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1.
Telemed J E Health ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726542

RESUMO

Objective: To compare clinical recommendations given by psychiatrists and the adherence to these recommendations by primary care physicians (PCP) following consultations conducted by asynchronous telepsychiatry (ATP) and synchronous telepsychiatry (STP). Materials and Methods: ATP and STP consultations were compared using intermediate data from a randomized clinical trial with adult participant enrollment between April 2014 and December 2017. In both study arms, PCPs received written recommendations from the psychiatrist after each encounter. Independent clinicians reviewed PCP documentation to measure adherence to those recommendations in the 6 months following the baseline consultation. Results: Medical records were reviewed for 645 psychiatrists' consult recommendations; 344 from 61 ATP consultations and 301 from 62 STP consultations. Of those recommendations, 191 (56%) and 173 (58%) were rated fully adherent by two independent raters for ATP and STP, respectively. In a multilevel ordinal logistic regression model adjusted for recommendation type and recommended implementation timing, there was no statistically significant difference in adherence to recommendations for ATP compared with STP (adjusted odds ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-1.62). The profiles of recommendation type were comparable between ATP and STP. Conclusions: This is the first PCP adherence study comparing two forms of telemedicine. Although we did not find evidence of a difference between ATP and STP; this study supports the feasibility and acceptability of ATP and STP for the provision of collaborative psychiatric care. Clinical Trial Identifier NCT02084979.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686628

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A previous study demonstrated that the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), a health-related quality-of-life instrument consisting of physical and psychosocial domain scores, reliably differentiates between children with varying severities of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) (N = 729) at 3, 12, and 24 months after injury. However, the PedsQL physical domain score alone may simplify evaluation outcomes in physical rehabilitation and clinical research when comparing different trauma interventions. Therefore, we performed a secondary analysis to evaluate and compare the discriminative capacity of TBI injury severity for changes in the overall PedsQL or the PedsQL physical domain score alone. We used linear mixed models to assess the change of outcome scores from baseline compared to arm injury controls. Somers' D was calculated to compare discriminatory capacity with injury severity as a predictor of change in PedsQL outcome scores. We found that TBI severity in children can be differentiated by the PedsQL physical domain score alone. However, at all follow-up timepoints, TBI severity had higher discriminatory capacity for changes in the overall PedsQL. Our results suggest that the overall PedsQL should be used preferentially in children with TBIs, though further investigation of the physical domain is warranted in conditions where physical injuries may predominate.

3.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1986666, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705611

RESUMO

Understanding how exogenous microbes stably colonize the animal gut is essential to reveal mechanisms of action and tailor effective probiotic treatments. Bifidobacterium species are naturally enriched in the gastrointestinal tract of breast-fed infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are associated with this enrichment. However, direct mechanistic proof of the importance of HMOs in this colonization is lacking given milk contains additional factors that impact the gut microbiota. This study examined mice supplemented with the HMO 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) together with a 2'FL-consuming strain, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum MP80. 2'FL supplementation creates a niche for high levels of B.p. MP80 persistence, similar to Bifidobacterium levels seen in breast-fed infants. This synergism impacted gut microbiota composition, activated anti-inflammatory pathways and protected against chemically-induced colitis. These results demonstrate that bacterial-milk glycan interactions alone drive enrichment of beneficial Bifidobacterium and provide a model for tunable colonization thus facilitating insight into mechanisms of health promotion by bifidobacteriain neonates.

