Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 30
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Pediatr ; 212: 44-51, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in the first year of life and the influence of different neonatal factors on development of FGIDs. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort multicenter study including neonates, consecutively enrolled at birth, and followed up until 1 year. Gestational age, neonatal antibiotic administration, duration of hospitalization, mode of delivery, birth weight, and feeding pattern were recorded. FGIDs were classified according to Rome III criteria and assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of life. RESULTS: Among 1152 newborns enrolled, 934 (81.1%) completed the study, 302 (32%) were newborns born preterm, 320 (34%) had neonatal antibiotics, and 718 (76.9%) had at least 1 FGID according to Rome III criteria (443 [47.4%] infantile colic, 374 [40.0%] regurgitation, 297 [31.8%] infant dyschezia, 248 [26.6%] functional constipation, and 34 [3.6%] functional diarrhea) throughout the first year of life. The proportion of infants born preterm presenting with FGIDs (86%) was significantly greater compared with infants born full term (72.5%) (χ2 = 21.3, P = .0001). On multivariate analysis, prematurity and neonatal use of antibiotics was significantly associated with at least 1 FGID. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high rate FGIDs in infants, likely related to the population recruited, the long observation period, the diagnosis based on Rome III criteria, and parental reports. Preterm delivery and neonatal use of antibiotics in the first months of life are associated with an increased incidence of FGIDs, particularly infantile colic and regurgitation. In our population, cesarean delivery and feeding pattern at 1 month of life emerged as additional risk factors for infant dyschezia and functional diarrhea. Other neonatal factors associated with FGIDs need to be further explored.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9337, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249370

RESUMO

Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (HOPE) was introduced in liver transplantation (LT) to mitigate ischemia-reperfusion injury. Available clinical data mainly concern LT with donors after circulatory-determined death, whereas data on brain-dead donors (DBD) are scarce. To assess the impact of end-ischemic HOPE in DBD LT, data on primary adult LTs performed between March 2016 and June 2018 were analyzed. HOPE was used in selected cases of donor age >80 years, apparent severe graft steatosis, or ischemia time ≥10 hours. Outcomes of HOPE-treated cases were compared with those after static cold storage. Propensity score matching (1:2) and Bayesian model averaging were used to overcome selection bias. During the study period, 25 (8.5%) out of 294 grafts were treated with HOPE. After matching, HOPE was associated with a lower severe post-reperfusion syndrome (PRS) rate (4% versus 20%, p = 0.13) and stage 2-3 acute kidney injury (AKI) (16% versus 42%, p = 0.046). Furthermore, Bayesian model averaging showed lower transaminases peak and a lower early allograft dysfunction (EAD) rate after HOPE. A steeper decline in arterial graft resistance throughout perfusion was associated with lower EAD rate. HOPE determines a significant reduction of ischemia reperfusion injury in DBD LT.

3.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(2): 160-162, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964822

RESUMO

Liver transplant (LT) is a therapeutic option for a growing number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), including some disorders not confined to the liver. Clinical advantages of LT in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), and argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA) have been reported. However, no information on the early metabolic effect of LT after portal reperfusion is available in these disorders. Here we describe the intraoperative differential metabolic outcome of LT in MSUD, MMA, and ASA. In these IEM, LT promptly cleared toxic metabolites to safe concentrations. In MSUD, leucine concentration reached physiological concentration within 12 hours after portal reperfusion. In MMA and ASA, LT allowed faster clearance of methylmalonate and argininosuccinate, respectively, both dropping by ∼90% within the first hour after portal reperfusion. The early biochemical benefits of LT in MSUD, MMA, and ASA demonstrate its immediate effectiveness in protecting patients from intercurrent metabolic decompensations.

