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3.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 84: 29-34, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548880

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A recent study reported that rare variants in NUS1 were associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to assess the relative contribution of rare and common coding/non-coding variants of NUS1 to late-onset PD patients (LOPD). METHODS: Whole genome sequencing data were analyzed for target NUS1 regions, derived from a cohort of 1962 cases and 1279 controls. The genetic association analyses were performed using logistic regression analysis and Sequence Kernel association test. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis was conducted to further explore the association of variants with NUS1 expression based on the data from GTEx database. RESULTS: We identified 18 rare coding variants. p.Y131C was first identified in LOPD. However, no significant burden of rare NUS1 coding variants in LOPD was found. The rare variant sets of two regulatory elements (GH06J117605 and GH06J117674) were significantly enriched in LOPD even after Bonferroni correction (adjusted P = 0.013; adjusted P = 0.010). Considering the joint effect of rare and common variants, all variant sets within GH06J117605 and GH06J117674 showed association with LOPD but were no longer significant after Bonferroni correction. None of the common variants within coding/non-coding regions were significant after Bonferroni correction. The eQTL results suggested these variants in GH06J117605 and GH06J117674 could potentially have eQTL effects on the brain tissues. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel insight into the role of NUS1 regulatory regions in the development of LOPD and indicate that the variants in regulatory elements of NUS1 may be associated with LOPD by influencing the gene expression level.

4.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 411-418, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462448

RESUMO

Animal studies implicate meningeal lymphatic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is no direct evidence in humans to support this role1-5. In this study, we used dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to assess meningeal lymphatic flow in cognitively normal controls and patients with idiopathic PD (iPD) or atypical Parkinsonian (AP) disorders. We found that patients with iPD exhibited significantly reduced flow through the meningeal lymphatic vessels (mLVs) along the superior sagittal sinus and sigmoid sinus, as well as a notable delay in deep cervical lymph node perfusion, compared to patients with AP. There was no significant difference in the size (cross-sectional area) of mLVs in patients with iPD or AP versus controls. In mice injected with α-synuclein (α-syn) preformed fibrils, we showed that the emergence of α-syn pathology was followed by delayed meningeal lymphatic drainage, loss of tight junctions among meningeal lymphatic endothelial cells and increased inflammation of the meninges. Finally, blocking flow through the mLVs in mice treated with α-syn preformed fibrils increased α-syn pathology and exacerbated motor and memory deficits. These results suggest that meningeal lymphatic drainage dysfunction aggravates α-syn pathology and contributes to the progression of PD.


Assuntos
Drenagem , Vasos Linfáticos/fisiopatologia , Meninges/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Meninges/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
5.
Neurosci Lett ; 740: 135441, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent study on early onset Parkinson's disease (PD) revealed that NUS1 is a risk gene for PD. Clinically, essential tremor (ET) is closely related to PD. In this study, we aimed to detect NUS1 variants and assess the effect of those variants on patients with ET. METHODS: The 5 coding regions and the exon-intron boundaries of NUS1 were directly sequenced in 395 patients with ET and an equal number of healthy controls, matched for age and sex. The function of variants was assessed by pathogenic predictive software programs. Genetic analysis of variants was used to evaluate susceptibility to ET. RESULTS: A total of 6 exonic variants were identified, including 3 synonymous and 3 missense variants. The non-synonymous variants were predicted to be tolerable. No variants had significant association with ET (none of the p-values were less than 0.05, using Fisher's exact test). CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that NUS1 variants may not contribute to the risk of ET.


Assuntos
Tremor Essencial/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Tremor Essencial/epidemiologia , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Software
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232267

RESUMO

The dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a large class of neurodegenerative diseases. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been used to evaluate the function of the pyramidal tract, and central motor conduction time (CMCT) is one index used to detect pyramidal tract dysfunction. We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. Eight eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis. For upper limb CMCT, the mean difference (95% confidence interval (CI)) between the combined SCA group and the control group was 2.24 [1.76-2.72], while the mean differences (95% CIs) between the subtypes and the control group were as follows: 4.43 [3.58-5.28] for SCA1, 0.25 [-0.15,0.65] for SCA2, 1.04 [-0.37,2.46] for SCA3 and 0.49 [-0.29,1.28] for SCA6. Additionally, SCA1 significantly differed from SCA2 and SCA3 in terms of CMCT (P=0.0006 and P=0.010, respectively). We also compared lower limb CMCT between the SCA2 and control groups. The mean difference (95% CI) was 6.58 [4.49-8.67], which was clearly statistically significant. The differences in CMCT values among different subtypes suggests diverse pathological mechanisms. In general, CMCT is a promising objective index to judge the severity of disease deserving further investigation.