4.
Med Care ; 59(12): 1051-1058, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tools are needed to aid clinicians in estimating their patients' risk of transitioning to long-term opioid use and to inform prescribing decisions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model that predicts previously opioid-naive patients' risk of transitioning to long-term use. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a statewide population-based prognostic study. SUBJECTS: Opioid-naive (no prescriptions in previous 2 y) patients aged 12 years old and above who received a pill-form opioid analgesic in 2016-2018 and whose prescriptions were registered in the California Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP). MEASURES: A multiple logistic regression approach was used to construct a prediction model with long-term (ie, >90 d) opioid use as the outcome. Models were developed using 2016-2017 data and validated using 2018 data. Discrimination (c-statistic), calibration (calibration slope, intercept, and visual inspection of calibration plots), and clinical utility (decision curve analysis) were evaluated to assess performance. RESULTS: Development and validation cohorts included 7,175,885 and 2,788,837 opioid-naive patients with outcome rates of 5.0% and 4.7%, respectively. The model showed high discrimination (c-statistic: 0.904 for development, 0.913 for validation), was well-calibrated after intercept adjustment (intercept, -0.006; 95% confidence interval, -0.016 to 0.004; slope, 1.049; 95% confidence interval, 1.045-1.053), and had a net benefit over a wide range of probability thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: A model for the transition from opioid-naive status to long-term use had high discrimination and was well-calibrated. Given its high predictive performance, this model shows promise for future integration into PDMPs to aid clinicians in formulating opioid prescribing decisions at the point of care.

5.
Contraception ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve teen contraceptive use, the SpeakOut intervention combines structured counseling, online resources, and text reminders to encourage teens to share their experiences using intrauterine contraception (IUC) or an implant with peers. METHODS: To evaluate the effectiveness of remote delivery of the SpeakOut intervention in increasing teen contraceptive use, we conducted a cluster randomized trial involving female adolescents who were recruited online. Primary participants (n = 520) were randomly assigned to receive SpeakOut or an attention control; each primary participant recruited a cluster of up to 5 female peers as secondary participants (n = 581). We assessed contraceptive communication, knowledge, and use, at baseline, 3 and 9 months after participants enrolled. We examined differences between study groups, controlling for clustering by primary participant and baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The trial's primary outcome, contraceptive use by secondary participants, was similar between groups at both 3 and 9 months postintervention. Compared to controls, primary participants receiving SpeakOut tended to be less likely to discontinue contraception within 9 months (4.8% vs 7.8%, p = 0.11 for IUC; 7.8% vs 9.8%, p = 0.45 for implants), but this did not reach statistical significance. SpeakOut failed to increase contraceptive communication; regardless of study group, most secondary participants reported peer communication about contraception (86% vs 88%, p = 0.57). Most secondary participants were aware of the hormonal IUC (91.4% vs 90.4%, p = 0.72), copper IUC (92.9% vs 88.6%, p = 0.13), and implant (96.5% vs 96.1%, p = 0.83) 3 months after enrolling, regardless of the intervention their primary participant received. However, contraceptive knowledge remained incomplete in all study groups. CONCLUSION: Remote delivery of the SpeakOutintervention did not improve contraceptive communication, knowledge or use among participating teens or their peers. IMPLICATIONS: Efforts to support teen-to-teen contraceptive communication and ensure that teens have accurate information about the full range of contraceptive methods, including highly effective reversible contraceptives, require refinement.