7.
J Hepatol ; 69(2): 301-307, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The accurate diagnosis of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) requires the demonstration of HBV DNA in liver biopsies of hepatitis B surface antigen-negative individuals. However, in clinical practice a latent OBI is deduced by the finding of the antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). We investigated the true prevalence of OBI and the molecular features of intrahepatic HBV in anti-HBc-positive individuals. METHODS: The livers of 100 transplant donors (median age 68.2 years; 64 males, 36 females) positive for anti-HBc at standard serologic testing, were examined for total HBV DNA by nested-PCR and for the HBV covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA) with an in-house droplet digital PCR assay (ddPCR) (Linearity: R2 = 0.9998; lower limit of quantitation and detection of 2.4 and 0.8 copies/105 cells, respectively). RESULTS: A total of 52% (52/100) of the individuals studied were found to have OBI. cccDNA was found in 52% (27/52) of the OBI-positive, with a median 13 copies/105 cells (95% CI 5-25). Using an assay specific for anti-HBc of IgG class, the median antibody level was significantly higher in HBV cccDNA-positive than negative donors (17.0 [7.0-39.2] vs. 5.7 [3.6-9.7] cut-off index [COI], respectively, p = 0.007). By multivariate analysis, an anti-HBc IgG value above 4.4 COI was associated with the finding of intrahepatic HBV cccDNA (odds ratio 8.516, p = 0.009); a lower value ruled out its presence with a negative predictive value of 94.6%. CONCLUSIONS: With a new in-house ddPCR-based method, intrahepatic HBV cccDNA was detectable in quantifiable levels in about half of the OBI cases examined. The titer of anti-HBc IgG may be a useful surrogate to predict the risk of OBI reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. LAY SUMMARY: The covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) sustains the persistence of the virus even decades after resolution of the symptomatic infection (occult HBV infection). In the present study we developed a highly sensitive method based on droplet digital PCR technology for the detection and quantitation of HBV cccDNA in the liver of individuals with occult HBV infection. We observed that the amount of HBV cccDNA may be inferred from the titer in serum of the IgG class antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen. The quantitation of this antibody may represent a surrogate to determine which patients are at the highest risk of HBV reactivation following immunosuppressive therapies.

8.
Transplantation ; 102(5): 823-828, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. However, pre-HSCT conditioning entails unacceptably high risks if the liver is compromised. The presence of a recurrent opportunistic infection affecting the biliary tree and determining liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension posed particular decisional difficulties in a 7-year-old child with X-linked CD40-ligand deficiency. We aim at adding to the scanty experience available on such rare cases, as successful management with sequential liver transplantation (LT) and HSCT has been reported in detail only in 1 young adult to date. METHODS: A closely sequential strategy, with a surgical complication-free LT, followed by reduced-intensity conditioning, allowed HSCT to be performed only one month after LT, preventing Cryptosporidium parvum recolonization of the liver graft. RESULTS: Combined sequential LT and HSCT resolved the cirrhotic evolution and corrected the immunodeficiency so that the infection responsible for the progressive sclerosing cholangitis did not recur. CONCLUSIONS: Hopefully, this report of the successful resolution of a potentially fatal combination of immunodeficiency and chronic opportunistic infection with end-stage organ damage in a child will encourage others to adapt a sequential transplant approach to this highly complex pathology. However, caution is to be exercised to carefully balance the risks intrinsic to transplant surgery and immunosuppression in primary immunodeficiencies.

