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1.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134201

RESUMO

As glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs are non-specific therapeutic agents that cause many adverse reactions, the development of biologicals aiming to control specific molecular targets is anticipated for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The antibody targeting B cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) belimumab was the first biological approved for SLE. At present, many biologicals, such as anifrolumab (anti-type I interferon receptor antibody) and ustekinumab (antibody against interleukin 12/23 [p40]), are in clinical trials. Thus, successful treatments with biologicals targeting "bridging cytokines" produced by dendritic cells, which form a bridge between the innate and acquired immune/autoimmune systems, is of particular interest. Moreover, a phase IIb clinical trial of baricitinib, a low-molecular-weight compound targeting Janus kinase 1/2, in patients with SLE revealed that baricitinib was significantly more effective for relieving arthritis and skin manifestations than placebo, and the trial met the primary endpoint. In the future, it is expected that drugs with better efficacy and safety profiles will be used to apply therapeutic strategies, such as precision medicine, in which different molecular target drugs are used for patients classified by their conditions, and to set a therapeutic goal of the discontinuation of glucocorticoids.

2.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Eldecalcitol increases bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces vertebral fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis. However, the effect of eldecalcitol on BMD and fracture in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) patients is unknown. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of eldecalcitol on BMD and fracture with that of alfacalcidol in GIO patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, open-label, parallel group study was conducted to identify the effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with 0.75 µg eldecalcitol compared with 1.0 µg alfacalcidol in GIO patients. RESULTS: Lumbar spine BMD increased with eldecalcitol, but decreased with alfacalcidol at 12 and 24 months (between group difference 1.29%, p < 0.01, and 1.10%, p < 0.05, respectively). Total hip and femoral neck BMD were maintained until 24 months by eldecalcitol, but decreased by alfacalcidol (between group difference 0.97%, p < 0.05 and 1.22%, p < 0.05, respectively). Both bone formation and resorption markers were more strongly suppressed by eldecalcitol than by alfacalcidol. Eldecalcitol showed better effect on BMD than alfacalcidol in patients with no prevalent fracture and BMD > 70% of the young adult mean, and with ≤ 3 months of previous glucocorticoid treatment. No significant difference in the incidence of vertebral fracture was found, and the incidence of adverse events was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Eldecalcitol was more effective than alfacalcidol in maintaining BMD in GIO patients. Because eldecalcitol was effective in patients with no or short-term previous glucocorticoid treatment, as well as those without prevalent fracture or low BMD, eldecalcitol can be a good candidate for primary prevention of GIO. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000011700.

3.
J UOEH ; 42(1): 57-62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213743

RESUMO

A 29-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for treatment of fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D) with diabetic ketoacidosis. The phenotype of peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed using an 8-color flow cytometer. An analysis of the CD4-positive T cells showed a tendency for higher proportions of effector and central memory T cells and a normal proportion of regulatory T (Treg) cells, compared to healthy control. An analysis of B cell differentiation showed higher proportions of switched memory B cells and plasmablasts. The differences in lymphocyte phenotypes between our case and previously reported cases suggest a diversity of FT1D pathology.

4.
Intern Med ; 59(5): 711-714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115519

RESUMO

We herein report a 65-year-old man with elevated serum IgG4 levels, enlarged thyroid, and renal dysfunction, mimicking IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). The definitive diagnosis of IgG4-RD was not established because a tissue biopsy revealed no IgG4-positive cell infiltration or fibrosis. The presence of an M peak in the ß fraction, Bence Jones protein in urine, and progressive anemia suggested multiple myeloma (MM). The κ/λ ratio was >100, tumor plasma cells were present at >20% in bone marrow, and immunostaining revealed IgG4-positive plasma cells; therefore, he was diagnosed with IgG4-type MM. Patients with elevated IgG4 levels with no significant mass lesions should undergo systemic examinations to exclude malignancy.

