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1.
Glob Health Med ; 3(5): 335-342, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782877

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis poses a major public health problem in Japan. Chronic viral hepatitis is a progressive liver disease that eventually develops into liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Since nucleic acid analog therapy for hepatitis B and interferon-free therapy for hepatitis C have made it possible to control the disease status or eliminate the viruses, it is very important that more people receive hepatitis virus tests to confirm the presence of infection at an early stage, and that patients with hepatitis detected by the tests receive appropriate medical care. Currently, the government of Japan is implementing comprehensive measures for hepatitis control based on five key strategies. Moreover, the goal listed in the Basic Guidelines on Hepatitis Measures is to reduce the frequency of progression of hepatitis to cirrhosis or liver cancer through a scheme consisting of testing people for hepatitis, getting those who test positive to visit a medical institution and receive treatment, and providing appropriate and high-quality hepatitis care through specialized medical institutions and regional core centers for the management of liver disease. To achieve the goal, various subsidy programs including an expense subsidy system for hepatitis treatment have been implemented in Japan. It is important for healthcare professionals to have sufficient knowledge of public support for efficient hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease detection and care.

2.
Dig Dis ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the influence of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphism for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the role of the PNPLA3 polymorphism for the development of LC and its complications by the findings of genetic examinations. METHODS: Patients with LC caused by virus (n = 157), alcohol (n = 104), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 106), or autoimmune disease (n = 33) and without LC (n = 128) were enrolled. LC were composed of the present and absent of complications, such as variceal bleeding, hepatic ascites, and/or hepatic encephalopathy. To assess the role of the PNPLA3 polymorphism, odds ratio (OR) for the rs738409 variant was calculated for the patients between (i) with LC and without LC in the entire cohort, and (ii) the present and absent of complications in the patients with LC. RESULTS: There was a significant difference among the patients without LC and those with alcohol, NAFLD related LC in the frequency of G alleles (p < 0.001, both). According to complications of LC, the OR for NAFLD related cirrhosis significantly increased in the presence of the two mutated alleles (OR = 3.165; p = 0.046) when the wild type was used as the reference. However, there were no significant risks for the complications in the virus and alcohol related cirrhosis unless there was a presence of G alleles. CONCLUSION: The PNPLA3 polymorphism was associated with the risk of NAFLD related LC and its complications.

3.
World J Gastrointest Endosc ; 13(10): 491-501, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, with the growing availability of image-enhanced gastrointestinal endoscopy, gastroenterologists have contributed to the early detection of pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). AIM: To clarify the clinical characteristics of pharyngeal SCCs detected by gastrointestinal endoscopy. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a single-center, a university hospital in Japan. We retrospectively assessed the clinical records of 522 consecutive patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal SCC who were examined in our hospital between 2011 and 2018. The lesions were classified into two groups: Group GE (detected by gastrointestinal endoscopy) and Group non-GE (detected by means other than gastrointestinal endoscopy). The clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups. Continuous data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson's χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the categorical data and compare proportions. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative patient survival rates. RESULTS: In our study group, the median age was 65 years and 474 patients (90.8%) were male. One hundred and ninety-six cases (37.5%) involved the oropharynx and 326 cases (62.5%) involved the hypopharynx. Three hundred and ninety-five cases (75.7%) had some symptoms at the time of diagnosis. One hundred and forty-five (27.8%) cases had concurrent ESCC or a history of ESCC. One hundred and sixty-four (31.4%) cases were detected by gastrointestinal endoscopy and classified as Group GE. The proportions of asymptomatic cases, cTis-1 cases and cases with no lymph node metastasis were significantly higher in Group GE than Group non-GE (61.6% vs 7.3%, P < 0.001, 32.9% vs 12.0%, P < 0.001 and 69.5% vs 19.0%, P < 0.001). Endoscopic laryngo-pharyngeal surgery or endoscopic submucosal dissection were performed in only 0.6% of the lesions in Group non-GE but in 21.3% of the lesions in Group GE (P < 0.001). Overall survival was significantly longer in Group GE than in Group non-GE (P = 0.018). The 2-year and 4-year survival rates were 82.5% and 70.7% in Group GE, and 71.5% and 59.0% in Group non-GE, respectively. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal endoscopy plays an important role in the early detection and improving the prognosis of pharyngeal SCCs.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771573