9.
Pediatr Transplant ; 22(2)2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369488

RESUMO

As graft survival in pediatric LT is often affected by progressive fibrosis, numerous centers carry out protocol liver biopsies. Follow-up biopsy protocols differ from center to center, but all biopsies are progressively spaced out, as time from transplant increases. Therefore, there is a need for non-invasive techniques to evaluate graft fibrosis progression in those children who have no clinical or serological signs of liver damage. Indirect markers, such as the APRI, should be relied on with caution because their sensitivity in predicting fibrosis can be strongly influenced by the etiology of liver disease, severity of fibrosis, and patient age. A valid alternative could be TE, a non-invasive technique already validated in adults, which estimates the stiffness of the cylindrical volume of liver tissue, 100-fold the size of a standard needle biopsy sample. The aims of this study were to evaluate the reliability of TE in children after LT and to compare both the TE and the APRI index results with the histological scores of fibrosis on liver biopsies. A total of 36 pediatric LT recipients were studied. All patients underwent both TE and biopsy within a year (median interval -0.012 months) at an interval from LT of 0.36 to 19.47 years (median 3.02 years). Fibrosis was assessed on the biopsy specimens at histology and staged according to METAVIR. There was a statistically significant correlation between TE stiffness values and METAVIR scores (P = .005). The diagnostic accuracy of TE for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2) was measured as the area under the curve (AUROC = 0.865), and it demonstrated that the method had a good diagnostic performance. APRI was not so accurate in assessing graft fibrosis when compared to METAVIR (AUROC = 0.592). A liver stiffness cutoff value of 5.6 kPa at TE was identified as the best predictor for a significant graft fibrosis (METAVIR F ≥ 2) on liver biopsy, with a 75% sensitivity, a 95.8% specificity, a 90% positive predictive value, and an 88.5% negative predictive value. These data suggest that TE may represent a non-invasive, reliable tool for the assessment of graft fibrosis in the follow-up of LT children, alerting the clinicians to the indication for a liver biopsy, with the aim of reducing the number of protocol liver biopsies.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Fígado , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 43(1): 88, 2017 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28946922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric acute-liver-failure due to acetaminophen (APAP) administration at therapeutic dosage is rare, while viral infections and metabolic defects are the prevalent causes. Yet, as acetaminophen is routinely used in febrile illnesses, it may be mistakenly held responsible for the acute liver damage. CASE PRESENTATION: An 11 month old boy had been on acetaminophen for 10 days (total dose 720 mg = 72 mg/kg) when he developed acute-liver-failure with encephalopathy. As he rapidly improved on N-acetylcysteine (NAC) infusion, it was concluded that chronic acetaminophen administration in an infant had lead to acute-liver-failure even at therapeutic doses, that N-acetylcysteine infusion had been life-saving and should be immediately started in similar circumstances. The child, however, had two further episodes of acute liver damage over a 34-month period, without having been given acetaminophen, as the parents carefully avoided using it. His clinical, laboratory and radiological findings between the acute episodes were unremarkable. His features and skeletal surveys were not suggestive of a syndromic condition. He then went on to suffer another episode of acute-liver-failure with multi-organ failure, necessitating an urgent liver transplant. All efforts to come to a diagnosis for the causes of his recurrent episodes of liver failure had been unsuccessful, until a biallelic mutation in the NBAS gene was reported to be associated with recurrent acute-liver-failure in children. The boy's DNA analysis revealed compound heterozygous pathogenic mutations in the NBAS gene. Liver failure episodes in these patients are triggered and worsened by fever, most likely due to thermal susceptibility of hepatocytes, hence APAP, rather than being a culprit, is part of the supportive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that, in acute-liver-failure with a history of acetaminophen exposure at therapeutic dosage, clinicians should not be contented with administering NAC, but should consider an alternative etiology, above all if the episodes are recurrent, and actively start supportive and antipyretic treatment while seeking the advice of a specialist unit.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Falência Hepática Aguda/genética , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Lactente , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Mutação , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Pediatr Med Chir ; 39(2): 157, 2017 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28673078

RESUMO

The latest scientific acquisitions are demonstrating what has already been hypothesized for more than twenty years about the development of the state of health/illness of individuals. Indeed, certain stimuli, if applied to a sensible phase of development, are able to modify, through epigenetic mechanisms, gene expression of DNA, resulting in adaptive modifications of phenotype to the environment, which may reflect negatively on the health of every individual. This concept, applied to nutrition, has opened up important prospects for research in this area. The nutritional history of an individual, linked to the development of a healthy state, would begin very early. In fact, since the pregnancy and for the next two years (for a total of about 1000 days), the maternal eating habits, the type of breastfeeding and then the main stages of nutrition in the evolutionary phase represent those sensitive moments, essential for the development of important endocrine, metabolic, immunological alterations, better known as metabolic syndrome. This condition would represent the physiopathogenetic basis for explaining a series of disorders, known as non communicable diseases (NCDs) such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascolar disease and all those conditions that today affect the health of most industrialized countries and through the years are emerging especially in developing countries (South America, Asia), where new environmental conditions and increased food availability are changing food habits, with far-reaching public health impacts. This paper analyzes these new nutritional perspectives and the main implications of what has been termed the 1000-day theory.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Nível de Saúde , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Síndrome Metabólica/genética
12.
Liver Transpl ; 23(7): 915-924, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422425