5.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-7, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159414

RESUMO

Objectives: To identify predictive factors for lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) that persist after methotrexate (MTX) withdrawal (Persistent-LPD) and the optimal treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after LPD regression.Methods: Among 3666 patients with RA treated with MTX in our department from 2006 to 2017, 26 cases of LPD that regressed after MTX withdrawal (Regressive-LPD) and 25 cases of Persistent-LPD were compared. Multivariate logistic analysis was performed to identify predictive factors for Persistent-LPD. Retention rates of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier Method.Results: In Persistent-LPD, the incidence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was higher (76%). The overall 2-year survival rate was 83.9%: 95.8% for Regressive-LPD and 71.0% for Persistent-LPD. The International Prognostic Index (IPI) risk classification was useful for predicting Persistent-LPD. bDMARDs were introduced in 38 RA patients after LPD regression. Unadjusted retention rate of bDMARDs in the 51 LPD patients was significantly lower than that in the 1668 non-LPD RA patients in our bDMARD cohort (controls) (p = 0.029). The 1-year retention rates for bDMARDs were 69% and 64% for tocilizumab and abatacept, respectively vs. 46% for TNF-inhibitor (TNFi).Conclusion: Risk assessment using IPI predicted Persistent-LPD. After LPD regression, non-TNFi tended to have higher retention rates.

6.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 41, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With advancement in the treatment options of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), optimising the outcomes of difficult-to-treat patients has become increasingly important in clinical practice. In particular, insensitivity to first-line biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARD) is becoming a significant problem because it may decrease the treatment adherence of patients. This study aimed to compare RA patients with an insensitivity and those with a poor response to initial treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis), which are the most frequently used bDMARDs. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using clinical data from the FIRST registry. bDMARD-naïve RA patients treated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis) from August 2003 to May 2019 were included and categorised into three groups: TNFi insensitivity, poor response to TNFis and controls. TNFi insensitivity was defined as follows: (1) discontinuation of TNFi treatment within 22 weeks due to lack of any response, or (2) an increase in the disease activity score in 28 joints-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) of > 0.6 at week 22 compared with week 0. Among the remaining patients, those with a DAS28-CRP > 2.6 at week 22 were categorised in the poor response group. RESULTS: Of the included patients, 94 were classified in the insensitivity, 604 in the poor response and 915 in the control. A higher DAS28-CRP before treatment was a risk factor for a poor response but not for insensitivity. In contrast, dose escalation of infliximab decreased the risk of a poor response but not that of insensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: In future research, poor and insensitivity to bDMARDs should be assessed separately to fully elucidate the aetiology of, and risk factors for, bDMARD refractoriness.

7.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 47, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peficitinib (ASP015K), a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor, has demonstrated efficacy and safety for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in randomized, controlled trials of up to 52 weeks' duration. However, safety and effectiveness after long-term treatment have not been assessed. METHODS: This was an interim analysis of an ongoing open-label, multicenter extension study in RA patients who completed phase 2b (RAJ1; 12 weeks) and phase 3 (RAJ3 and RAJ4; 52 weeks) peficitinib studies in Asia (mainly Japan). Eligible patients (n = 843) received oral peficitinib once daily (100 mg, or 50 mg for patients transferring from RAJ1). The peficitinib dose could be increased (up to 150 mg) or reduced (to 50 mg) at the discretion of the investigator. Efficacy variables assessed included American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response rates, ACR components, and disease activity score in 28 joints based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP). RESULTS: Results up to May 2018 are summarized. Mean peficitinib duration of exposure was 22.7 months and the maximum dose was 100 mg in most (66.5%) patients. ACR responses were maintained during the extension study, with ACR20/50/70 response rates of 71.6%, 52.1%, and 34.7% at week 0 and 78.9%, 61.4%, and 42.7% at end of treatment, respectively. ACR components and DAS28-CRP showed improvements from baselines of the preceding studies and continued to show improvements during the extension study. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported in 757/843 (89.8%) patients, the most common being nasopharyngitis (39.7%) and herpes zoster (11.7%). The majority of TEAEs were severity grade 1/2. Drug-related TEAEs leading to permanent study drug discontinuation occurred in 55/843 (6.5%) patients. Regarding AEs of special interest, the incidence per 100 patient-years of serious infections was 2.3 (95% CI 1.6 - 3.1), herpes zoster-related disease 6.8 (95% CI, 5.6 - 8.3), and malignancies 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7 - 1.8). One death from diffuse large B cell lymphoma during the study and one death from uterine sarcoma after the study were considered probably and possibly related to study drug, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of peficitinib was maintained or improved during long-term administration and treatment up to 6 years was well tolerated in Asian patients with RA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01638013, registered retrospectively 11 July 2012.

8.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-8, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075475

RESUMO

Objectives: Many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are not able to achieve long-term disease remission. This phase 2a study (NCT02884635) evaluated the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the novel, oral, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, ASP1707, in combination with methotrexate (MTX) for treatment of RA.Methods: Postmenopausal women with RA who had been receiving MTX for ≥90 days were randomized to ASP1707 30 mg twice daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR20) response rate at week 12. Secondary endpoints included: ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 response rates; disease activity score (DAS)28-CRP; DAS28-ESR; Tender or Swollen Joint Counts; and remission rates.Results: Of 105 patients screened, 72 were randomized to ASP1707 30 mg twice daily (n = 37) or placebo (n = 35). ASP1707 did not improve ACR20, ACR50, or ACR70 response rates at any time point and did not improve any secondary efficacy endpoint. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration decreased >90% in >90% of patients receiving ASP1707, with a rapid decrease to <1 IU/L at week 1 that remained stable throughout the treatment.Conclusion: In the current study, ASP1707 did not demonstrate a clinical benefit.

9.
Endocr J ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023572

RESUMO

Hypoglycemia is the major symptom of insulinoma. Chronic and recurrent hypoglycemia leads to the disappearance of autonomic symptoms and persistence of non-specific symptoms alone, possibly contributing to the delayed diagnosis of insulinoma and accounting for several undiagnosed cases. We previously reported the usefulness of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin as markers for early insulinoma screening; however, their diagnostic prediction performance and diagnostic performance were not satisfactory. We hypothesized that the product of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels (FPG × HbA1c index) is low in insulinoma, and this index may be a useful marker for screening. This cross-sectional multicenter study compared 82 insulinoma patients with 100 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls with normal glucose tolerance based on 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. The FPG × HbA1c index was significantly lower in the insulinoma group than in the control group. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that the optimal cutoff point of the FPG × HbA1c index to diagnose insulinoma was 447.1, and the area under the curves (AUCs) of the FPG × HbA1c index and HbA1c were 0.998 and 0.966, respectively. The AUC of the index was significantly higher than that of HbA1c (p = 0.010). Conversely, no significant difference existed between the AUC of the FPG × HbA1c index and that of the FPG/fasting immunoreactive insulin index. Thus, in apparently healthy population, the product of FPG and HbA1c yields a useful index for insulinoma screening in terms of accuracy and versatility.

10.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 24, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 14-3-3η is an intracellular protein also detected in the serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is closely related to disease activity and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody levels. However, the main source of 14-3-3η and the mechanism of its release into the extracellular space remain unclear. Addressing these two points was the main goal of the current study. METHODS: The source of 14-3-3η was investigated by immunostaining RA synovial tissue. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes, CD4+ cells, and macrophages were selected as candidates among the various cell types in the synovial tissue. Phosphorylation of mixed-lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL) and cell death of macrophages were studied by phalloidin staining and electron microscopy after stimulation with an oxidative stress inducer (diamide) or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Extracellular 14-3-3η protein levels were examined by western blotting. RESULTS: Macrophages from the synovial tissue from RA, but not osteoarthritis, showed dense and widespread cytoplasmic staining for the 14-3-3η protein, co-localized with peptidylarginine deiminase 4. Swelling and membrane rupture of macrophages were induced by treatment with TNF-α, but not interleukin (IL) 6/soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Increased MLKL phosphorylation followed by necroptosis was also induced in TNF-α-stimulated macrophages. Necrostatin-1, a necroptosis inhibitor, antagonized MLKL phosphorylation. High levels of 14-3-3η were detected in the culture supernatants of macrophages stimulated with diamide and TNF-α, but not IL-6/sIL-6R. CONCLUSIONS: Macrophages that highly express 14-3-3η undergo TNF-α-induced necroptosis with damage to the cellular structure, resulting in the secretion of 14-3-3η into the extracellular space. The current study provides a novel mechanism for 14-3-3η level increase in the RA synovial fluid.