9.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 198: 106181, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The loss of dopaminergic cells and excessive iron deposition in some deep brain nuclei are associated with the pathophysiology of PD, and different clinical subtypes may indicate different pathological processes. This study was designed to investigate the relationships between regional iron in the cardinal subcortical nuclei and different clinical subtypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine Arkinetic/Rigid-dominant Parkinson's disease (PDAR) patients, eight Tremor-dominant (PDTD)patients and 10 matched healthy controls were recruited for this study. The iron content in 8 cardinal subcortical nuclei was measured through SWI sequence scanning (3.0 T), and different patterns of iron deposition were analyzed not only between the PD patients and HC groups but also between the different clinical subtypes. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, the iron content in the substantia nigra pars compacta(SNc), substantia nigra pars reticulata(SNr) from both the severe and milder side in PD groups were significantly increased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.02 for SNc; both P < 0.01 for SNr), and the iron content in the GP of both the severe and milder side of the PDAR patients was significantly increased compared with the PDTD patients (P < 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively) CONCLUSION: SWI is a very good technique for the in vivo assessment of subcortical nucleus iron content, and abnormal deposition of iron in the SNc and SNr is an obvious characteristic in PD patients. Furthermore, our data indicates that PDAR patients have higher iron content in the GP than PDTD patients and HCs, indicating that abnormal iron deposition in GP is related to the phenotype of Akinetic/Rigid in PD patients.

11.
Transl Neurodegener ; 9(1): 31, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common and rare variants of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) gene may play important roles in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is a lack of comprehensive analysis of GCH1 genotypes, especially in non-coding regions. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic characteristics of GCH1, including rare and common variants in coding and non-coding regions, in a large population of PD patients in Chinese mainland, as well as the phenotypic characteristics of GCH1 variant carriers. METHODS: In the first cohort of this case-control study, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 1555 patients with early-onset or familial PD and 2234 healthy controls; then in the second cohort, whole-genome sequencing was performed in sporadic late-onset PD samples (1962 patients), as well as 1279 controls. Variants at target GCH1 regions were extracted, and then genetic and detailed phenotypic data were analyzed using regression models and the sequence kernel association test. We also performed a meta-analysis to correlate deleterious GCH1 variants with age at onset (AAO) in PD patients. RESULTS: For coding variants, we identified a significant burden of GCH1 deleterious variants in early-onset or familial PD cases compared to controls (1.2% vs 0.1%, P < 0.0001). In the analysis of possible regulatory variants in GCH1 non-coding regions, rs12323905 (P = 0.001, odds ratio = 1.19, 95%CI 1.07-1.32) was significantly associated with PD, and variant sets in untranslated regions and intron regions, GCH1 brain-specific expression quantitative trait loci, and two possible promoter/enhancer (GH14J054857 and GH14J054880) were suggestively associated with PD. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis revealed that the carriers of GCH1 deleterious variants manifested younger AAO (P < 0.0001), and had milder motor symptoms, milder fatigue symptoms and more autonomic nervous dysfunctions. Meta-analysis of six studies demonstrated 6.4-year earlier onset in GCH1 deleterious variant carriers (P = 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of deleterious variants and non-coding variants of GCH1 in PD in Chinese mainland and suggest that GCH1 mutation can influence the PD phenotype, which may help design experimental studies to elucidate the mechanisms of GCH1 in the pathogenesis of PD.

12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(14): 7697-7705, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542927

RESUMO

Neurite outgrowth inhibitor-B (Nogo-B) is a membrane protein which is extensively expressed in multiple organs, especially in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells of blood vessels and belongs to the reticulon protein family. Notably, its specific receptor, Nogo-B receptor (NgBR), encoded by NUS1, has been implicated in many crucial cellular processes, such as cholesterol trafficking, lipid metabolism, dolichol synthesis, protein N-glycosylation, vascular remodelling, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and neurodevelopment. In recent years, accumulating studies have demonstrated the statistically significant changes of NgBR expression levels in human diseases, including Niemann-Pick type C disease, fatty liver, congenital disorders of glycosylation, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, invasive ductal breast carcinoma, malignant melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, paediatric epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. Besides, both the in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that NgBR overexpression or knockdown contribute to the alteration of various pathophysiological processes. Thus, there is a broad development potential in therapeutic strategies by modifying the expression levels of NgBR.