RESUMO

Although early allograft dysfunction (EAD) negatively impacts survival from the first months following liver transplantation (LT), direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. We investigated the EAD definition best predicting 90-day graft loss and identified EAD risk factors in HCV-positive recipients. From November 2002 to June 2016, 603 HCV-positive patients (hepatocellular carcinoma, 53.4%) underwent a first LT with HCV-negative donors. The median recipient Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 15, and the median donor age was 63 years. At LT, 77 (12.8%) patients were HCV RNA negative; negativization was achieved and maintained by pre-LT antiviral therapy (61 patients) or pre-LT plus a pre-emptive post-LT course (16 patients); 60 (77.9%) patients received DAAs and 17 (22.1%) interferon. We compared 3 different EAD definitions: (1) bilirubin ≥ 10 mg/dL or international normalized ratio ≥ 1.6 on day 7 after LT or aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase > 2000 IU/L within 7 days of LT; (2) bilirubin > 10 mg/dL on days 2-7 after LT; and (3) MELD ≥ 19 on day 5 after LT. EAD defined by MELD ≥ 19 on day 5 after LT had the lowest negative (0.1) and the highest positive (1.9) likelihood ratio to predict 90-day graft loss. At 90 days after LT, 9.2% of recipients with EAD lost their graft as opposed to 0.7% of those without EAD (P < 0.001). At multivariate analysis, considering variables available at LT, MELD at LT of >25 (OR = 7.4) or 15-25 (OR = 3.2), graft macrovesicular steatosis ≥ 30% (OR = 6.7), HCV RNA positive at LT (OR = 2.7), donor age > 70 years (OR = 2.0), earlier LT era (OR = 1.8), and cold ischemia time ≥ 8 hours (OR = 1.8) were significant risk factors for EAD. In conclusion, in HCV-positive patients, MELD ≥ 19 on day 5 after LT best predicts 90-day graft loss. Preventing graft infection by pre-/peri-LT antiviral therapy reduces EAD incidence and could be most beneficial in high-MELD patients and recipients of suboptimal grafts. Liver Transplantation 23 915-924 2017 AASLD.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/complicações , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Viremia/complicações , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 19(3)2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28244199

RESUMO

Because of widespread organ shortage, the transplant community has been exploiting more and more so-called "extended criteria" donors. In this scenario, liver grafts harboring benign tumors or large cysts represent an infrequent but potentially valuable source of viable grafts. We depict a challenging case of liver transplantation performed using a graft harboring two large Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts in close proximity with the hilar plate and complicated by cystobiliary communication. Although liver transplantation using grafts with hydatid cyst has been rarely reported (three published cases), our case was peculiar as one of the cysts was located close to the hilum and was ruptured into the left hepatic duct. The graft was finally accepted taking into account the low risk profile of the recipient, the good quality and size of the remnant liver parenchyma, and only after complete resection of the cysts was achieved. Although the recipient had a complication due to biliary confluence necrosis, at 10-months follow-up he is in good health with normal hepatic function, and a graft that could have been otherwise discarded was successfully used. The decision process along with technical and management issues are discussed.


Assuntos
Sistema Biliar/patologia , Seleção do Doador/métodos , Equinococose Hepática/cirurgia , Equinococose/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Aloenxertos/patologia , Animais , Sistema Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Colangiografia , Seleção do Doador/normas , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose Hepática/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/normas , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/normas
14.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 83(6): 1252-1262, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28044353