6.
JAMA ; 326(5): 411-419, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342618

RESUMO

Importance: Opioid-related mortality and national prescribing guidelines have led to tapering of doses among patients prescribed long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain. There is limited information about risks related to tapering, including overdose and mental health crisis. Objective: To assess whether there are associations between opioid dose tapering and rates of overdose and mental health crisis among patients prescribed stable, long-term, higher-dose opioids. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study using deidentified medical and pharmacy claims and enrollment data from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse from 2008 to 2019. Adults in the US prescribed stable higher doses (mean ≥50 morphine milligram equivalents/d) of opioids for a 12-month baseline period with at least 2 months of follow-up were eligible for inclusion. Exposures: Opioid tapering, defined as at least 15% relative reduction in mean daily dose during any of 6 overlapping 60-day windows within a 7-month follow-up period. Maximum monthly dose reduction velocity was computed during the same period. Main Outcomes and Measures: Emergency or hospital encounters for (1) drug overdose or withdrawal and (2) mental health crisis (depression, anxiety, suicide attempt) during up to 12 months of follow-up. Discrete time negative binomial regression models estimated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs) of outcomes as a function of tapering (vs no tapering) and dose reduction velocity. Results: The final cohort included 113 618 patients after 203 920 stable baseline periods. Among the patients who underwent dose tapering, 54.3% were women (vs 53.2% among those who did not undergo dose tapering), the mean age was 57.7 years (vs 58.3 years), and 38.8% were commercially insured (vs 41.9%). Posttapering patient periods were associated with an adjusted incidence rate of 9.3 overdose events per 100 person-years compared with 5.5 events per 100 person-years in nontapered periods (adjusted incidence rate difference, 3.8 per 100 person-years [95% CI, 3.0-4.6]; aIRR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.53-1.85]). Tapering was associated with an adjusted incidence rate of 7.6 mental health crisis events per 100 person-years compared with 3.3 events per 100 person-years among nontapered periods (adjusted incidence rate difference, 4.3 per 100 person-years [95% CI, 3.2-5.3]; aIRR, 2.28 [95% CI, 1.96-2.65]). Increasing maximum monthly dose reduction velocity by 10% was associated with an aIRR of 1.09 for overdose (95% CI, 1.07-1.11) and of 1.18 for mental health crisis (95% CI, 1.14-1.21). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients prescribed stable, long-term, higher-dose opioid therapy, tapering events were significantly associated with increased risk of overdose and mental health crisis. Although these findings raise questions about potential harms of tapering, interpretation is limited by the observational study design.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Redução da Medicação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate parent and therapist experience and cost savings from the payer perspective associated with a novel tele-physiatry program for children living in rural and underserved communities. DESIGN: We designed a noninferiority, cluster-randomized crossover study at 4 school-based clinics to evaluate parent experience and perceived quality of care between a telemedicine-based approach in which the physiatrist conducts the visit remotely with an in-person therapist and a traditional in-person physiatrist clinic. SETTING: Four school-based clinics in Northern California. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 268 encounters (124 telemedicine and 144 in-person) were completed by 200 unique patients (N=200). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parent and therapist experience scores. RESULTS: For parents and therapists, experience and perceived quality of care were high with no significant differences between telemedicine and in-person encounters. For parents whose children received a telemedicine encounter, 40 (54.8%) reported no preference for their child's subsequent encounter, 21 (28.8%) preferred a physiatrist telemedicine visit, and 12 (16.4%) preferred a physiatrist in-person visit. From the payer perspective, costs were $100 higher for in-person clinics owing to physician mileage reimbursement. CONCLUSIONS: We found that school-based tele-physiatry for children with special health care needs is not inferior to in-person encounters with regard to parent and provider experience and perceived quality of care. Tele-physiatry was also associated with an average cost savings of $100 per clinic to the payer.

8.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(3): 321-330.e1, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148662