RESUMO

A malignant giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) is a rare primary malignant tumor classified as primary or secondary. Wide resection of the primary tumor is recommended for localized malignant GCTB, but the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear. A systematic review was performed to compare the mortality associated with wide resection with that of wide resection plus adjuvant chemotherapy for primary and secondary localized malignant GCTB. Among the 745 studies identified, 9 were included. A total of 112 cases of localized malignant GCTB were included, with 39 and 73 cases being primary and secondary malignant GCTB. In primary localized malignant GCTB, the mortality rates were 40% (6/15 patients) and 33% (8/24 patients) in the surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy and surgery-only groups, respectively. Overall pooled odds ratio was 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.26-4.37; p = 0.92). In secondary localized malignant GCTB, the mortality rates were 30.6% (11/36 patients) and 62.2% (23/37 patients) in the surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy and surgery-only groups, respectively. The overall pooled odds ratio was 0.31 (95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.95; p = 0.04). The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy remains unclear for primary localized malignant GCTB, but adjuvant chemotherapy improved the survival of patients with secondary localized malignant GCTB.

6.
Trauma Case Rep ; 36: 100540, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660871

RESUMO

Surgery with both anterior and posterior fixation is recommended for unstable pelvic ring fractures; nonetheless, the surgical method remains controversial. Crab-shaped fixation is a minimally invasive and strong posterior fixation method using spinal instruments that can reduce vertical dislocations. The use of pelvic internal fixator as a minimally invasive anterior fixation method has been reported. It is recommended in cases where there is an open wound in the lower abdomen or damage to the pelvic organs. Conversely, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the combined use of crab-shaped fixation and pelvic internal fixator to date. We performed a minimally invasive 360-degree fixation using a combination of crab-shaped fixation and pelvic internal fixator for an unstable pelvic ring fracture (AO-C2) and sacral fracture (Denis zone II) with 15-mm vertical dislocation. The sacral fracture was accompanied by a large bone fragment in the spinal canal, which was suspected to have caused neuropathy. Therefore, in addition to posterior fixation, we performed decompression and removed the bone fragment. Postoperative computed tomography revealed that the sacral vertical dislocation was reduced to 7.5 mm. The patient started getting out of bed on postoperative day 2. His neuropathy improved after surgery. Owing to abdominal discomfort, pelvic internal fixator was extracted at 3 months postoperatively. Bone fusion was completed, and posterior fixation was removed at 9 months postoperatively. Two years after, the patient walks independently and has returned to work. Minimally invasive 360-degree pelvic ring fixation is a treatment option for an unstable pelvic ring fracture (AO-C2).

7.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676569

RESUMO

Sonography is conventionally used to diagnose fractures by identifying cortical discontinuity in the bone. However, its usefulness for diagnosing lumbar transverse process fractures (LTPFs) remains unknown. In this series, we describe static and stress sonography findings during manual application of compression stress on the lateral lumbar vertebrae in 17 patients with LTPFs. Features of LTPFs on static sonography included cortical discontinuity (89.3%), hematoma (71.4%), step-off deformity (67.9%), and focal reverberation echo (78.6%). All LTPFs were confirmed on stress sonography. Thus, stress sonography should be considered for the detection of LTPFs when there is at least one static sonographic fracture sign.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681709