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5 genotype in paediatric liver transplant recipients and donors, and the contribution of age and gender to tacrolimus disposition on the first day after transplantation. METHODS: The contribution of the CYP3A4/5 genotype in paediatric liver transplant recipients and donors to the tacrolimus blood trough concentrations (C0 ) and the tacrolimus concentration/weight-adjusted dose ratio on day 1 was evaluated in 67 liver-transplanted children: 33 boys and 34 girls, mean age 4.5 years. RESULTS: Donor CYP3A5 genotype appears to be significantly associated with tacrolimus disposition on the first day after liver transplantation (P < 0.0002). Other physiological factors, such as recipient age and donor gender may also play a role and lead to significant differences in tacrolimus C0 and tacrolimus concentration/weight-adjusted dose ratio on day 1. However, according to the general linear model, only recipient age appears to be independently associated with tacrolimus disposition on the first day after liver transplantation (P < 0.03). Indeed, there was a faster tacrolimus metabolism in children under 6 years of age (P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Donor CYP3A5 genotype, recipient age and, to a lesser extent, donor gender appear to be associated with tacrolimus disposition on day 1 after transplant. This suggests that increasing the starting tacrolimus doses in paediatric patients under 6 years of age who receive a graft from a male extensive metabolizer may enhance the possibility of their tacrolimus levels reaching the therapeutic range sooner.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Transplante de Fígado , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Envelhecimento , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
J Mass Spectrom ; 52(3): 187-195, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28098395

RESUMO

Tacrolimus (TAC, FK-506) and everolimus (EVE, RAD001) are immunosuppressors used to treat pediatric patients undergoing liver transplantation. Their hematic TDM by liquid chromatography became standard practice. However, it does not always reflect concentrations at their active site. Our aim was to develop and validate a new method for the simultaneous TAC and EVE quantification into target cells: peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected using cell preparation tubes; cells number and mean cell volume were evaluated by an automatic cell counter. TAC and EVE were quantified using UHPLC-MS/MS coupled with an automated online solid-phase extraction platform. Chromatographic run was performed on an Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 1.7 µm (2.1 × 50 mm) column at 45 °C, for 6 min at 0.5 ml/min. Mobile phases were water and methanol, both with 2 mm ammonium acetate and 1 ml/l formic acid). XBridge® C8 10 µm (1 × 10 mm) SPE cartridges were used, and the internal standard was ascomycin. Following Food and Drug Administration guidelines, method validation resulted in high sensitivity and specificity. Calibration curves were linear (r2  = 0.998) and intra-day and inter-day imprecision and inaccuracy were <15%. A reproducible matrix effect was observed, with a good recovery for all compounds. Drug amounts in 15 'real' PBMCs samples from five pediatric patients in co-treatment resulted within the calibration range (0.039-5 ng). Concentrations from each patient were standardized using their evaluated mean cell volume: intra-PBMCs concentration was meanly 19.23 and 218.61 times higher than the hematic one for TAC and EVE, respectively. This method might be useful in clinical routine, giving reliable data on drugs concentration at the active site. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Everolimo/sangue , Imunossupressores/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/química , Tacrolimo/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
16.
Liver Int ; 37(1): 62-70, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27344058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have shown that new direct-acting antivirals maintain their efficacy in liver transplant (LT) recipients with severe hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence. We determined the clinical impact of sofosbuvir/ribavirin in LT through the changes in liver function and fibrosis state at 24 and 48 weeks after treatment. METHODS: Between June 2014 and July 2015, 126 patients (30 F3, 96 F4 Metavir stage) were enrolled to receive sofosbuvir + ribavirin (24 weeks, 118 patients) or sofosbuvir + simeprevir + ribavirin (12 weeks, 8 patients); treatment was initiated at a median time of 4.3 years from LT. Median follow-up after therapy completion was 461 days. RESULTS: All 30 F3 patients achieved a sustained virological response at week 24 after treatment (SVR24) and showed a distinct amelioration of the AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), FIB-4 and liver stiffness at elastography by week 24 post-therapy, which were maintained at week 48. Of the 96 F4 cirrhotic patients, 72 (75%) achieved SVR24 accompanied by significant improvement of liver function, which was maintained at week 48 (Child B-C 22% baseline, 11% week 24, 7% week 48); APRI, FIB-4 and liver stiffness further improved significantly between weeks 24 and 48 of follow-up. Among the 77 responders (27 F3, 50 F4) who underwent elastography at baseline and at the end of follow-up, 39 (50.6%; 18 F3, 21 F4) exhibited a regression in fibrosis stage. CONCLUSION: At about 1 year from the completion of successful sofosbuvir-based therapy, patients with post-LT HCV and severe fibrosis experienced a long-term liver function improvement accompanied by a regression of fibrosis stage in half of them.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Transplante de Fígado , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Itália , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Simeprevir/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada
18.
Pediatr Med Chir ; 39(4): 186, 2017 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502387