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Infants with head trauma often have subtle findings suggestive of traumatic brain injury. Prediction rules for traumatic brain injury among children with minor head trauma have not been specifically evaluated in infants younger than 3 months old. We aimed to determine the risk of clinically important traumatic brain injuries, traumatic brain injuries on computed tomography (CT) images, and skull fractures in infants younger than 3 months of age who did and did not meet the age-specific Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) low-risk criteria for children with minor blunt head trauma. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of infants <3 months old in the public use data set from PECARN's prospective observational study of children with minor blunt head trauma. Main outcomes included (1) clinically important traumatic brain injury, (2) traumatic brain injury on CT, and (3) skull fracture on CT. RESULTS: Of 10,904 patients <2 years old, 1,081 (9.9%) with complete data were <3 months old; most (750/1081, 69.6%) sustained falls, and 633/1081 (58.6%) underwent CT scans. Of the 514/1081 (47.5%) infants who met the PECARN low-risk criteria, 1/514 (0.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.005% to 1.1%), 10/197 (5.1%, 2.5% to 9.1%), and 9/197 (4.6%, 2.1% to 8.5%) had clinically important traumatic brain injuries, traumatic brain injuries on CT, and skull fractures, respectively. Of 567 infants who did not meet the low-risk PECARN criteria, 24/567 (4.2%, 95% CI 2.7% to 6.2%), 94/436 (21.3%, 95% CI 17.6% to 25.5%), and 122/436 (28.0%, 95% CI 23.8% to 32.5%) had clinically important traumatic brain injuries, traumatic brain injuries, and skull fractures, respectively. CONCLUSION: The PECARN traumatic brain injury low-risk criteria accurately identified infants <3 months old at low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injuries. However, infants at low risk for clinically important traumatic brain injuries remained at risk for traumatic brain injuries on CT, suggesting the need for a cautious approach in these infants.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Feminino , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
J Pediatr ; 236: 229-237.e5, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between potentially avoidable transfers (PATs) and emergency department (ED) pediatric readiness scores and the score's associated components. STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study linked the 2012 National Pediatric Readiness Project assessment with individual encounter data from California's statewide ED and inpatient databases during the years 2011-2013. A probabilistic linkage, followed by deterministic heuristics, linked pretransfer, and post-transfer encounters. Applying previously published definitions, a transferred child was considered a PAT if they were discharged within 1 day from the ED or inpatient care and had no specialized procedures. Analyses were stratified by injured and noninjured children. We compared PATs with necessary transfers using mixed-effects logistic regression models with random intercepts for hospital and adjustment for patient and hospital covariates. RESULTS: After linkage, there were 6765 injured children (27% PATs) and 18 836 noninjured children (14% PATs) who presented to 283 hospitals. In unadjusted analyses, a 10-point increase in pediatric readiness was associated with lower odds of PATs in both injured (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.96) and noninjured children (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.88-0.93). In adjusted analyses, a similar association was detected in injured patients (aOR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.98) and was not detected in noninjured patients (aOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-1.00). Components associated with decreased PATs included having a nurse pediatric emergency care coordinator and a quality improvement plan. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital ED pediatric readiness is associated with lower odds of a PAT. Certain pediatric readiness components are modifiable risk factors that EDs could target to reduce PATs.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Hospitalização , Transferência de Pacientes , Adolescente , California , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade
10.
Pain Med ; 22(7): 1660-1668, 2021 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose trajectory of new opioid tapers and estimate the percentage of patients with sustained tapers at long-term follow-up. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse® which includes de-identified medical and pharmacy claims and enrollment records for commercial and Medicare Advantage enrollees, representing a diverse mixture of ages, ethnicities, and geographical regions across the United States. SUBJECTS: Patients prescribed stable, higher-dose opioids for ≥12 months from 2008 to 2018. METHODS: Tapering was defined as ≥15% relative reduction in average MME/day during any of six overlapping 60-day periods in the initial 7 months of follow-up after the period of stable baseline dosing. Average monthly dose was ascertained during consecutive 60-day periods up to 16 months of follow-up. Linear regression estimated the geometric mean relative dose by tapering status and follow-up duration. Poisson regression estimated the percentage of tapered patients with sustained dose reductions at follow-up