11.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020727

RESUMO

AIM: In this retrospective study, the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) added to maintenance therapy according to the standard of care (SoC) was evaluated for 1 year in 101 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: The primary endpoint was the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). The secondary endpoints were the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group index, serum complement activity (CH50) levels, anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody titer, concomitant corticosteroid (CS) dose, and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) damage index. These variables were compared between the SoC + HCQ (n = 42) and SoC (n = 59) groups. RESULTS: The SLEDAI improved from 2 (0, 6) to 0 (0, 4) in the SoC + HCQ group (P = .038) but significantly deteriorated from 1 (0, 4) to 2 (0, 8) in the SoC group (P = .033). CH50, anti-dsDNA antibody titer, concomitant CS dose, and SLICC damage index did not significantly change. The increase in the SLEDAI and concomitant CS dose after 1 year were all significantly greater in the SoC group, and the proportion of patients with SLEDAI flare was significantly lower in the SoC + HCQ group (SoC + HCQ: 4.76% vs SoC: 25.4%, P = .006). Univariate logistic regression analyses identified HCQ as a predictive factor for no SLEDAI flare (P = .003, odds ratio 6.81, 95% confidence interval 1.77-45.00). CONCLUSIONS: The use of HCQ effectively improved SLEDAI scores and was a predictive factor for the prevention of SLEDAI flare. Therefore, HCQ may be considered a potential mainstay of maintenance therapy.

12.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of serological biomarkers of collagen degradation/turnover as serum markers of organ involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 79 SSc patients and 19 healthy control subjects. Types I to VI collagen turnover, excluding type II collagen, were evaluated using nine serological biomarkers. Organ involvement, such as interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), esophageal motility disorder, lower gastrointestinal lesions, joint contractures and digital ulceration, were evaluated and correlated with serum biomarkers. RESULTS: Among multiple serological biomarkers of collagen turnover, the mean level of C5M was higher in SSc (3.9 ng/mL) than healthy subjects (2.6 ng/mL). In addition, PRO-C6 (12.6 ng/mL vs 5.4 ng/mL) and C6M (26.0 ng/mL vs 16.7 ng/mL) were higher in SSc than the controls. The modified Rodnan skin score correlated with PRO-C3 and PRO-C6. Serum level of C6M was higher in patients with ILD. Furthermore, serum levels of PRO-C3, PRO-C6, and C6M were higher in patients with PAH. The use of high levels of these biomarkers as risk factors of PAH showed that all patients with PAH had high levels of risk factors. Of note, two-third of patients with serum PRO-C3, PRO-C6 and C6M values above the respective cut-off values had PAH. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that collagen turnover abnormality, especially type VI collagen, is not only important pathologically in skin sclerosis but also in organ involvement. These biomarkers of collagen turnover are potentially clinically useful as biomarkers of organ involvement in SSc.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Plasmablasts play important roles in autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is regulated by amino acid levels. In patients with SLE, mTORC1 is activated in B cells and modulates plasmablast differentiation. However, the detailed mechanisms of amino acid metabolism in plasmablast differentiation remain elusive. Here, we evaluated the effects of methionine in human B cells. METHODS: Purified CD19+ cells from healthy donors (n=21) or patients with SLE (n=35) were cultured with Toll-like receptor 7/9 ligand, IFN-α, and B cell receptor crosslinking, and we determined the types of amino acids that were important for plasmablast differentiation and amino acid metabolism. We also identified the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms induced by amino acid metabolism and assessed B cell metabolism and its relevance to SLE. RESULTS: The essential amino acid methionine strongly committed cells to plasmablast differentiation. In the presence of methionine, Syk and mTORC1 activation synergistically induced methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) expression. EZH2 induced H3K27me3 at BTB and CNC homolog 2 (BACH2) loci and suppressed BACH2 expression, leading to induction of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 and X-box binding protein 1 expression and plasmablast differentiation. CD19+ cells from patients with SLE overexpressed EZH2, which was correlated with disease activity and autoantibody production. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that methionine activated signaling by controlling immunological metabolism in B cells and played an important role in the differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts through epigenome modification of BACH2 by the methyltransferase EZH2.

14.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study compared the clinical usefulness of minodronate (50 mg/4 weeks) plus alfacalcidol (1 µg/day) (Group M) with that of alfacalcidol alone (1 µg/day) (Group A) for treating glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary endpoints were the changes from baseline in lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) and the cumulative incidence of vertebral fracture at 24 months; secondary endpoints included the changes from baseline in total hip (TH) BMD and bone turnover markers. RESULTS: Of 164 patients enrolled, 152 (Group M, n = 75; Group A, n = 77) were included in the analysis of efficacy. At each time point and at 24 months, LS BMD and TH BMD were significantly higher in Group M than in Group A. The 152 patients were divided into two subgroups that were previously treated with glucocorticoids for ≤ 3 months or > 3 months. In both subgroups, the changes from baseline in LS BMD and TH BMD from baseline at 24 months had increased more in Group M than in Group A. There were no differences found in the incidence of vertebral fracture between the groups, because the number of enrolled patients was lesser than that initially expected. In Group M, both bone formation and resorption markers significantly decreased from baseline at 3 months and maintained at 6, 12, and 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: Minodronate plus alfacalcidol was more effective than alfacalcidol alone in increasing BMD and was effective in increasing BMD for both prevention and treatment. Therefore, minodronate can be a good candidate drug for the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