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and is a global public health issue. High performance biomarkers can aid the early detection of HCC development in HBV-infected individuals. In addition, advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of HBV infection and in clinical laboratory techniques have enabled the establishment of disease-specific tests, prediction of the progression of liver diseases, including HCC, and auxiliary diagnosis of HCC, using blood-based methods instead of biopsies of liver or HCC tissues. Viral factors such as the HBV genotype, HBV genetic mutations, HBV DNA, and HBV-related antigens, as well as host factors, such as tumor-associated proteins and post-translational modifications, especially glycosylated proteins, can be blood-based, disease-specific biomarkers for HCC development in HBV-infected patients. In this review, we describe the clinical applications of viral biomarkers, including the HBV genome and glycosylated proteins, for patients at a risk of HBV-related HCC, based on their molecular mechanisms. In addition, we introduce promising biomarker candidates for practical use, including colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), extracellular vesicles, and cell-free, circulating tumor DNA. The clinical use of such surrogate markers may lead to a better understanding of the risk of disease progression and early detection of HCC in HBV-infected patients, thereby improving their prognosis.

9.
Microorganisms ; 9(10)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683404

RESUMO

The hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) is an unprecedented novel HBV biomarker that plays an essential role in reflecting covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) because its levels correlate with intrahepatic cccDNA and serum HBV DNA. In this review, we describe the clinical application of serum HBcrAg in CHB patients, with a particular focus on new therapies targeting intrahepatic HBV replication. (1) HBcrAg can be detected in clinical cases where serum HBV DNA is undetectable during anti-HBV therapy. (2) A highly sensitive HBcrAg assay (iTACT-HBcrAg) may be useful for monitoring HBV reactivation, as an alternative to HBV DNA. (3) Decreased HBcrAg levels have been significantly associated with promising outcomes in CHB patients, reducing the risk of progression or recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, we focus on and discuss several drugs in development that target HBV replication, and monitoring HBcrAg may be useful for determining the therapeutic efficacies of such novel drugs. In conclusion, HBcrAg, especially when measured by the recently developed iTACT-HBcrAg assay, may be the most appropriate surrogate marker, over other HBV biomarkers, to predict disease progression and treatment response in CHB patients.

10.
Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil ; 3(5): e1387-e1394, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712976

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic lunate excisions for advanced Kienböck's disease. Methods: Fifteen patients (six men and nine women; mean age: 65 years; range: 48-83 years) with advanced Kienböck's disease, who underwent arthroscopic lunate resection between April 2008 and March 2016, were reviewed clinically and radiographically after a follow-up of >2 years (mean: 29 months; range: 24-60 months). Clinical parameters, such as wrist range of motion, grip strength, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score, and patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) score were evaluated. Radiographic parameters included radioscaphoid angle, scaphocapitate angle, carpal height ratio, ulnar-triquetrum distance, and the scaphoid-triquetrum distance. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used to compare measurement results. Results: During the final follow-up, patients exhibited significant improvements, such as 42.9° in wrist range of motion (P = .009), 24.5% of the contralateral side in grip strength (P = .001), 26.2 points in DASH score (P = .002), and 37.8 points in PRWE score (P < .001), compared with the preoperative values. The radioscaphoid and scaphocapitate angles significantly increased by 4.8° (P = .0027) and 3.7° (P = .0012), respectively. The carpal height ratio, ulnar-triquetrum distance, and scaphoid-triquetrum distance significantly decreased by 0.05 (P < .001), 2.6 mm (P < .001), and 1.3 mm (P = .0012), respectively. Conclusions: Our results suggest that arthroscopic lunate excisions provided excellent postoperative pain relief and functional recovery within 2 years of follow-up. Changes in carpal alignment and stress concentration on the radial side of the carpal bones could occur in the long term; however, arthroscopic lunate excision can be a good surgical option for treating low-demand patients with advanced Kienböck's disease. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic case series.