and patient-level predictors of failing to sustain tapers. RESULTS: The sample included 113,618 patients with 203,920 periods of stable baseline dosing (mean follow-up = 13.7 months). Tapering was initiated during 37,170 follow-up periods (18.2%). After taper initiation, patients had a substantial initial mean dose reduction (geometric mean relative dose .73 [95% CI: .72-.74]) that was sustained through 16 months of follow-up; at which point, 69.8% (95% CI: 69.1%-70.4%) of patients who initiated tapers had a relative dose reduction ≥15%, and 14.2% (95% CI: 13.7%-14.7%) had discontinued opioids. Failure to sustain tapers was significantly less likely among patients with overdose events during follow-up (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR]: .56 [95% CI: .48-.67]) and during more recent years (aIRR: .93 per year after 2008 [95% CI: .92-.94]). CONCLUSIONS: In an insured and Medicare Advantage population, over two-thirds of patients who initiated opioid dose tapering sustained long-term dose reductions, and the likelihood of sustaining tapers increased substantially from 2008 to 2018.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Farmácias , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Redução da Medicação , Humanos , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
11.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(7): 1244-1252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the feasibility, reach, and potential impact of a virtual family-centered rounds (FCR) intervention in the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled pilot trial with a 2:1 intervention-to-control arm allocation ratio. Caregivers of intervention arm neonates were invited to participate in virtual FCR plus standard of care. We specified 5 feasibility objectives. We profiled intervention usage by neonatal and maternal characteristics. Exploratory outcomes included FCR caregiver attendance, length of stay, breast milk feeding at discharge, caregiver experience, and medical errors. We performed descriptive analyses to calculate proportions, means, and rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We included 74 intervention and 36 control subjects. Three of the five feasibility objectives were met based on the point estimates. The recruitment and intervention uptake objectives were not achieved. Among intervention arm subjects, recruitment of a caregiver occurred for 47 (63.5%, 95% CI 51.5%-74.4%) neonates. Caregiver use of the intervention occurred for 36 (48.6%, 95% CI 36.8%-60.6%) neonates in the intervention arm. Feasibility objectives assessing technical issues, burden, and data collection were achieved. Among the attempted virtual encounters, 95.0% (95% CI 91.5%-97.3%) had no technical issues. The survey response rate was 87.5% (95% CI 78.2%-93.8%). Intervention arm neonates had 3.36 (95% CI 2.66%-4.23) times the FCR caregiver attendance rate of subjects in the control arm. CONCLUSIONS: A randomized trial to compare virtual FCR to standard of care in neonatal subjects is feasible and has potential to improve patient and caregiver outcomes.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Visitas com Preceptor , Cuidadores , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Projetos Piloto
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 45: 54-60, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While high-sensitivity (hs) troponin (cTn) has been associated with shorter emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) and decreased hospital admissions outside the United States (US), concerns have been raised that it will have opposite effects in the US. In this study, we aimed to compare ED LOS, admissions, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) diagnoses before and after the implementation of hs-cTn. METHODS: We conducted a single-institution, retrospective study of two temporally matched six-month study periods before and after the implementation of hs-cTn. We included consecutive adults presenting with chest pain. The primary outcome was ED LOS, which was log transformed and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Binary secondary outcomes of admissions, cardiac testing, cardiology consultation, and ACS diagnoses were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 1589 visits before and 1616 visits after implementation of hs-cTn. Median age and sex ratios were similar between study periods. Median ED LOS was longer in the post-implementation period [post: 384 (interquartile range, IQR 260-577) minutes; pre: 374 (IQR 250-564) minutes; adjusted geometric mean ratio 1.05; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.01-1.10)]. Admissions were lower in the post-implementation period [post: 24% (385/1616) vs. pre: 28% (447/1589); adjusted odds ratio, aOR 0.75 (95% CI 0.64-0.88)]. Cardiac risk stratification testing [pre: 9% (142/1589) vs post: 9% (144/1616); aOR 0.95 (95% CI 0.74-1.22)], cardiology consultation [pre: 13% (208/1589) vs post: 13% (207/1616); aOR 0.91 (95% CI 0.73-1.12)], and ACS diagnoses [pre: 7% (116/1589) vs post: 7% (120/1616); aOR 0.94 (95% CI 0.72-1.24)] were similar between the two study periods. CONCLUSION: In this single-center study, transition to hs-cTn was associated with an increased ED LOS, decreased admissions, and no substantial change in cardiac risk stratification testing, cardiology consultation, or ACS diagnoses.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Rural Health ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734494