15.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 23(3): 316-324, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957303

RESUMO

AIM: The Certolizumab-Optimal Prevention of joint damage for Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (C-OPERA) study demonstrated that in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve early RA patients with poor prognostic factors, 1-year certolizumab pegol (CZP) therapy added to the first year of 2-year optimized MTX therapy brings radiographic and clinical benefits through 2 years even after stopping CZP. This exploratory analysis aimed to identify factors at baseline and at CZP discontinuation associated with successful CZP discontinuation. METHODS: MTX-naïve early RA patients with poor prognostic factors entered C-OPERA (NCT01451203), a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to CZP + MTX (n = 159) or PBO + MTX (n = 157); those who completed the 1-year, double-blind period received MTX alone in Year 2 (CZP + MTX→MTX, n = 108; PBO + MTX→MTX, n = 71). Association between factors at baseline or at discontinuation of CZP and clinical/radiographic outcomes were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Predictive value cut-offs were calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: Sex (male) and low baseline Disease Activity Score of 28 joints - erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) were associated with simple disease activity index (SDAI) remission (≤3.3), whereas high baseline DAS28-ESR and modified total Sharp score (mTSS) were associated with clinically relevant radiographic progression (yearly progression mTSS > 3) at Week 104 (across both treatment arms). Low DAS28-ESR (<2.1) and rheumatoid factor (RF; <74 IU/mL) at discontinuation of CZP were associated with SDAI remission at Week 104. At Week 104, SDAI remission was achieved by 75.0% (42/56) of patients with low DAS28-ESR and RF at discontinuation, compared to 15.4% (2/13) of patients with high DAS28-ESR and RF. CONCLUSION: Patients with low RF and low disease activity after treatment with CZP + MTX may be able to discontinue CZP without risk of loss of response.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of the IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TAK). METHODS: Patients completing the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled period of the TAKT (Takayasu arteritis Treated with Tocilizumab) trial were followed up during open-label extended treatment with weekly s.c. tocilizumab 162 mg for up to 96 weeks or longer, with oral glucocorticoid tapering performed at the investigators' discretion. Endpoints of the extension analysis included steroid-sparing effects of tocilizumab, imaging data, patient-reported outcomes (36-Item Short Form Health Survey) and safety. RESULTS: All 36 patients enrolled in the double-blind period entered the open-label extension; 28 patients received tocilizumab for 96 weeks. The median glucocorticoid dose was 0.223 mg/kg/day at the time of relapse before study entry, 0.131 mg/kg/day (interquartile range 0.099, 0.207) after 48 weeks and 0.105 mg/kg/day (interquartile range 0.039, 0.153) after 96 weeks. Overall, 46.4% of patients reduced their dose to <0.1 mg/kg/day, which was less than half the dose administered at relapse before study entry (mean difference -0.120 mg/kg/day; 95% CI -0.154, -0.087). Imaging evaluations indicated that most patients' disease was improved (17.9%) or stable (67.9%) after 96 weeks compared with baseline. Mean 36-Item Short Form Health Survey physical and mental component summary scores and 7 of 8 domain scores were clinically improved from baseline and maintained over 96 weeks of tocilizumab treatment. No unexpected safety issues were reported. CONCLUSION: These results in patients with Takayasu arteritis provide evidence of a steroid-sparing effect and improvements in well-being during long-term treatment with once-weekly tocilizumab 162 mg, with no new safety concerns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: JAPIC Clinical Trials Information, http://www.clinicaltrials.jp/user/cteSearch_e.jsp, JapicCTI-142616.