11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The mechanisms that regulate HBV viral replication remain poorly defined. Here, we show that blocking of the neddylation elicits antiviral effect against HBV replication, indicating that NEDD8 supports viral production. METHODS AND RESULTS: To explore role of neddylation, HBV-replicating HepG2.2.15.7 cells and HBV-infected HepG2-hNTCP-30 cells were treated with siNEDD8 and MLN4924, a potent and selective NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor. Cell viability, intracellular and extracellular HBV DNA, covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBcrAg were measured to assess the consequences of the various treatments on viral replication. Our data showed that HBV infection increased NEDD8 expression in human liver cell lines. Symmetrically, NEDD8 knockdown by siRNA or MLN4924 treatments decreased HBV replication in HepG2.2.15.7 and HepG2-hNTCP-30 cells. Notably, HBsAg, and HBeAg secretions were strongly suppressed in the culture supernatants, but not the HBcrAg. These results indicate that the suppression of NEDD8 decreases HBV replication. However, cccDNA steady level confirms once again its persistence and longevity in chronic infection. CONCLUSION: The manipulation of the neddylation pathway can thus provide new tools interfering with HBV persistence as well as novel therapeutic strategies against chronic hepatitis B.

12.
Virol J ; 18(1): 200, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent genome sequence technology has revealed a novel type of genetic rearrangement referred to as complex structural variations (SVs). Previous studies have elucidated the complex SVs in human hepatitis B viruses (HBVs). In this study, we investigated the existence of complex SVs in HBVs from non-human primates (NHPs). METHODS: Searches for nucleotide sequences of NHP HBV were conducted using the PubMed, and genetic sequences were retrieved from databases. The candidate genetic sequences harboring complex SVs were analyzed using the CLUSTALW program and MAFFT. Additional bioinformatical analyses were performed to determine strains with complex SVs and to elucidate characteristics of NHP HBV strains. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-four HBV strains from NHPs were identified from databases. SVs and complex SVs were observed in 11 (7.1%) strains. Three gibbon HBV (GiHBV) strains showed complex SVs consisting of an insertion and a deletion in the pre-S1 region. One GiHBV strain possessed a 6-nt insertion, which are normally specific to human HBV genotype A (HBV/A) in the Core region, and further analyses clarified that the 6-nt insertion was not caused by recombination, but rather by simple insertion. Another chimpanzee HBV strain showed complex SVs in the pre-S1 region, which were composed of human HBV/E, G-specific polymorphic SV, and an additional 6-nt insertion. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, complex SVs were observed in HBV strains from NHPs, in addition to human HBV strains, as shown in previous studies. These data suggest that complex SVs could also be found in other members of hepadnaviruses, and may play a role in their genetic diversity.

14.
J Chem Phys ; 155(14): 145101, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654297

RESUMO

Immature hepatitis B virus (HBV) captures nucleotides in its capsid for reverse transcription. The nucleotides and nucleotide analog drugs, which are triphosphorylated and negatively charged in the cell, approach the capsid via diffusion and are absorbed into it. In this study, we performed a long-time molecular dynamics calculation of the entire HBV capsid containing pregenome RNA to investigate the interactions between the capsid and negatively charged substances. Electric field analysis demonstrated that negatively charged substances can approach the HBV capsid by thermal motion, avoiding spikes. The substances then migrate all over the floor of the HBV capsid. Finally, they find pores through which they can pass through the HBV capsid shell. Free energy profiles were calculated along these pores for small ions to understand their permeability through the pores. Anions (Cl-) showed higher free energy barriers than cations (Na+ and K+) through all pores, and the permeation rate of Cl- was eight times slower than that of K+ or Na+. Furthermore, the ions were more stable in the capsid than in the bulk water. Thus, the HBV capsid exerts ion selectivity for uptake and provides an environment for ions, such as nucleotides and nucleotide analog drugs, to be stabilized within the capsid.