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pediatric readiness scores may be a useful measure of a hospital's preparedness to care for children. However, there is limited evidence linking these scores with patient outcomes or other metrics, including the need for interfacility transfer. This study aims to determine the association of pediatric readiness scores with the odds of interfacility transfer among a cohort of noninjured children (< 18 years old) presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in small rural hospitals in the state of California. METHODS: Data from the National Pediatric Readiness Project assessment were linked with the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development's ED and inpatient databases to conduct a cross-sectional study of pediatric interfacility transfers. Hospitals were manually matched between these data sets. Logistic regression was performed with random intercepts for hospital and adjustment for patient-level confounders. FINDINGS: A total of 54 hospitals and 135,388 encounters met the inclusion criteria. EDs with a high pediatric readiness score (>70) had lower adjusted odds of transfer (aOR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.93) than EDs with a low pediatric readiness score (≤ 70). The pediatric readiness section with strongest association with transfer was the "policies, procedures, and protocols" section; EDs in the highest quartile had lower odds of transfer than EDs in the lowest quartile (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients presenting to EDs at small rural hospitals with high pediatric readiness scores may be less likely to be transferred. Additional studies are recommended to investigate other pediatric outcomes in relation to hospital ED pediatric readiness.

14.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(6): 532-539, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine compliance with and effectiveness of California regulations in reducing farmworkers' heat-related illness (HRI) risk and identify main factors contributing to HRI. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of Latino farmworkers, core body temperature (CBT), work rate, and environmental temperature (WBGT) were monitored over a work shift by individual ingestible thermistors, accelerometers, and weather stations, respectively. Multiple logistic modeling was used to identify risk factors for elevated CBT. RESULTS: Although farms complied with Cal/OSHA regulations, worker training of HRI prevention and hydration replacement rates were insufficient. In modeling (AOR [95% CI]) male sex (3.74 [1.22 - 11.54]), WBGT (1.22 [1.08 - 1.38]), work rate (1.004 [1.002 - 1.006]), and increased BMI (1.11 [1.10 - 1.29]) were all independently associated with elevated CBT. CONCLUSION: Risk of HRI was exacerbated by work rate and environmental temperature despite farms following Cal/OSHA regulations.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Exposição Ocupacional , California , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration
15.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(6): 578-583, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend 0.5-1 mL saline flush following 0.01-0.03 mg/kg of epinephrine via low umbilical venous catheter for persistent bradycardia despite effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV) and chest compressions (CC). We evaluated the effects of 1 mL vs 3 mL/kg flush volumes and 0.01 vs 0.03 mg/kg doses on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and epinephrine pharmacokinetics in lambs with cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Forty term lambs in cardiac arrest were randomised to receive 0.01 or 0.03 mg/kg epinephrine followed by 1 mL or 3 mL/kg flush after effective PPV and CC. Epinephrine (with 1 mL flush) was repeated every 3 min until ROSC or until 20 min. Haemodynamics, blood gases and plasma epinephrine concentrations were monitored. RESULTS: Ten lambs had ROSC before epinephrine administration and 2 died during instrumentation. Among 28 lambs that received epinephrine, 2/6 in 0.01 mg/kg-1 mL flush, 3/6 in 0.01 mg/kg-3 mL/kg flush, 5/7 in 0.03 mg/kg-1 mL flush and 9/9 in 0.03 mg/kg-3 mL/kg flush achieved ROSC (p=0.02). ROSC was five times faster with 0.03 mg/kg epinephrine compared with 0.01 mg/kg (adjusted HR (95% CI) 5.08 (1.7 to 15.25)) and three times faster with 3 mL/kg flush compared with 1 mL flush (3.5 (1.27 to 9.71)). Plasma epinephrine concentrations were higher with 0.01 mg/kg-3 mL/kg flush (adjusted geometric mean ratio 6.0 (1.4 to 25.7)), 0.03 mg/kg-1 mL flush (11.3 (2.1 to 60.3)) and 0.03 mg/kg-3 mL/kg flush (11.0 (2.2 to 55.3)) compared with 0.01 mg/kg-1 mL flush. CONCLUSIONS: 0.03 mg/kg epinephrine dose with 3 mL/kg flush volume is associated with the highest ROSC rate, increases peak plasma epinephrine concentrations and hastens time to ROSC. Clinical trials evaluating optimal epinephrine dose and flush volume are warranted.


Assuntos
Bradicardia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , Epinefrina , Parada Cardíaca , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacocinética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bradicardia/sangue , Bradicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Bradicardia/etiologia , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Epinefrina/sangue , Epinefrina/farmacocinética , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Massagem Cardíaca/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Ovinos , Resultado do Tratamento , Veias Umbilicais
16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limiting the incidence of opioid-naïve patients who transition to long-term opioid use (i.e., continual use for > 90 days) is a key strategy for reducing opioid-related harms. OBJECTIVE: To identify variables constructed from data routinely collected by prescription drug monitoring programs that are associated with opioid-naïve patients' likelihood of transitioning to long-term use after an initial opioid prescription. DESIGN: Statewide cohort study using prescription drug monitoring program data PARTICIPANTS: All opioid-naïve patients in California (no opioid prescriptions within the prior 2 years) age ≥ 12 years prescribed an initial oral opioid analgesic from 2010 to 2017. METHODS AND MAIN MEASURES: Multiple logistic regression models using variables constructed from prescription drug monitoring program data through the day of each patient's initial opioid prescription, and, alternatively, data available up to 30 and 60 days after the initial prescription were constructed to identify probability of transition to long-term use. Model fit was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (C-statistic). KEY RESULTS: Among 30,569,125 episodes of patients receiving new opioid prescriptions, 1,809,750 (5.9%) resulted in long-term use. Variables with the highest adjusted odds ratios included concurrent benzodiazepine use, ≥ 2 unique prescribers, and receipt of non-pill, non-liquid formulations. C-statistics for the day 0, day 30, and day 60 models were 0.81, 0.88, and 0.94, respectively. Models assessing opioid dose using the number of pills prescribed had greater discriminative capacity than those using milligram morphine equivalents. CONCLUSIONS: Data routinely collected by prescription drug monitoring programs can be used to identify patients who are likely to develop long-term use. Guidelines for new opioid prescriptions based on pill counts may be simpler and more clinically useful than guidelines based on days' supply or milligram morphine equivalents.