13.
Autophagy ; : 1-19, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543313

RESUMO

NRBF2 is a component of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complex. Our previous study has revealed its role in regulating ATG14-associated PtdIns3K activity for autophagosome initiation. In this study, we revealed an unknown mechanism by which NRBF2 modulates autophagosome maturation and APP-C-terminal fragment (CTF) degradation. Our data showed that NRBF2 localized at autolysosomes, and loss of NRBF2 impaired autophagosome maturation. Mechanistically, NRBF2 colocalizes with RAB7 and is required for generation of GTP-bound RAB7 by interacting with RAB7 GEF CCZ1-MON1A and maintaining the GEF activity. Specifically, NRBF2 regulates CCZ1-MON1A interaction with PI3KC3/VPS34 and CCZ1-associated PI3KC3 kinase activity, which are required for CCZ1-MON1A GEF activity. Finally, we showed that NRBF2 is involved in APP-CTF degradation and amyloid beta peptide production by maintaining the interaction between APP and the CCZ1-MON1A-RAB7 module to facilitate the maturation of APP-containing vesicles. Overall, our study revealed a pivotal role of NRBF2 as a new RAB7 effector in modulating autophagosome maturation, providing insight into the molecular mechanism of NRBF2-PtdIns3K in regulating RAB7 activity for macroautophagy/autophagy maturation and Alzheimer disease-associated protein degradation.

14.
Mov Disord ; 35(8): 1428-1437, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a spectrum of involuntary dyskinetic disorders with high clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 have been identified as the major pathogenic factor. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed 600 paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia patients nationwide who were identified by the China Paroxysmal Dyskinesia Collaborative Group to summarize the clinical phenotypes and genetic features of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in China and to provide new thoughts on diagnosis and therapy. METHODS: The China Paroxysmal Dyskinesia Collaborative Group was composed of departments of neurology from 22 hospitals. Clinical manifestations and proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 screening results were recorded using unified paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia registration forms. Genotype-phenotype correlation analyses were conducted in patients with and without proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 mutations. High-knee exercises were applied in partial patients as a new diagnostic test to induce attacks. RESULTS: Kinesigenic triggers, male predilection, dystonic attacks, aura, complicated forms of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, clustering in patients with family history, and dramatic responses to antiepileptic treatment were the prominent features in this multicenter study. Clinical analysis showed that proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 mutation carriers were prone to present at a younger age and have longer attack duration, bilateral limb involvement, choreic attacks, a complicated form of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, family history, and more forms of dyskinesia. The new high-knee-exercise test efficiently induced attacks and could assist in diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We propose recommendations regarding diagnostic criteria for paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia based on this large clinical study of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. The findings offered some new insights into the diagnosis and treatment of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and might help in building standardized paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia clinical evaluations and therapies. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 934, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071315

RESUMO

α-Synucleinopathies are characterized by autonomic dysfunction and motor impairments. In the pure autonomic failure (PAF), α-synuclein (α-Syn) pathology is confined within the autonomic nervous system with no motor features, but mouse models recapitulating PAF without motor dysfunction are lacking. Here, we show that in TgM83+/- mice, inoculation of α-Syn preformed fibrils (PFFs) into the stellate and celiac ganglia induces spreading of α-Syn pathology only through the autonomic pathway to both the central nervous system (CNS) and the autonomic innervation of peripheral organs bidirectionally. In parallel, the mice develop autonomic dysfunction, featured by orthostatic hypotension, constipation, hypohidrosis and hyposmia, without motor dysfunction. Thus, we have generated a mouse model of pure autonomic dysfunction caused by α-Syn pathology. This model may help define the mechanistic link between transmission of pathological α-Syn and the cardinal features of autonomic dysfunction in α-synucleinopathy.


Assuntos
Gânglios Autônomos/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Autonômica Pura/patologia , Sinucleinopatias/patologia , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gânglios Autônomos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Agregados Proteicos , Insuficiência Autonômica Pura/genética , Insuficiência Autonômica Pura/fisiopatologia , Sinucleinopatias/genética , Sinucleinopatias/fisiopatologia , alfa-Sinucleína/administração & dosagem , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
16.
J Neurol Sci ; 411: 116691, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in CAPN1 have recently been reported to cause the spastic paraplegia 76 (SPG76) subtype of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). To investigate the role of CAPN1 in spastic paraplegia and other neurodegenerative diseases, including spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) we conducted a mutation analysis of CAPN1 in a cohort of Chinese patients with SPG, SCA, EOPD, and ALS. METHODS: Variants of CAPN1 were detected in the three cohorts by Sanger or whole-exome sequencing, and all exons and exon-intron boundaries of CAPN1 were analysed. RESULTS: A novel CAPN1 splicing variant (NM_001198868: c.338-1G > A) identified in a familial SPG/SCA showed a complex phenotype, including spastic paraplegia, ataxia, and extensor plantar response. This mutation was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and completely co-segregated with the phenotypes. Sequencing of the cDNA from the three affected patients detected a guanine deletion (c.340_340delG) that was predicted to result in an early stop codon after 61 amino acids (p. D114Tfs*62). No CAPN1 pathogenic mutation was found in the EOPD or ALS groups. CONCLUSION: Our data reveal a novel CAPN1 mutation found in patients with SPG/SCA and emphasize the spastic and ataxic phenotypes of SPG76, but CAPN1 may not play a major role in EOPD and ALS.