15.
Hepatol Res ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626450

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to assess the optimal management of first or later-line lenvatinib therapy (LEN) for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC), by clarifying the difference of degree between relative dose intensity (RDI) to achieve objective response (OR) and disease control (DC) by aiming at stable disease (SD), taking dose modifications into consideration. METHODS: One hundred uHCC patients who received LEN in first- or later-line settings, between April 2018 and December 2020 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The factors associated with overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), OR and DC were assessed. The optimal cut-off values of RDI 4 weeks after initiation of LEN (RDI during cycle 1) and total RDI (RDI during all cycles) to predict achievement of OR and DC by aiming at SD were determined by receiver operator curve analysis. RESULTS: Achievement of OR and SD were favorable factors for OS (HR, 0.080 and 0.20) and TTP (HR, 0.052 and 0.073), with progressive disease defined as the reference. RDI ≥ 0.8 during cycle 1 and RDI ≥ 0.4 during cycle 1 contributed to achievement of OR (odds ratio, 3.28) and DC (odds ratio, 4.85), respectively. Experience of dose interruption was associated with a favorable TTP (HR, 0.58). The therapeutic line of LEN did not contribute to OS, TTP or best response. CONCLUSIONS: To achieve OR and SD for a favorable outcome of first- or later-line LEN, high and moderate early-phase RDI are required, respectively. The degree of RDI during LEN and tolerance need compatible by dose modifications.

16.
Orthopedics ; 44(6): e707-e712, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618641

RESUMO

Approximately 2% to 9% of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) metastasizes systemically, mainly to the lungs. The biological behaviors and clinical courses of lung metastases are difficult to predict, and their treatment recommendations vary, including metastasectomy and non-metastasectomy with chemotherapy (denosumab, interferon-alfa, bisphosphonates), with radiation therapy, or with observation alone. However, it is unclear whether metastasectomy for GCTB lung metastases decreases the mortality rate of these patients. Therefore, the authors performed this systematic review to compare metastasectomy and non-metastasectomy for GCTB patients with operable lung metastasis. Of the 919 relevant studies, 16 studies (138 patients) were included for analysis; 61.6% of patients had metastasectomy and 38.4% had non-metastasectomy. Analysis showed that mortality rates were similar for the patients who had metastasectomy compared with those who did not; the proportion of patients who died of disease was 7.1% in the metastasectomy group and 17.0% in the non-metastasectomy group, with an overall pooled odds ratio of 0.64 (P=.36). Therefore, physicians should reconsider the potential risks and benefits of metastasectomy for patients with GCTB and lung metastasis, because metastasectomy does not reduce the mortality rate in these patients. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(6):e707-e712.].

17.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(6): 1706-1710, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514528

RESUMO

This report describes a rare horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from an unvaccinated 6-year-old boy to his father. The father had been diagnosed with acute hepatitis B 1 month earlier; therefore, when the child visited the clinic with fever, he was screened for HBV markers and diagnosed as an asymptomatic carrier. Neither the child nor his father was vaccinated against HBV, whereas the child's mother and sister, having received the HBV vaccination as they were medical staff and a nursing student, respectively, tested negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and positive for anti-HBs. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of HBV in the child and his father, and identified 100% homologous strains of identical genotype C. At diagnosis, the father tested positive for IgM anti-hepatitis B core with a high titer, whereas the child tested negative for this marker. These data strongly indicated a child-to-father transmission. In this case, the HBV infection route was speculated as close contact including saliva-based transmission between the child and father, mainly attributed to their daily food habits. When clinicians diagnose patients with acute or chronic HBV infection, the household members should have been examined for HBV markers immediately. If some household members are susceptible to HBV infection, all members should be vaccinated against HBV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Criança , Pai , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Filogenia
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257166, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506563