RESUMO

Introduction of solid foods is a fundamental step in the development of an individual. There are many implications that weaning contains not only on a nutritional plan, but also on the contingent and long-term health of an individual. Over time this nutritional passage has evolved through the acquisition of new knowledge about maturation of anatomical and neurosensory structures involved in all the phases of such a complex process. The understanding of a maturing taste of infant and cultural changes is another key to understand the evolution of introduction of solid foods in infants. What is contained in this text encapsulates thus the evolutionary path of weaning in recent years, showing current trends in the light of cultural changes and new scientific acquisitions.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Alimentos Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Fatores Etários , Características Culturais , Humanos , Lactente , Desmame
19.
Transpl Int ; 29(10): 1070-84, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27172242

RESUMO

HLA and IL-28B genes were independently associated with severity of HCV-related liver disease. We investigated the effects of these combined genetic factors on post-transplant survival in HCV-infected recipients, aiming to provide new data to define the optimal timing of novel antiviral therapies in the transplant setting. HLA-A/B/DRB1 alleles and IL-28B rs12979860 (C > T) polymorphism frequencies were determined in 449 HCV viremic recipients and in their donors. Median follow-up was 10 years; study outcome was graft survival. HLA-DRB1*11 phenotype and IL-28B C/C genotype were significantly less frequent in recipients than donors (27.8% vs. 45.9% and 27.4% vs. 44.9%, respectively, P < 0.00001). Ten-year graft survival was better in patients with HLA-DRB1*11 (P = 0.0183) or IL-28B C/C (P = 0.0436). Conversely, concomitant absence of HLA-DRB1*11 and IL-28B C/C in 228 (50.8%) predicted worse survival (P = 0.0006), which was already evident at the first post-transplant year (P = 0.0370). In multivariable Cox analysis, absence of both markers ranked second as risk factor for survival (HR = 1.74), following donor age ≥ 70 years (HR = 1.77). In the current era of direct-acting antiviral agents, the negative effects of this common immunogenetic profile in HCV-infected recipients could be most effectively neutralized by peri-transplant treatment. This should be particularly relevant in countries where elderly donors represent an unavoidable resource.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Hepatite C/cirurgia , Falência Hepática/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Idoso , Alelos , Biópsia , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Interleucinas/genética , Falência Hepática/mortalidade , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reoperação
20.
Transplantation ; 100(7): 1507-12, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27023394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) is effective in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation, but early conversion to subcutaneous administration is undocumented. METHODS: In a prospective study, patients transplanted for terminal liver disease due to HBV infection who were HBV DNA-negative at transplant were switched by week 3 posttransplantation from intravenous to subcutaneous HBIg (500 or 1000 IU weekly or fortnightly, adjusted according to serum anti-HBs trough level) if they were HBsAg- and HBV-DNA negative at time of switch. All patients concomitantly received nucleos(t)ide analogue antiviral therapy. Primary endpoint was failure rate by month 6, defined as serum anti-HBs of 100 IU/L or less or HBV reinfection despite serum anti-HBs greater than 100 IU/L. RESULTS: Of 49 patients treated, 47 (95.9%) continued treatment until month 6. All patients achieved administration by a caregiver or self-injection by week 14. No treatment failures occurred. Mean anti-HBs declined progressively to month 6, plateauing at a protective titer of approximately 290 IU/L. All patients tested for HBV DNA remained negative (45/45). Only 1 adverse event (mild injection site hematoma) was assessed as treatment-related. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of subcutaneous HBIg administration by week 3 posttransplantation, combined with HBV virostatic prophylaxis, is effective and convenient for preventing HBV recurrence.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/cirurgia , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Fígado , Idoso , DNA Viral/sangue , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA