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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719530

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Despite the recent introduction of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, more effective vaccines and antiviral drugs must be developed. Here, we isolated five SARS-CoV-2 strains from four patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and an asymptomatic individual using pharyngeal swabs, nasopharyngeal swabs, and sputum samples. Cytopathic effects in inoculated Vero cells were observed between days 3 and 7. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole genome sequences showed that the virus isolates from the clinical samples were belonged to the Wuhan and European lineages. These findings and isolated viruses may contribute to the development of diagnostic tools, vaccines, and antiviral drugs for COVID-19.

2.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806388

RESUMO

The photoracemization of chiral alkyl aryl sulfoxides with a photosensitizer has not been sufficiently investigated thus far. Therefore, in this study, a rapid photoracemization reaction of enantiopure alkyl aryl sulfoxides using 1 mol % 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate (TPT+) was developed. Various substitution patterns were tolerated and every racemization reaction proceeded extremely fast (k2 = 1.77 × 104-6.08 × 101 M-1 s-1, t1/2 = 0.4-114 s). Some chiral sulfoxides with easily oxidizable functional groups are not appropriate for this photoisomerization. The electrochemical potentials of the functional groups, determined via cyclic voltammetry, are useful for predicting the reactive or nonreactive groups in this photoracemization reaction. A theoretical study was conducted to clarify the sp2-like nature of S of the sulfoxide cation radical, which makes photoracemization easier.

3.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841876

RESUMO

It is widely recognized that the toxicity of mercury (Hg) is attenuated by the simultaneous administration of selenium (Se) compounds in various organisms. In this study, we revealed the mechanisms underlying the antagonistic effect of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) on inorganic Hg (Hg2+) toxicity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Observations by transmission electron microscopy indicated that HgSe (tiemannite) granules of up to 100 nm in diameter were accumulated in lysosomal-like structures in the cells. The HgSe granules were composed of a number of HgSe nanoparticles, each measuring less than 10 nm in diameter. No accumulation of HgSe nanoparticles in lysosomes was observed in the cells exposed to chemically synthesized HgSe nanoparticles. This suggests that intracellular HgSe nanoparticles were biologically generated from Na2SeO3 and Hg2+ ions transported into the cells and were not derived from HgSe nanoparticles formed in the extracellular fluid. Approximately 85% of biogenic HgSe remained in the cells at 72 h post culturing, indicating that biogenic HgSe was hardly excreted from the cells. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of Hg2+ was ameliorated by the simultaneous exposure to Na2SeO3 even before the formation of insoluble HgSe nanoparticles. Our data confirmed for the first time that HepG2 cells can circumvent the toxicity of Hg2+ through the direct interaction of Hg2+ with a reduced form of Se (selenide) to form HgSe nanoparticles via a Hg-Se soluble complex in the cells. Biogenic HgSe nanoparticles are considered the ultimate metabolite in the Hg detoxification process.

4.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-11, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Teriparatide (TPTD) is a potent promoter of early-stage osteogenesis and may be a useful adjuvant therapy to reduce complications related to bone fragility in spinal surgery patients with osteoporosis. However, effective neoadjuvant TPTD therapy regimens remain poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the effect of preoperative TPTD administration on cancellous bone with bone histomorphometry and to clarify the timing of preoperative TPTD administration for patients with spinal fusion and osteoporosis. METHODS: In this longitudinal multicenter study, 57 patients with spinal fusion and osteoporosis, who consented to undergo iliac biopsy, were allocated to the following treatment groups: neoadjuvant TPTD therapy group (n = 42) and no neoadjuvant therapy (NTC) group (n = 15). Patients in the TPTD group were categorized into subgroups on the basis of duration of preoperative TPTD administration, as follows: 1 month (n = 9), 2 months (n = 8), 3 months (n = 9), 4 months (n = 7), and 6 months (n = 9). All patient samples were preoperatively double labeled with tetracycline, and iliac biopsies were performed during spinal fusion surgery. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on nondecalcified, thin-sliced specimens. Specimens were classified on the basis of TPTD administration duration and subsequently compared with those of the NTC group. Postoperative complications and Oswestry Disability Index scores were evaluated at 1 and 2 years after surgery. RESULTS: There were no demographic differences between groups. Mineralizing surface/bone surface, a key parameter of dynamic bone formation, started to increase after 1 month of TPTD administration; this increase became significant after 3 months of administration and peaked at 4 months, with a 6-fold increase relative to that of the NTC group. The patients who received preoperative TPTD for 3 months or more had superior clinical results in terms of the osteoporotic complication rate and Oswestry Disability Index scores, except for bisphosphonate-pretreated patients. CONCLUSIONS: When considering neoadjuvant TPTD therapy, the authors recommend at least 3 months of preoperative administration to provide a more substantial anabolic effect from the early postoperative stage.