RESUMO

Evaluating liver fibrosis is crucial for disease severity assessment, treatment decisions, and hepatocarcinogenic risk prediction among patients with chronic hepatitis C. In this retrospective multicenter study, we aimed to construct a novel model formula to predict cirrhosis. A total of 749 patients were randomly allocated to training and validation sets at a ratio of 2:1. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was made via transient elastography using FibroScan. Patients with LSM ≥12.5 kPa were regarded as having cirrhosis. The best model formula for predicting cirrhosis was constructed based on factors significantly and independently associated with LSM (≥12.5 kPa) using multivariate regression analysis. Among the 749 patients, 198 (26.4%) had LSM ≥12.5 kPa. In the training set, multivariate analysis identified logarithm natural (ln) type IV collagen 7S, ln hyaluronic acid, and ln Wisteria floribunda agglutinin positive Mac-2-binding protein (WFA+-Mac-2 BP) as the factors that were significantly and independently associated with LSM ≥12.5 kPa. Thus, the formula was constructed as follows: score = -6.154 + 1.166 × ln type IV collagen 7S + 0.526 × ln hyaluronic acid + 1.069 × WFA+-Mac-2 BP. The novel formula yielded the highest area under the curve (0.882; optimal cutoff, -0.381), specificity (81.5%), positive predictive values (62.6%), and predictive accuracy (81.6%) for predicting LSM ≥12.5 kPa among fibrosis markers and indices. These results were almost similar to those in the validated set, indicating the reproducibility and validity of the novel formula. The novel formula scores were significantly, strongly, and positively correlated with LSM values in both the training and validation data sets (correlation coefficient, 0.721 and 0.762; p = 2.67 × 10-81 and 1.88 × 10-48, respectively). In conclusion, the novel formula was highly capable of diagnosing cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C and exhibited better diagnostic performance compared to conventional fibrosis markers and indices.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Curr Oncol ; 28(5): 3347-3372, 2021 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590591

RESUMO

The number of patients with bone metastasis increases as medical management and surgery improve the overall survival of patients with cancer. Bone metastasis can cause skeletal complications, including bone pain, pathological fractures, spinal cord or nerve root compression, and hypercalcemia. Before initiation of treatment for bone metastasis, it is important to exclude primary bone malignancy, which would require a completely different therapeutic approach. It is essential to select surgical methods considering the patient's prognosis, quality of life, postoperative function, and risk of postoperative complications. Therefore, bone metastasis treatment requires a multidisciplinary team approach, including radiologists, oncologists, and orthopedic surgeons. Recently, many novel palliative treatment options have emerged for bone metastases, such as stereotactic body radiation therapy, radiopharmaceuticals, vertebroplasty, minimally invasive spine stabilization with percutaneous pedicle screws, acetabuloplasty, embolization, thermal ablation techniques, electrochemotherapy, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. These techniques are beneficial for patients who may not benefit from surgery or radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos
20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 737, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varus ankle osteoarthritis is classified using only weightbearing anteroposterior ankle radiographs; however, sagittal ankle alignment may also affect the position and extent of joint space obliteration. We hypothesized that the sagittal alignment of the ankle may also affect the position and extent of joint space obliteration visible on the coronal section; therefore, we identified the sites of joint space obliteration in patients with stage 3 varus ankle osteoarthritis for comparison with the sites observed on simulated weightbearing computed tomography and investigated the effects of anterior and posterior ankle subluxation. METHODS: Simulated weightbearing computed tomography scans of 83 ft with varus ankle osteoarthritis (26 stage 3a, 57 stage 3b) were performed to check for joint space obliteration in the ankle. Further classification as exhibiting either anterior, posterior, or no subluxation on weightbearing lateral radiographs was performed. RESULTS: Anterior, posterior, and no subluxation was seen in 5, 9, and 12 ankles among the 26 classified as stage 3a, respectively, and in 22, 12, and 23 ankles among the 57 classified as stage 3b, respectively. The mean tibial lateral surface angle on weightbearing lateral radiographs in stage 3a ankles was 75.6, 83.3, and 80.3 degrees in the anterior, posterior, and no subluxation groups, respectively; and 75.5, 86.6, and 82.7 degrees in stage 3b ankles (p < .05). In stage 3b ankles, widespread joint space obliteration was observed at the anterior distal articular surface of the tibia in all 22 ankles with anterior subluxation and at the posterior distal articular surface of the tibia in all 12 ankles with posterior subluxation. CONCLUSIONS: Simulated weightbearing computed tomography revealed joint space obliteration at the anterior distal articular surface of the tibia in stage 3b ankles with anterior subluxation and at the posterior side in stage 3a and 3b ankles with posterior subluxation. In some patients with stage 3 varus ankle osteoarthritis, the obliteration of the joint space is difficult to evaluate accurately using only weightbearing anteroposterior radiographs; weightbearing lateral radiographs should also be performed.


Assuntos
Tornozelo , Osteoartrite , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Suporte de Carga
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