17.
Trials ; 22(1): 167, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute low back pain frequently request diagnostic imaging, and clinicians feel pressure to acquiesce to such requests to sustain patient trust and satisfaction. Spinal imaging in patients with acute low back pain poses risks from diagnostic evaluation of false-positive findings, patient labeling and anxiety, and unnecessary treatment (including spinal surgery). Watchful waiting advice has been an effective strategy to reduce some low-value treatments, and some evidence suggests a watchful waiting approach would be acceptable to many patients requesting diagnostic tests. METHODS: We will use key informant interviews of clinicians and focus groups with primary care patients to refine a theory-informed standardized patient-based intervention designed to teach clinicians how to advise watchful waiting when patients request low-value spinal imaging for low back pain. We will test the effectiveness of the intervention in a randomized clinical trial. We will recruit 8-10 primary care and urgent care clinics (~ 55 clinicians) in Sacramento, CA; clinicians will be randomized 1:1 to intervention and control groups. Over a 3- to 6-month period, clinicians in the intervention group will receive 3 visits with standardized patient instructors (SPIs) portraying patients with acute back pain; SPIs will instruct clinicians in a three-step model emphasizing establishing trust, empathic communication, and negotiation of a watchful waiting approach. Control physicians will receive no intervention. The primary outcome is the post-intervention rate of spinal imaging among actual patients with acute back pain seen by the clinicians adjusted for rate of imaging during a baseline period. Secondary outcomes are use of targeted communication techniques during a follow-up visit with an SP, clinician self-reported use of watchful waiting with actual low back pain patients, post-intervention rates of diagnostic imaging for other musculoskeletal pain syndromes (to test for generalization of intervention effects beyond back pain), and patient trust and satisfaction with physicians. DISCUSSION: This trial will determine whether standardized patient instructors can help clinicians develop skill in negotiating a watchful waiting approach with patients with acute low back pain, thereby reducing rates of low-value spinal imaging. The trial will also examine the possibility that intervention effects generalize to other diagnostic tests. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04255199 . Registered on January 20, 2020.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Conduta Expectante , Dor nas Costas , Comunicação , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
J Arthroplasty ; 36(6): 1895-1903, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although frailty has been shown to be associated with adverse outcomes in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), prior studies have not examined how race/ethnicity might moderate these associations. We aimed to assess race/ethnicity as a potential moderator of the associations of frailty and functional status with arthroplasty outcomes. METHODS: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was queried for patients who underwent THA or TKA from 2011 to 2017. Frailty was assessed using the modified frailty index. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations connecting frailty/functional status with 30-day readmission, adverse discharge, and length of stay (LOS). Further analyses were conducted to investigate race/ethnicity as a potential moderator of these relationships. RESULTS: We identified 219,143 TKA and 130,022 THA patients. Frailty and nonindependent functional status were positively associated with all outcomes (P < .001). Compared to White non-Hispanic patients, Black non-Hispanic patients had higher odds for all outcomes after TKA (P < .001) and for adverse discharge/longer LOS after THA (P < .001). Similar associations were observed for Hispanics for the adverse discharge/LOS outcomes. Race/ethnicity moderated the effects of frailty in TKA for all outcomes and in THA for adverse discharge/LOS. Race/ethnicity moderated the effects of nonindependent function in TKA for adverse discharge/LOS and on LOS alone for THA. CONCLUSION: Disparities for Black non-Hispanic and Hispanic patients persist for readmission, adverse discharge, and LOS. However, the effects of increasing frailty and nonindependent functional status on these outcomes were the most pronounced among White non-Hispanic patients.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Fragilidade , Grupos Étnicos , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Readmissão do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Fatores de Risco
19.
Prev Sci ; 22(4): 504-508, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481150