17.
Brain ; 143(1): 222-233, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819945

RESUMO

Essential tremor is one of the most common movement disorders. Despite its high prevalence and heritability, the genetic aetiology of essential tremor remains elusive. Up to now, only a few genes/loci have been identified, but these genes have not been replicated in other essential tremor families or cohorts. Here we report a genetic study in a cohort of 197 Chinese pedigrees clinically diagnosed with essential tremor. Using a comprehensive strategy combining linkage analysis, whole-exome sequencing, long-read whole-genome sequencing, repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction and GC-rich polymerase chain reaction, we identified an abnormal GGC repeat expansion in the 5' region of the NOTCH2NLC gene that co-segregated with disease in 11 essential tremor families (5.58%) from our cohort. Clinically, probands that had an abnormal GGC repeat expansion were found to have more severe tremor phenotypes, lower activities of daily living ability. Obvious genetic anticipation was also detected in these 11 essential tremor-positive families. These results indicate that abnormal GGC repeat expansion in the 5' region of NOTCH2NLC gene is associated with essential tremor, and provide strong evidence that essential tremor is a family of diseases with high clinical and genetic heterogeneities.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Tremor Essencial/genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Sequência Rica em GC , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/genética , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pele/ultraestrutura , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 72(2): 633-640, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594229

RESUMO

Recent studies found that poor oral hygiene was associated with increased risk of dementia, and the number of oral bacteria significantly increased in the brain tissues of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that the oral microbiota may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. However, the actual composition of oral bacteria communities in patients with AD and whether these oral bacteria are associated with disease severity remain largely unknown. Also, the APOEɛ4 polymorphism is a strong risk factor for sporadic AD, and it would be pertinent to see if the bacterial flora was different in those patients who were APOEɛ4 positive. A total of 78 subjects were recruited in this study, including 39 patients with AD and 39 healthy controls. Saliva was collected from each subject. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequencing was conducted to analyze the salivary microbiota, and Sanger sequencing was performed to analyze the APOE genotype. There was a significantly lower richness and diversity of saliva microbiota detected in AD patients than healthy controls. The relative abundance of Moraxella, Leptotrichia, and Sphaerochaeta in the saliva of AD patients greatly increased, whereas that of Rothia was significantly reduced. Compared with APOEɛ4 (-) patients, the level of Abiotrophia and Desulfomicrobium was comparatively abundant, while Actinobacillus and Actinomyces decreased significantly in patients carrying the APOEɛ4. No bacteria were found to be associated with the severity of AD. This is the first study to analyze the salivary microorganisms in patients with AD, and we discovered that the composition of salivary microbiome was altered in AD, providing further support for the role of the oral microbiome in AD development.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/microbiologia , Microbiota , Saliva/microbiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , DNA/química , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 70: 198-201, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492481

RESUMO

microRNAs have been reported to suppress tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis and play roles in neurodegeneration disorders. Moreover, changes in microRNAs are found in the peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissues in patients of central nervous system diseases, including glioma, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis and depression. Compared with other bodily fluids, CSF is the most accurate at representing the pathological processes of the brain. To understand whether microRNA expression may be dysregulated in the patients of PD, and to further discover potential diagnostic biomarkers and promising therapeutic targets for PD, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to compare CSF microRNAs from 20 PD patients, 13 AD patients and 27 controls with other neurologic disorders such as encephalitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Finally, we found that the mean expression level of hsa-miR-626 was significantly reduced in the CSF of patients with PD compared with AD and controls. Our approach potentially identified a biomarker in CSF that upon further investigation, could be used for the detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of PD in combination with other PD biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , MicroRNAs/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Parkinson/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 166-176, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178126

RESUMO

Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disease characterized by eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in the nervous system and multiple visceral organs. The clinical manifestation of NIID varies widely, and both familial and sporadic cases have been reported. Here we have performed genetic linkage analysis and mapped the disease locus to 1p13.3-q23.1; however, whole-exome sequencing revealed no potential disease-causing mutations. We then performed long-read genome sequencing and identified a large GGC repeat expansion within human-specific NOTCH2NLC. Expanded GGC repeats as the cause of NIID was further confirmed in an additional three NIID-affected families as well as five sporadic NIID-affected case subjects. Moreover, given the clinical heterogeneity of NIID, we examined the size of the GGC repeat among 456 families with a variety of neurological conditions with the known pathogenic genes excluded. Surprisingly, GGC repeat expansion was observed in two Alzheimer disease (AD)-affected families and three parkinsonism-affected families, implicating that the GGC repeat expansions in NOTCH2NLC could also contribute to the pathogenesis of both AD and PD. Therefore, we suggest defining a term NIID-related disorders (NIIDRD), which will include NIID and other related neurodegenerative diseases caused by the expanded GGC repeat within human-specific NOTCH2NLC.


Assuntos
Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Receptores Notch/genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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