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1.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

2.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900226, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432628

RESUMO

SCOPE: Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a metabolic sensor activated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) initiating IL-1ß inflammation and IR. Interactions between SFA intake and NLRP3-related genetic variants may alter T2D risk factors. METHODS: Meta-analyses of six Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 19 005) tested interactions between SFA and NLRP3-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and modulation of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. RESULTS: SFA interacted with rs12143966, wherein each 1% increase in SFA intake increased insulin by 0.0063 IU mL-1 (SE ± 0.002, p = 0.001) per each major (G) allele copy. rs4925663, interacted with SFA (ß ± SE = -0.0058 ± 0.002, p = 0.004) to increase insulin by 0.0058 IU mL-1 , per additional copy of the major (C) allele. Both associations are close to the significance threshold (p < 0.0001). rs4925663 causes a missense mutation affecting NLRP3 expression. CONCLUSION: Two NLRP3-related SNPs showed potential interaction with SFA to modulate fasting insulin. Greater dietary SFA intake accentuates T2D risk, which, subject to functional validation, may be further elaborated depending on NLRP3-related genetic variants.

3.
J UOEH ; 41(2): 217-223, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292367

RESUMO

The victim was a morbidly obese and bull-necked woman in her twenties. She had the disorders, due to Down's syndrome, including severe mental retardation, advanced hearing loss, congenital cataract surgery, and amblyopia at postoperative glaucoma. She was deeply sedated for rest with an intravenous drip infusion of 350 mg of thiopental (TP) for 5 minutes during an intraocular pressure examination with secondary glaucoma at a hospital. The examination was finished within 10 minutes after the TP injection, but her respiratory condition deteriorated rapidly when the doctor left the patient. Although immediate artificial respiration was carried out, she was declared dead about 20 hours after the examination. Medical malpractice was suspected for her death. At autopsy, no fatal disease or injury was observed in the victim. The serum TP level was 0.80 µg /ml. TP is an ultra-short-acting intravenous anesthetic, and usually only the smallest amount should be administered by frequent additions after pre-anesthesia administration while maintaining contact with patients. Although contact with patients with a disability can be difficult, it was diagnosed that the death was caused by both respiratory arrest due to a single dose of TP and delay in resuscitation due to the absence of a doctor.

