.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12620, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724133

RESUMO

Impaired efferocytosis is a key mechanism of inflammatory lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Cigarette smoking activates RhoA and impairs efferocytosis in alveolar macrophages, but the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by cigarette smoking in the disruption of efferocytosis. Both tunicamycin (10 µg/ml) and thapsigargin (0.1 and 1 µM), which are ER stress inducers, suppressed efferocytosis in J774 cells, and a Rho-associated coiled-coil-forming kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y27632) reversed this effect. We validated the effect of tunicamycin on efferocytosis in experiments using RAW264.7 cells. Then, we investigated the role of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in efferocytosis impaired by ER stress. A PERK inhibitor (GSK2606414) restored the efferocytosis that had been impaired by TM, and an eIF2α dephosphorylation inhibitor (salubrinal) suppressed efferocytosis. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induced ER stress in J774 macrophages and RhoA activation in J774 cells, and the CSE-induced ROCK activity was successfully reversed by GSK2606414 and tauroursodeoxycholic acid. Finally, we confirmed that ER stress suppresses efferocytosis in murine alveolar macrophages and that GSK2606414 could rescue this process. These data suggest that cigarette smoke-induced ER stress and the UPR play crucial roles in RhoA activation and suppression of efferocytosis in the lung.

15.
Vaccine ; 38(35): 5659-5664, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654901

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intradermal (ID) injection is an alternate route that enhances vaccine immunogenicity and decreases vaccine dose. Regular immunization usually starts at age 2 months, and the limited immune capacity of neonates and young infants makes them vulnerable to infection. Successful ID vaccine delivery in this population requires knowledge of skin thickness. Although skin thickness has been evaluated in infants aged 2 months or older, no comparable data are available for neonates, including preterm neonates. METHODS: This prospective observational study used ultrasonography to assess skin thickness in 70 neonates (35 full-term and 35 preterm neonates) at deltoid, suprascapular, and thigh sites. The measurements were compared in relation to anatomical site, between full-term and preterm infants, and with skin thickness values for children aged 2 months or older, which were collected in our previous study using the same measurement technique. RESULTS: In full-term neonates, skin was significantly thicker at the suprascapular site than at the deltoid and thigh sites (P < 0.05); in preterm neonates, skin was significantly thicker at the suprascapular site than at the thigh site (P < 0.05). Skin thickness values at all three sites were significantly lower in preterm neonates than in full-term neonates (P < 0.05). As compared with skin thickness values for infants aged 2 months, values for full-term neonates were significantly lower for the deltoid and suprascapular sites (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Skin thickness values for neonates were affected by prematurity and were significantly lower than those for infants aged 2 months. These findings are important in the design of ID injection devices for neonates and young infants.

16.
ACS Sens ; 5(5): 1405-1410, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390438

RESUMO

Chemiresistive sensors, which are based on semiconducting materials, offer real-time monitoring of environment. However, detection of nonpolar chemical substances is often challenging because of the weakness of the doping effect. Herein, we report a concept of combining a cascade reaction (CR) and a chemiresistive sensor array for sensitive and selective detection of a target analyte (herein, ethylene in air). Ethylene was converted to acetaldehyde through a Pd-catalyzed heterogeneous Wacker reaction at 40 °C, followed by condensation with hydroxylamine hydrochloride to emit HCl vapor. HCl works as a strong dopant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), enabling the main sensor to detect ethylene with excellent sensitivity (10.9% ppm-1) and limit of detection (0.2 ppm) in 5 min. False responses that occur in the main sensor are easily discriminated by reference sensors that partially employ CR. Moreover, though the sensor monitors the variation of normalized electric resistance (ΔR/R0) in the SWCNT network, temporary deactivation of CR yields a sensor system that does not require analyte-free air for a baseline correction (i.e., estimation of R0) and recovery of response. The concept presented here is generally applicable and offers a solution for several issues that are inherently present in chemiresistive sensing systems.