17.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903822

RESUMO

Objectives: We evaluated long-term control of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japanese paid workers (PWs) and house workers (HWs) treated with subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ-SC) and explored factors affecting response to TCZ-SC regarding work productivity.Methods: This study collected data from patients with RA in the TCZ-SC +/- conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs group. Factors affecting the response to tocilizumab regarding work productivity were explored using logistic regression. Differences in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) between with/without response were analysed by a linear regression.Results: Data were analysed for 357/360 patients. Patients with a ≥ 75% improvement in activity impairment (AI) were considered responders. EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D), six-item Kessler psychological distress scale score (K6), Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and the patient's disease global health by visual analogue scale were significant contributors to TCZ-SC response based on improvements in AI. Work Functioning Impairment Scale, presenteeism, EQ-5D, K6, and HAQ-DI significantly contributed to the improvement of overall work impairment in PWs. Shorter disease duration also was related to TCZ-SC response based on AI improvements. Responders had significantly larger mean QALYs than non-responders (difference = 0.2614; p < .001).Conclusions: These real-world clinical data support long-term work productivity control with TCZ-SC for biologic-naïve HWs and PWs with RA.

18.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-5, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903831

RESUMO

Objective: To update and revise the diagnostic criteria for mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) issued by the Japan Research Committee of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW), a round table discussion by experts from rheumatology, dermatology, and pediatric medicine was conducted in multiple occasions.Methods: The definition of MCTD, and items included in the diagnostic criteria were generated by consensus method and evaluation using clinical data of typical and borderline cases of MCTD, by applying to the diagnostic criteria for MCTD proposed in 1996 and 2004 by the Research Committee of MHLW.Results: To the end, all committee members reached consensus. Then, the criteria were assessed in an independent validation cohort and tested against preexisting criteria. The revised criteria facilitate an understanding of the overall picture of this disease by describing the concept of MCTD, common manifestations, immunological manifestation and characteristic organ involvement. Conditions with characteristic organ involvement include pulmonary arterial hypertension, aseptic meningitis and trigeminal neuropathy. Even if the overlapping manifestations are absent, MCTD can be diagnosed based on the presence of the characteristic organ involvement. Furthermore, the criteria were validated for applicability in actual clinical cases, and public comments were solicited from the Japan College of Rheumatology and other associated societies.Conclusion: After being reviewed through public comments, the revised diagnostic criteria have been finalized.

19.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(2): 199-206, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905298

RESUMO

Introduction: Treatment of rheumatic diseases has been greatly advanced by the introduction of biological molecular-targeted therapies. However, owing to their high heterogeneity at the molecular and clinical levels, treatment of rheumatic diseases can often be challenging. Hence, it especially important to select the most optimal targeted therapy for individual patients. There are ten biologics available for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis; however, how each of these can be used most effectively is unclear.Areas covered: We conducted a narrative review to elucidate whether stratifying psoriatic arthritis patients to select specific molecular-targeted therapies would improve treatment outcomes. We explored the potential of precision medicine in which patients with psoriatic arthritis are stratified by lymphocyte flow cytometry to select specific targeted therapies.Expert opinion: There is insufficient evidence to allow meta-analysis to stratify psoriatic arthritis patients to select specific molecular-targeted therapies. However, selecting specific biologics according to different immunophenotypes of peripheral blood lymphocytes in psoriatic arthritis was shown to produce high therapeutic responses; in other words, the potential of precision medicine was suggested. Such an approach can be applied to other diseases with various clinical features, including spondyloarthritis and systemic lupus erythematous.

20.
Mod Rheumatol ; 30(1): 101-108, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793642

RESUMO

Objectives: This study evaluated the safety and tolerability of anifrolumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the type I interferon (IFN) receptor, in Japanese patients with moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Methods: In this open-label, phase 2, dose-escalation study, patients received intravenous (IV) anifrolumab 100, 300, or 1000 mg every 4 weeks from days 29 to 337 (Stage 1). Patients who completed Stage 1 continued anifrolumab 300 mg every 4 weeks for 156 weeks (Stage 2). The primary objective was to evaluate the safety of anifrolumab for 48 weeks (Stage 1) and 156 weeks (Stage 2). The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anifrolumab were also assessed.Results: Of 20 patients enrolled in Stage 1, 17 received IV anifrolumab 100 mg (n = 6), 300 mg (n = 5), or 1000 mg (n = 6). Adverse events (AE) and serious AE (SAE) incidences were similar between dose cohorts. SAEs occurred in 41% (Stage 1) and 33% (Stage 2) of patients; AEs leading to discontinuation occurred in 24% (Stage 1) and 22% (Stage 2) of patients. Anifrolumab had non-linear pharmacokinetics after the first and last dose and dose-dependently suppressed the IFN gene signature.Conclusion: Anifrolumab was well tolerated among Japanese patients with moderate-to-severe SLE.

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