4.
J UOEH ; 41(2): 231-237, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292369

RESUMO

We had a forensic autopsy case in which drugs were detected in a cadaver that had been stored in a cold and wet condition for 5 years. The skin of the cadaver was hard, and the color was partly whitish or dark brown. Though the cadaver had transformed into adipocere in the wet and cold condition, QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS/MS revealed the presence of sulpiride and estazolam in the femoral muscle and bone marrow. The concentrations of sulpiride and estazolam in the femoral muscle were 10.6 ng/g and 39.9 ng/g, respectively. The result of a drug screening test led not only to the cause of death but also to the personal identification of the cadaver. The individual had a history of drug taking, which had been stored in his medical records at the hospital for a long time. The fact of taking sulpiride and estazolam at the same time was characteristic, and it was useful in identifying the cadaver in this case. The progress in analytical technology has made possible the detection of particle drugs from old or adipoceratous cadavers, but there have been no reports of particle drugs being detected in a cadaver that had been dead for 5 years and had transformed to adipocere, as in our present case. The analytical results by LC-MS/MS were certainly important for the diagnosis of the cause of death, and, moreover, they were useful for the purpose of personal identification.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 473-484, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the contribution of genetic variation to food timing, and breakfast has been determined to exhibit the most heritable meal timing. As breakfast timing and skipping are not routinely measured in large cohort studies, alternative approaches include analyses of correlated traits. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate breakfast skipping genetic variants through a proxy-phenotype genome-wide association study (GWAS) for breakfast cereal skipping, a commonly assessed correlated trait. METHODS: We leveraged the statistical power of the UK Biobank (n = 193,860) to identify genetic variants related to breakfast cereal skipping as a proxy-phenotype for breakfast skipping and applied several in silico approaches to investigate mechanistic functions and links to traits/diseases. Next, we attempted validation of our approach in smaller breakfast skipping GWAS from the TwinUK (n = 2,006) and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium (n = 11,963). RESULTS: In the UK Biobank, we identified 6 independent GWAS variants, including those implicated for caffeine (ARID3B/CYP1A1), carbohydrate metabolism (FGF21), schizophrenia (ZNF804A), and encoding enzymes important for N6-methyladenosine RNA transmethylation (METTL4, YWHAB, and YTHDF3), which regulates the pace of the circadian clock. Expression of identified genes was enriched in the cerebellum. Genome-wide correlation analyses indicated positive correlations with anthropometric traits. Through Mendelian randomization (MR), we observed causal links between genetically determined breakfast skipping and higher body mass index, more depressive symptoms, and smoking. In bidirectional MR, we demonstrated a causal link between being an evening person and skipping breakfast, but not vice versa. We observed association of our signals in an independent breakfast skipping GWAS in another British cohort (P = 0.032), TwinUK, but not in a meta-analysis of non-British cohorts from the CHARGE consortium (P = 0.095). CONCLUSIONS: Our proxy-phenotype GWAS identified 6 genetic variants for breakfast skipping, linking clock regulation with food timing and suggesting a possible beneficial role of regular breakfast intake as part of a healthy lifestyle.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth and differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has been associated with obesity, muscle wasting, and cachexia. The receptor for GDF-15 was recently identified in the brainstem and regulates food intake and metabolism. The relationship of plasma GDF-15 with the age-associated decline of muscle mass and strength, gait speed, and physical performance in adults has not been well characterized. METHODS: Plasma GDF-15, grip strength, 6-m gait speed, 400-m walking test time, lower extremity physical performance score, appendicular lean mass, and fat mass were measured in 194 healthy adult participants, 22-93 years, of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. RESULTS: Plasma GDF-15 concentrations increased with age (P <0.001) and were higher in whites compared with blacks and Asians (P = 0.04). Adults with higher plasma GDF-15 had slower 6-m gait speed, longer 400-m walking time, and lower physical performance score in multivariable analyses adjusting for age and race. Plasma GDF-15 was not associated with grip strength, appendicular lean mass, or fat mass. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma GDF-15 is associated with slower gait speed, higher 400-m walking time, and lower physical performance in very healthy community-dwelling adults. The relationship between plasma GDF-15 and sarcopenia-related outcomes may be stronger in the population not selected to be healthy, and this hypothesis should be tested in a representative population.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210493, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633779

RESUMO

Inequity aversion (negative feelings induced by outcome differences between the self and other) plays a key role in human social behaviors. The neurotransmitters oxytocin and GABA have been implicated in neural responses to inequity. However, it remains poorly understood not only how individual genetic factors related to oxytocin and GABA affect the neural mechanisms behind inequity aversion, but also how these genes interact. To address these issues, we examined relationships between genotypes, behavioral decisions and brain activities during the ultimatum game. We identified interactive effects between the polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and glutamate decarboxylase 1 gene for GABA synthesis (GAD1) on envy aversion (i.e., disadvantageous inequity aversion) and on envy-induced activity in the dorsal ACC (dACC). Thus, our integrated approach suggested interactive genetic effects between OXTR and GAD1 on envy aversion and the underlying neural substrates.

10.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572567

RESUMO

Following a Mediterranean diet high in plant-based foods and fish, low in meat and dairy foods, and with moderate alcohol intake has been shown to promote healthy aging. Therefore, we examined the association between a Mediterranean diet and trajectories of cognitive performance in the InCHIANTI study. Subjects (N = 832) were examined every 2⁻3 years up to 18 years with an average follow-up period of 10.1 years. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at every visit. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and adherence to Mediterranean diet was computed on a scale of 0-9 and categorized into three groups of low (≤3), medium (4⁻5), and high (≥6). Those in the highest adherence group (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29⁻0.79) and medium adherence group (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.41⁻0.99) were less likely to experience cognitive decline. The annual average decline in MMSE scores was 0.4 units, for those in the high and medium adherence group this decline was attenuated by 0.34 units (p < 0.001) and 0.16 units (p = 0.03), respectively. Our findings suggest that adherence to a Mediterranean diet can have long-lasting protective effects on cognitive decline and may be an effective strategy for the prevent or delay dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380014

RESUMO

Background: Growth/differentiation factors 8 (GDF8) and 11 (GDF11) have attracted attention as targets for rejuvenating interventions. The biological activity of these proteins may be affected by circulating antagonists such as their respective prodomains, follistatin (FST315), WFIKKN1, and WFIKKN2. Reports of the relationship of GDF8 and GDF11 and their antagonists with aging and aging phenotypes such as skeletal muscle strength have been conflicting possibly because of difficulties in measuring these proteins and polypeptides. Methods: Plasma GDF8 and GDF11 and their antagonists were measured using a multiplexed selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 160 healthy adults aged 22 to 93 years. Quadriceps strength was measured by knee extensor torque using isokinetic dynamometry. Results: Spearman correlations with age were: GDF11 prodomain (r=0.30, P=0.001), GDF11 mature protein (r=0.23, P=0.004), FST315 (r=0.32, P<0.0001), WFIKKN1 (r=-0.21, P=0.008), and WFIKKN2 (r=0.18, P=0.02). Independent of age, FST315 and WFIKKN1 were negatively associated with knee strength (P=0.02, P=0.03, respectively) in a multivariable model that included both GDF8 and GDF11 mature proteins. Conclusions: When measured by an antibody-free SRM assay, GDF8, GDF11, and their antagonists are found in the circulation in the ng/mL range. In healthy adults, plasma GDF11 and antagonists FST315, WFIKKN1, and WFIKKN2 differed by age. Antagonists of GDF8 and GDF11, but not GDF8 and GDF11, were independently associated with skeletal muscle strength. Further work is needed to characterize the relationship of these protein and polypeptides with sarcopenia-related phenotypes such as physical function and walking disability.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.

13.
Aging Cell ; 17(5): e12799, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992704

RESUMO

To characterize the proteomic signature of chronological age, 1,301 proteins were measured in plasma using the SOMAscan assay (SomaLogic, Boulder, CO, USA) in a population of 240 healthy men and women, 22-93 years old, who were disease- and treatment-free and had no physical and cognitive impairment. Using a p ≤ 3.83 × 10-5 significance threshold, 197 proteins were positively associated, and 20 proteins were negatively associated with age. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) had the strongest, positive association with age (GDF15; 0.018 ± 0.001, p = 7.49 × 10-56 ). In our sample, GDF15 was not associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as cholesterol or inflammatory markers. The functional pathways enriched in the 217 age-associated proteins included blood coagulation, chemokine and inflammatory pathways, axon guidance, peptidase activity, and apoptosis. Using elastic net regression models, we created a proteomic signature of age based on relative concentrations of 76 proteins that highly correlated with chronological age (r = 0.94). The generalizability of our findings needs replication in an independent cohort.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2904, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046033

RESUMO

Electrocardiographic PR interval measures atrio-ventricular depolarization and conduction, and abnormal PR interval is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and heart block. Our genome-wide association study of over 92,000 European-descent individuals identifies 44 PR interval loci (34 novel). Examination of these loci reveals known and previously not-yet-reported biological processes involved in cardiac atrial electrical activity. Genes in these loci are over-represented in cardiac disease processes including heart block and atrial fibrillation. Variants in over half of the 44 loci were associated with atrial or blood transcript expression levels, or were in high linkage disequilibrium with missense variants. Six additional loci were identified either by meta-analysis of ~105,000 African and European-descent individuals and/or by pleiotropic analyses combining PR interval with heart rate, QRS interval, and atrial fibrillation. These findings implicate developmental pathways, and identify transcription factors, ion-channel genes, and cell-junction/cell-signaling proteins in atrio-ventricular conduction, identifying potential targets for drug development.