17.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010720

RESUMO

Very recently, a modest but significant efficacy of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) inhalation therapy for the treatment of mild to moderate autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP) has been reported. As the ability to measure the level of GM-CSF autoantibody (GMAb) in the serum is required to decide the indication for this therapy, we developed a high-performance GMAb testing kit for clinical use. As the kit succeeded in reducing nonspecific IgG binding to the ELISA plate, the predictive performance shown in the training study to discriminate aPAP patients from healthy subjects was perfect, providing a cut-off value of 1.65 U·mL-1 in 78 patients with aPAP and 90 healthy subjects in an operator-blinded manner using logistic regression analysis. As in the validation study, serum samples from another 213 patients with aPAP were also blinded and evaluated in an operator-blinded manner against external 207 samples from patients with other types of PAP and patients exhibiting various ground-glass opacities on chest high-resolution computed tomography that require discrimination from PAP. The logistic regression analysis of these validation data sets revealed values of 97.6% and 100% for specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Thus, this new GMAb testing kit is reliable for the diagnosis of aPAP and differential diagnosis of other lung diseases.

18.
Anal Biochem ; 590: 113533, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836385

RESUMO

The detection of uric acid in blood and urine is clinically important in terms of suitable diagnosis and self-healthcare. An amperometric thin film biosensor composed of carbon nanotube and uricase enzyme is presented. The CNT is successfully dispersed in aqueous solution with carboxymethylcellulose surfactant. This enables thin film formation by a simple drop-casting layer-by-layer process. The uricase/carboxymethylcellulose dispersed carbon nanotube/gold thin film biosensor shows the best sensing performance compared to that with sodium cholate surfactant in terms of higher current and lower detection potential. The presented procedure shows good performance with neither electron transfer mediator nor complicated process. Cyclic voltammetry exhibited a sensitivity of 233 µA mM-1 cm-2 at +0.35 V, a linear range of 0.02-2.7 mM, and a detection limit of 2.8 µM. We quantify and graph uric acid data in actual physiological samples (serum and urine) for the first time and detection values showed good agreement with those obtained by a conventional analytical method (enzymatic colorimetry kit).

19.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 410-417, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860318

RESUMO

Photoluminescence (PL) from single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) enables structural identification, but to derive the content rate of the specific chirality species it is necessary to know the quantum yield of each chirality. However, in the PL of SWCNTs, because the Stokes shift is small, the photon reabsorption effect is dominant and the apparent PL spectral shape and emission intensity are greatly modified depending on the concentration. This problem makes quantitative identification of SWCNTs by PL difficult. In this study, the concentration dependence of the PL of SWCNTs separated into a few chiralities was analyzed in detail, including the effect of reabsorption. It is clear that all changes in the PL spectrum occurring in the high concentration range can be explained simply by the reabsorption effect, and additional effects such as Coulomb interactions between SWCNTs can be negligible. Furthermore, a reliable quantum yield was derived from the emission intensity corrected for the reabsorption effect. The PL quantum yield varied with SWCNT chirality and exhibited a clear "family pattern". This is consistent with the theoretical report showing that the chirality-dependent PL quantum yield is dominated mainly by relaxation by optical phonons from E22 to E11.

20.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2807, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849981

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) produces a diverse range of antigenic proteins in its dormant phase. The cytokine profiles of CD4+ T cell responses, especially subsets other than Th1 type (non-Th1 type), against these latency-associated M. tuberculosis antigens such as α-crystallin (Acr), heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA), and mycobacterial DNA-binding protein 1 (MDP-1) remain elusive in relation to the clinical stage of M. tuberculosis infection. In the present study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from different stages of M. tuberculosis-infected cases and control PBMCs were stimulated with these antigens and ESAT-6/CFP-10. Cytokine profiles of CD4+ T cells were evaluated by intracellular cytokine staining using multicolor flow cytometry. Our results demonstrate that Th1 cytokine responses were predominant after TB onset independent of the type of antigen stimulation. On the contrary, non-Th1 cytokine responses were preferentially induced by latency-associated M. tuberculosis antigens, specifically IL-10 response against Acr in latent M. tuberculosis infection. From these results, we surmise a shift in the CD4+ T cell response from mixed non-Th1 to Th1 dominant type during TB progression.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/metabolismo , Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Th1/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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