5.
Analyst ; 146(22): 6924-6934, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647550

RESUMO

A portable surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor for detecting pyocyanin (PYO) in simulated wound fluid and from bacteria samples was developed. Solution-phase SERS detection protocols are designed to be compatible with two different clinical practices for wound exudate collection, namely negative pressure liquid collection and swabbing. For citrate-coated metal nanoparticles of three different compositions, i.e. gold (AuNPs), alloyed silver/gold (AgAuNPs), and silver (AgNPs), we firstly confirmed their interaction with PYO in the complex wound fluid, using fluorescence quenching experiments, which rationalized the Raman enhancement effects. We then demonstrated the Raman enhancement effects of the metal nanoparticles in the order of AgNPs > AgAuNPs > AuNPs. The limit of detection (LOD) achieved for PYO is 1.1 µM (in a linear range of 0.1-25 µM by the AgNPs), 10.9 µM (in a linear range of 5-100 µM, by the AgAuNPs), and 17.7 µM (in a linear range of 10-100 µM by the AuNPs). The AgNP and AgAuNP sensors together cover the sensitivity and dynamic range requirements for the clinical detection of wound infection, where PYO is present at a concentration of 1-50 µM. In addition, sterilized cotton swabs were used to collect wound fluid and transfer samples into AgNP solution for SERS measurements. This detection protocol was completed within 5 minutes with a LOD of 23.1 µM (in a linear range of 15-100 µM). The SERS sensing protocol was validated by its successful detection of PYO in cultured Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The findings presented in this work pave the way towards point-of-care diagnostics of wound infections.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Piocianina , Ouro , Prata , Análise Espectral Raman
6.
Nanoscale ; 13(34): 14268-14286, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473186

RESUMO

Materials that exhibit photothermal effect have attracted enormous research interests due to their ability to strongly absorb light and effectively transform it into heat for a wide range of applications in biomedical, environmental and energy related fields. The past decade has witnessed significant advances in the preparation of a variety of photothermal materials, mainly due to the emergence of many nano-enabled new materials, such as plasmonic metals, stoichiometric/non-stoichiometric semiconductors, and the newly emerging MXenes. These photothermal nanomaterials can be hybridized with other constituents to form functional hybrids or composites for achieving enhanced photothermal performance. In this review, we present the fundamental insight of inorganic photothermal materials, including their photothermal conversion mechanisms/properties as well as their potential applications in various fields. Emphasis is placed on strategic approaches for improving their light harvesting and photothermal conversion capabilities through engineering their nanostructured size, shape, composition, bandgap and so on. Lastly, the underlying challenges and perspectives for future development of photothermal nanomaterials are proposed.

7.
J Pharm Health Care Sci ; 7(1): 29, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatremia in patients with cerebrovascular disease, and is often treated with oral salt tablets. However, we have shown that osmolality-dependent variations in gastrointestinal (GI) fluid volume can alter the concentration of a poorly permeable drug in the GI tract, potentially affecting its absorption. Here, we examined the effect of ingestion of hyperosmotic solution (10% NaCl) on drug concentration and absorption in the GI tract. METHODS: The effects of osmolality on luminal fluid volume and drug absorption in rat intestine (jejunum, ileum and colon) were examined by means of an in situ closed loop method using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000 (FD-4) and atenolol. In vivo absorption in rats was determined by measuring the plasma concentration after oral administration of the test compounds dissolved in purified water or hyperosmotic solution (10% NaCl). RESULTS: Administration of hyperosmotic solution directly into the GI tract significantly increased the GI fluid volume, owing to secretion of water into the lumen. After administration in hyperosmotic solution, the luminal concentration of non-permeable FD-4 was significantly lower than the initial dosing concentration, whereas after administration in purified water, the luminal concentration exceeded the initial concentration. The fraction absorbed of atenolol was markedly lower after administration in hyperosmotic solution than after administration in purified water. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats was consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of hyperosmotic NaCl solution increased GI fluid volume and reduced the plasma level of orally administered atenolol. This may imply that oral salt tablets used to treat hyponatremia in SIADH patients could decrease the intestinal absorption of concomitantly administered drugs, resulting in lower plasma exposure.

8.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3574-3580, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522184

RESUMO

Background: Amiodarone is rich in iodine, so in clinical practice amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH) is a major side effect. This drug is used in patients with arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained arrhythmia. Polypharmacy, which can result in complex drug-drug interactions, occurs in more than 70% of the patients with atrial fibrillation. Therefore, polypharmacy may be involved in the expression of AIH. In this study, we investigated the association between polypharmacy and AIH. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using data from January 2006 to May 2020 collected from a large, organized database of prescriptions constructed by the Japan Medical Information Research Institute, Inc. (Tokyo, Japan). To investigate the association between number of prescribed drugs with amiodarone and AIH, we divided patients into two groups: polypharmacy (≥ 5 prescribed drugs) and non-polypharmacy (< 5 prescribed drugs). We then performed a sequence symmetry analysis on the two groups: incident thyroxine after incident amiodarone and incident thyroxine before incident amiodarone. Finally, we conducted a case-control study on two further groups: those prescribed thyroxine after incident amiodarone (AIH group; n=555) and those not prescribed thyroxine after incident amiodarone (non-AIH group; n=6,192). Results: Sequence symmetry analysis revealed a significant association between amiodarone and thyroxine in both the polypharmacy and non-polypharmacy groups. The ranges for the adjusted sequence ratio in the two groups were 12.0-16.7 and 7.3-9.0, respectively. The case-control study showed that ≥5 prescribed drugs at the first prescription of amiodarone were found to significantly increase the odds of AIH (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.84). Conclusion: Polypharmacy was suggested as an independent risk factor for AIH. Careful assessment of the appropriateness of prescription is warranted.

9.
Diabetol Int ; 12(4): 389-398, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567921

RESUMO

Cancer is a major cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and lung cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in patients with T2DM. In the present study, we examined the anti-cancer effect of the Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, canagliflozin, using a lung cancer model. In lung cancer tissues from non-T2DM human subjects, SGLT2 was detected by immunohistochemistry. SGLT2 mRNA and protein were also detected in A549, H1975 and H520 lung cancer cell lines by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Canagliflozin at 1-50 µM significantly suppressed the growth of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In BrdU assays, canagliflozin attenuated the proliferation of A549 cells, but did not induce apoptosis. In cell cycle analysis, S phase entry was attenuated by canagliflozin in A549 cells. In in vivo experiments, a xenograft model of athymic mice implanted with A549 lung cancer cells was treated with low and high dose oral canagliflozin. Despite the results of the in vitro experiments, tumor weight was not decreased by canagliflozin. In addition, the serum insulin level, but not body weight or blood glucose level, was decreased by canagliflozin. The number of cells positive for Ki67 was slightly decreased by canagliflozin, but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, SGLT2 is expressed in human lung cancer tissue and cell lines, and the SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, attenuated proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells by inhibiting cell cycle progression in vitro but not in vivo.

10.
Invest New Drugs ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab therapy in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) based on whether they had previously received systemic therapy, as well as the association of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab with early alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response in real-world practice. METHODS: A total of 52 patients with u-HCC were treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab between October 2020 and April 2021. The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and modified RECIST were used to evaluate radiological responses. RESULTS: The patients received atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as 1st-line (n = 23), 2nd-line (n = 16), 3rd-line (n = 6), 4th-line (n = 3), 5th-line (n = 3), or 6th-line (n = 1) therapy. According to RECIST, the objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) in all patients were 15.4% and 57.7%. In the 1st-line patients, ORR and DCR based on RECIST 1.1 were 27.3% and 81.8%. The median time to progression (TTP) assessed by RECIST was significantly longer among patients receiving atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as 1st-line therapy than in patients receiving atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as later-line therapy (P < 0.001). Patients with an AFP response (reduction ≥ 20% from baseline) at 6 weeks had a significantly longer TTP assessed by RECIST than those without an AFP response (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Patients who received atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as 1st-line therapy had better clinical outcome than those who received atezolizumab plus bevacizumab in later lines. The AFP response at 6 weeks could be a predictor of disease progression.

11.
Mol Microbiol ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543491

RESUMO

Bacterial small RNAs regulate the expression of multiple genes through imperfect base-pairing with target mRNAs mediated by RNA chaperone proteins such as Hfq. GcvB is the master sRNA regulator of amino acid metabolism and transport in a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, independent RNA-seq approaches identified a plethora of transcripts interacting with GcvB in Escherichia coli. In this study, the compilation of RIL-seq, CLASH, and MAPS data sets allowed us to identify GcvB targets with high accuracy. We validated 21 new GcvB targets repressed at the posttranscriptional level, raising the number of direct targets to >50 genes in E. coli. Among its multiple seed sequences, GcvB utilizes either R1 or R3 to regulate most of these targets. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both R1 and R3 seed sequences are required to fully repress the expression of gdhA, cstA, and sucC genes. In contrast, the ilvLXGMEDA polycistronic mRNA is targeted by GcvB through at least four individual binding sites in the mRNA. Finally, we revealed that GcvB is involved in the susceptibility of peptidase-deficient E. coli strain (Δpeps) to Ala-Gln dipeptide by regulating both Dpp dipeptide importer and YdeE dipeptide exporter via R1 and R3 seed sequences, respectively.

12.
Int Immunol ; 33(12): 743-748, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505147

RESUMO

We have been studying inflammatory diseases, with a special focus on IL-6, and discovered two concepts related to inflammation development. One is the gateway reflex, which is induced by the activation of specific neural circuits followed by establishing gateways for autoreactive CD4+ T cells to pass through blood barriers toward the central nervous system (CNS) and retina during tissue-specific inflammatory diseases. We found that the formation of these gateways is dependent on the IL-6 amplifier, which is machinery for enhanced NF-κB activation in endothelial cells at specific sites. We have found five gateway reflexes in total. Here, we introduce the gateway reflex and the IL-6 amplifier.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Compared with conventional pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) with radiofrequency ablation, PVI with cryoballoon is an easier and shorter procedure without reconnection, particularly in the superior pulmonary vein. However, the durability of the cryoballoon may be reduced due to anatomical factors and the position of the pulmonary vein (PV). Further, inadequate isolation of the carina leads to recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to determine whether using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for patient selection improves the early success rate and prevents the recurrence of AF in PVI with cryoballoon. METHODS: We evaluated patients who underwent ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in our hospital between July 2019 and November 2020. After excluding patients with contraindications for cryoablation, 50 patients were selected through visual inspection of the results of preoperative contrast-enhanced CT. A treatment plan was established, and the clinical course and outcomes were followed up. RESULTS: Of the 200 PVs of the 50 patients, only 8 PVs (4%) were incompletely isolated with a single cryoablation. Six of the eight PVs were successfully isolated with additional cryoablation. Only 2 patients (4%) underwent additional PVI with radiofrequency ablation. Four patients had AF recurrence within a mean follow-up period of 14.3 ± 5.1 months. The rate of sinus rhythm maintenance was 92%. PV reconnection was observed in 2 patients. None of the patients had postoperative atrial flutter. CONCLUSIONS: Selecting patients for cryoablation according to contrast-enhanced CT findings made the procedure easier to perform, leading to improved early success rates and clinical course.

14.
J Endovasc Ther ; : 15266028211036484, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Migration is a major cause of reintervention after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In patients with common iliac artery (CIA) dilation due to proximal migration of the iliac limb, internal iliac blood flow can be preserved by implanting an iliac branch device (IBD). CASE REPORT: In this report, we discuss the case of a patient in whom the bilateral limbs were completely displaced into the aortic aneurysm due to proximal migration of the iliac limb after EVAR. By taking advantage of the characteristics of this migration, we formed a pull-through wire through the native terminal aorta without passing through the flow divider of the stent graft, and the IBD was deployed safely. CONCLUSION: The present case indicates that the preservation of at least 1 internal iliac artery is possible in patients with CIA dilation due to proximal migration of the iliac limb. However, the unique features of each case must be considered to determine the appropriate approach.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10174-10183, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449209

RESUMO

The intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier plays a pivotal role in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF), a major polymethoxyflavone found in black ginger, on TJ barrier regulation using intestinal Caco-2 cells. PMF treatment enhanced the TJ barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells, indicated by increased transepithelial electrical resistance (control, 1261 ± 36 Ω·cm2; 100 µM PMF, 1383 ± 55 Ω·cm2 at 48 h, p < 0.05) and decreased permeability to fluorescein-conjugated dextran (control, 24.2 ± 1.8 pmol/(cm2 × h); 100 µM PMF, 18.6 ± 1.0 pmol/(cm2 × h), p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis revealed that PMF increased the cytoskeletal association and cellular expression of the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1, claudin-3, and claudin-4 (e.g., occludin; control, 1.00 ± 0.2; 100 µM PMF, 3.69 ± 0.86 at 48 h, p < 0.05). Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis and a luciferase promoter assay showed that PMF enhanced the transcription of occludin, claudin-3, and claudin-4. The promoter assay with site-directed mutagenesis indicated that PMF-induced occludin and claudin-3 transcription was mediated by transcription factors, KLF5 and EGR1, respectively, while PMF activated claudin-4 transcription through GATA1 and AP1. Taken together, the transcriptional regulation of TJ proteins is involved in PMF-mediated promotion of the intestinal barrier in vitro.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Junções Íntimas , Células CACO-2 , Flavonas , Humanos , Intestinos , Ocludina/genética , Permeabilidade
16.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205111