15.
J Aging Health ; : 898264318778417, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether an index of overall cardiovascular health (CVH) is associated with disability in older individuals. METHOD: Data on 925 participants of the InCHIANTI study (Invecchiare in Chianti, aging in the Chianti area, ≥65 years, 55% women) with median follow-up of 9 years were used. CVH score was assessed by smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, diet quality, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose. Disability was examined using instrumental activities of daily living (IADL disabilities >0 vs. 0) and activities of daily living (ADL disabilities >0 vs. 0). Generalized estimating equations and Cox models assessed relationships between baseline CVH with disability and worsening over 9 years. RESULTS: A 1-point increase in the CVH score was associated with 23% and 17% of lower odds of ADL ( p < .001) and IADL ( p < .001) disability and was protective of worsening of disability over 9 years. Cox models demonstrated that a 1-point increase in CVH score was associated with lower hazards of both ADL (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86, p = .005) and IADL (HR = 0.91, p = .007) disability. DISCUSSION: Among older individuals, better CVH was associated with lower risk of disability and worsening over 9 years.

16.
Aging Cell ; : e12785, 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797538

RESUMO

Circulating extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) are potential biomarkers of disease. We thus hypothesized that age-related changes in exRNAs can identify age-related processes. We profiled both large and small RNAs in human serum to investigate changes associated with normal aging. exRNA was sequenced in 13 young (30-32 years) and 10 old (80-85 years) African American women to identify all RNA transcripts present in serum. We identified age-related differences in several RNA biotypes, including mitochondrial transfer RNAs, mitochondrial ribosomal RNA, and unprocessed pseudogenes. Age-related differences in unique RNA transcripts were further validated in an expanded cohort. Pathway analysis revealed that EIF2 signaling, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial dysfunction were among the top pathways shared between young and old. Protein interaction networks revealed distinct clusters of functionally-related protein-coding genes in both age groups. These data provide timely and relevant insight into the exRNA repertoire in serum and its change with aging.

17.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(6): 463-472, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617535

RESUMO

Importance: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine with manifold consequences for mammalian pathophysiology, including cardiovascular disease. A deeper understanding of TNF-α biology may enhance treatment precision. Objective: To conduct an epigenome-wide analysis of blood-derived DNA methylation and TNF-α levels and to assess the clinical relevance of findings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis assessed epigenome-wide associations in circulating TNF-α concentrations from 5 cohort studies and 1 interventional trial, with replication in 3 additional cohort studies. Follow-up analyses investigated associations of identified methylation loci with gene expression and incident coronary heart disease; this meta-analysis included 11 461 participants who experienced 1895 coronary events. Exposures: Circulating TNF-α concentration. Main Outcomes and Measures: DNA methylation at approximately 450 000 loci, neighboring DNA sequence variation, gene expression, and incident coronary heart disease. Results: The discovery cohort included 4794 participants, and the replication study included 816 participants (overall mean [SD] age, 60.7 [8.5] years). In the discovery stage, circulating TNF-α levels were associated with methylation of 7 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, 3 of which were located in or near DTX3L-PARP9 at cg00959259 (ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.003]; P = 7.36 × 10-8), cg08122652 (ß [SE] = -0.008 [0.002]; P = 2.24 × 10-7), and cg22930808(ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.002]; P = 6.92 × 10-8); NLRC5 at cg16411857 (ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.002]; P = 2.14 × 10-13) and cg07839457 (ß [SE] = -0.02 [0.003]; P = 6.31 × 10-10); or ABO, at cg13683939 (ß [SE] = 0.04 [0.008]; P = 1.42 × 10-7) and cg24267699 (ß [SE] = -0.009 [0.002]; P = 1.67 × 10-7), after accounting for multiple testing. Of these, negative associations between TNF-α concentration and methylation of 2 loci in NLRC5 and 1 in DTX3L-14 PARP9 were replicated. Replicated TNF-α-linked CpG sites were associated with 9% to 19% decreased risk of incident coronary heart disease per 10% higher methylation per CpG site (cg16411857: hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-1.95; P = .003; cg07839457: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.94; P = 3.1 × 10-5; cg00959259: HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97; P = .002; cg08122652: HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.74-0.89; P = 2.0 × 10-5). Conclusions and Relevance: We identified and replicated novel epigenetic correlates of circulating TNF-α concentration in blood samples and linked these loci to coronary heart disease risk, opening opportunities for validation and therapeutic applications.