RESUMO

Sexual violence (SV) is pervasive and economically burdensome in the USA. According to the CDC, SV prevention could avert $122,461 in costs per victim of rape, totaling an estimated $3.1 trillion. Coaching Boys into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based dating abuse and SV prevention program found to reduce dating abuse and SV perpetration among male high school athletes and dating abuse among middle school athletes. This secondary data analysis of CBIM's high school (N = 1520) and middle school (N = 973) RCTs estimated the incidence of dating abuse, sexual harassment, and sexual assault that CBIM could prevent as well as the potential cost savings. Ten items measured dating abuse, with a subset measuring sexual assault and sexual harassment, among participants who had ever dated a female. Perpetration measures were dichotomized as present or absent. Maximum likelihood estimates of Poisson-distributed event rates allowed for possible multiple incidents of perpetration per athlete. Among high school athletes, CBIM was associated with a relative reduction of 85 incidents of dating abuse (95%CI 24, 146), 48 incidents of sexual harassment (95%CI 3.8, 92), and 20 incidents of sexual assault (95%CI 1.7, 38) per 1,000 athletes. Results among middle school athletes demonstrated similar, albeit non-significant, trends. Based on the reduction of sexual assaults among high school athletes alone, CBIM may have resulted in $2.4 million reduction in costs per 1000 athletes exposed. CBIM may be associated with significant sexual assault-related cost reductions. Given the low costs and time needed to implement the program, sexual and dating violence prevention programs like CBIM may result in substantial economic benefits.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Esportes , Atletas , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Violência
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2035281, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492377

RESUMO

Importance: Public health initiatives that include shelter-in-place orders are expensive and unpopular. Demonstrating the success of these initiatives is essential to justify their systemic or individual cost. Objective: To examine the association of a shelter-in-place order with lower rates of seasonal respiratory viral activity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study with interrupted time series analysis obtained monthly counts of respiratory virus testing results at UC Davis Health from August 1, 2014, to July 31, 2020. Patients of all ages underwent testing conducted by the laboratory at UC Davis Health, a referral center for a 65 000-square-mile area that includes 33 counties and more than 6 million Northern California residents. Exposures: A statewide shelter-in-place order was instituted on March 19, 2020, restricting residents to their homes except for traveling for essential activities. Large social gatherings were prohibited, schools were closed, and nonessential personnel worked remotely. Those who had to leave their homes were mandated to wear face masks, engage in frequent handwashing, and maintain physical distancing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Positivity rates of common respiratory viruses within the community served by UC Davis Health. Results: A total of 46 128 tests for viral respiratory pathogens over a 6-year period were included in the analysis. For the postexposure period (March 25-July 31), approximately 168 positive test results occurred for the studied organisms in the 2020 virus year, a positivity rate of 9.88 positive results per 100 tests that was much lower than the positivity rate of 29.90 positive results per 100 tests observed for this date range in the previous 5 virus years. In contrast, the positivity rates were similar for the preexposure time frame (August 1-March 24) in the 2020 virus year and for the same time periods in the 5 previous years (30.40 vs 33.68 positive results per 100 tests). In the regression analyses, statistically significant decreases in viral activity were observed in the postexposure period for influenza (93% decrease; incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.07; 95% CI, 0.02-0.33) and for rhinovirus or enterovirus (81% decrease; IRR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.39) infections. Lower rates of postexposure viral activity were seen for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenzavirus, coronaviruses, and adenoviruses; however, these associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance: Using interrupted time series analysis of testing for viral respiratory pathogens, this study found that statistically significant lower rates of common community respiratory viruses appeared to be associated with a shelter-in-place order during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/normas , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estações do Ano , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/transmissão , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
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