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a major cause of secondary osteoporosis, and the pathogenic mechanisms of GIOP remain to be elucidated. Here, we show a rapid dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis animal model using zebrafish scales. Intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone over a 5-day period suppressed the regeneration of scales. Furthermore, the circularity of the newly formed regenerated scales was also slightly reduced compared to that of the control group on day 5. The changes in bone-related enzymes, such as cathepsin K, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for bone resorption, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for bone formation, provide insight into the progression of bone diseases; therefore, we further developed a method to measure the activities of cathepsin K, TRAP, and ALP using zebrafish scales. We found that a lysis buffer with detergent at neutral pH under sonication efficiently helped extract these three enzymes with high activity levels. Interestingly, treatment with a dexamethasone injection produced considerably higher levels of cathepsin K activity and a lower Ca/P ratio than those in the control group, suggesting that dexamethasone increased osteoclast activity, with no significant changes in the activities of TRAP and ALP. Our GIOP model and enzyme assay method could help to design better treatments for GIOP.

17.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(5): 1484-1490, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176067

RESUMO

Use of lenvatinib, which has a high response rate in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, sometimes results in tumor shrinkage and resectability of previously unresectable liver cancers. In Asia, including Japan, liver reserve, one of the determinants of resectability, is mainly determined by the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate. Three patients with advanced liver cancer treated at our institution had very poor ICG retention rates during treatment with lenvatinib. Lenvatinib may reduce blood flow in both cancerous and non-cancerous regions by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor. Therefore, accurate determination of liver function likely requires withdrawal of this treatment several days before ICG retention testing.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia , Quinolinas , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113349

RESUMO

The lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of Rhodobacter are reported to be TLR4 antagonists. Accordingly, the extract of Rhodobacter azotoformans (RAP99) is used as a health supplement for humans and animals in Japan to regulate immune responses in vivo. We previously analyzed the LPS structure of RAP99 (RAP99-LPS) and found it is different from that of E. coli-LPS but similar to lipid A from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RSLA), a known antagonist of TLR4, with both having three C14 fatty acyl groups, two C10 fatty acyl groups, and two phosphates. Here we show that RAP99-LPS has an immune stimulatory activity and acts as a TLR4 agonist. Pretreatment of RAP99-LPS suppressed E. coli-LPS-mediated weight loss, suggesting it is an antagonist against E. coli-LPS like other LPS isolated from Rhodobacter. However, injections of RAP99-LPS caused splenomegaly and increased immune cell numbers in C57BL/6 mice but not in C3H/HeJ mice, suggesting that RAP99-LPS stimulates immune cells via TLR4. Consistently, RAP99-LPS suppressed the lung metastasis of B16F1 tumor cells and enhanced the expression of TLR3-mediated chemokines. These results suggest that RAP99-LPS is a TLR4 agonist that enhances the activation status of the immune system to promote anti-viral and anti-tumor activity in vivo.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Rhodobacter/química , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/agonistas , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/fisiologia
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(47): 5790-5793, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998619

RESUMO

We report the synthesis and optical and electronic properties of a one-dimensional sulfoxonium-based hybrid metal halide in an orthorhombic crystal system with a Pnma space group. To provide direct insights, a method is developed to calculate tolerance factors with the ionic radii of non-spherical cations from X-ray crystallographic data.

20.
J Toxicol Sci ; 46(5): 193-198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952796

RESUMO

Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is capable of metal imaging by acquiring local spatial information. However, the preparation of an appropriate standard for quantitative analysis is difficult because the matrices between the standard and the sample should match, and homogeneity of metal concentration in the standard is required. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish a highly quantitative mercury imaging method that utilizes LA-ICP-MS and an appropriate mercury standard consisting of rat tissue. Our standard showed homogeneous mercury concentration and good linearity between concentration and signal intensity, and met the qualifications for quantitative imaging by LA-ICP-MS. Mercury concentration in MeHg-exposed rat kidneys obtained by LA-ICP-MS measurement of the standard (7.84 ± 0.57 µg/g) was comparable to that obtained by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS, 7.27 ± 0.46 µg/g). The results indicate that LA-ICP-MS enabled quantitative imaging with the appropriate standard.


Assuntos
Rim/química , Fígado/química , Mercúrio/análise , Análise Espectral/métodos , Animais , Rim/metabolismo , Lasers , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacocinética , Ratos Wistar
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