18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 387, 2018 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374233

RESUMO

DNA methylation age is an accurate biomarker of chronological age and predicts lifespan, but its underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this genome-wide association study of 9907 individuals, we find gene variants mapping to five loci associated with intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA) and gene variants in three loci associated with extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA). Mendelian randomization analysis suggests causal influences of menarche and menopause on IEAA and lipoproteins on IEAA and EEAA. Variants associated with longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) paradoxically confer higher IEAA (P < 2.7 × 10-11). Causal modeling indicates TERT-specific and independent effects on LTL and IEAA. Experimental hTERT-expression in primary human fibroblasts engenders a linear increase in DNA methylation age with cell population doubling number. Together, these findings indicate a critical role for hTERT in regulating the epigenetic clock, in addition to its established role of compensating for cell replication-dependent telomere shortening.

19.
Aging Cell ; 17(2)2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356348

RESUMO

Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle declines with age. Most evidence for this decline comes from studies that assessed mitochondrial function indirectly, and the impact of such deterioration with respect to physical function has not been clearly delineated. We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized human muscle fibers declines with age and correlates with phosphocreatine postexercise recovery rate (kPCr), muscle performance, and aerobic fitness. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fibers from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 38 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA; 21 men, age 24-91 years) who also had available measures of peak oxygen consumption (VO2max ) from treadmill tests, gait speed in different tasks, 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, isokinetic knee extension, and grip strength. Results indicated a significant reduction in mitochondrial respiration with age (p < .05) that was independent of other potential confounders. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity was also associated with VO2max , muscle strength, kPCr, and time to complete a 400-m walk (p < .05). A negative trend toward significance (p = .074) was observed between mitochondrial respiration and BMI. Finally, transcriptional profiling revealed a reduced mRNA expression of mitochondrial gene networks with aging (p < .05). Overall, our findings reinforce the notion that mitochondrial function declines with age and may contribute to age-associated loss of muscle performance and cardiorespiratory fitness.

20.
Psychosom Med ; 80(3): 242-251, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Shared genetic background may explain phenotypic associations between depression and Type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to study, on a genome-wide level, if genetic correlation and pleiotropic loci exist between depressive symptoms and T2D or glycemic traits. METHODS: We estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and analyzed genetic correlation between depressive symptoms and T2D and glycemic traits with the linkage disequilibrium score regression by combining summary statistics of previously conducted meta-analyses for depressive symptoms by CHARGE consortium (N = 51,258), T2D by DIAGRAM consortium (N = 34,840 patients and 114,981 controls), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function and insulin resistance by MAGIC consortium (N = 58,074). Finally, we investigated pleiotropic loci using a bivariate genome-wide association study approach with summary statistics from genome-wide association study meta-analyses and reported loci with genome-wide significant bivariate association p value (p < 5 × 10). Biological annotation and function of significant pleiotropic SNPs were assessed in several databases. RESULTS: The SNP-based heritability ranged from 0.04 to 0.10 in each individual trait. In the linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses, depressive symptoms showed no significant genetic correlation with T2D or glycemic traits (p > 0.37). However, we identified pleiotropic genetic variations for depressive symptoms and T2D (in the IGF2BP2, CDKAL1, CDKN2B-AS, and PLEKHA1 genes), and fasting glucose (in the MADD, CDKN2B-AS, PEX16, and MTNR1B genes). CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant overall genetic correlations between depressive symptoms, T2D, or glycemic traits suggesting major differences in underlying biology of these traits. However, several potential pleiotropic loci were identified between depressive symptoms, T2D, and fasting glucose, suggesting that previously established phenotypic associations may be partly explained by genetic variation in these specific loci.

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