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1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126745, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315813

RESUMO

The capacity of biochars derived from agricultural wastes to remove Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution and contaminated mine water was evaluated using laboratory-based batch sorption experiments. To examine immobilization of heavy metals, biochars produced in a commercial-scale mobile pyrolizer from feedstocks: poultry litter; lucerne shoot; vetch shoot; canola shoot; wheat straws; and sugar-gum wood, were tested in a liquid-based system. Biochars were characterized by FTIR, XPS and XRD before and after the mine water treatment. Lucerne biochar had the highest Langmuir sorption capacity of Cd(II) (6.28 mg g-1) and vetch-derived biochar had the highest Cu(II) sorption capacity (18.0 mg g-1) at pH 5.5. All the biochars exhibited higher sorption capacity for Cu(II) than for Cd(II). The smaller ionic radius and higher electronegativity of Cu(II), and the PO43-, CO32- and N-containing functional groups of biochars enhanced their binding affinity. The results demonstrated that poultry litter-derived biochar was effective at removal of the Cd(II) and Cu(II) from mine water up to the levels recommended by the World Health Organisation. The results revealed that precipitation with CO32- and PO43-, complexation with -OH and -COOH groups and electrostatic interaction with O-containing surface functional groups were the main mechanisms involved in the removal of multi-metals by biochars, and that selection of feedstock materials for biochar production is important to maximise remediation of multi-metals in contaminated water.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 394: 122507, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200238

RESUMO

The present study used calcium-based magnetic biochar (Ca-MBC), a novel material made through pyrolyzing rice straw impregnated with iron oxide (Fe3O4) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) under oxygen-limited conditions, to reduce arsenic (As) accumulation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) through a 130-day pot experiment. The BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction confirmed that Ca-MBC decreased the unstable fraction of As through transforming to the stable fraction at both tillering stage and maturity. The addition of Ca-MBC decreased while the pristine biochar increased the concentrations of NH4H2PO4- and BCR-extracted As. The µ-XRF test revealed that iron oxide on the Ca-MBC played an important role in decreasing As bioavailability. The addition of Ca-MBC greatly decreased As concentration in rice grains, mainly due to (1) the decreases in bioavailability of As in soil and (2) adsorption of As in pore water by Ca-MBC; and (3) the enhanced formation of iron plaque that acted as a barrier for plant As uptake. Furthermore, the addition of Ca-MBC at 1% but not 2% promoted plant growth. The results suggest that Ca-MBC can be used as an efficient material to lower As accumulation in grains and promote plant growth in rice paddy fields.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 387: 122010, 2020 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927353

RESUMO

This study developed a novel calcium-based magnetic biochar by pyrolysing rice straw mixed with calcium carbonate and iron oxide for stabilization of contamination of multiple metals. A 160-day incubation study was conducted to investigate its performance in stabilization of cadmium and arsenic co-contamination in soil. Both biochar and Ca-MBC treatments increased soil pH, decreased the bioavailability of cadmium. Ca-MBC decreased but biochar enhanced the bioavailability of arsenic. The BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction confirmed Ca-MBC facilitated the transformation of the unstable fraction of arsenic to stable fractions. The stabilization mechanisms were explored through synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure. The results show that Ca-MBC remediated the dual contamination of arsenic and cadmium through (1) elevated pH and cation exchange capacity (for Cd); (2) the formation of bi-dentate chelate and ternary surface complexes on the surface of iron oxide; (3) enhanced adsorption ability of porous biochar. In addition, Ca-MBC increased the abundance and diversity of bacterial community, and modified the relative abundances of bacterial taxa, leading to a shift of the composition. These new insights provide valuable information for stabilization of co-contamination of arsenic and cadmium in soil using the potential material Ca-MBC.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 384: 121503, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708286

RESUMO

Organochlorines are critical soil contaminants and the use of biochar has recently shown potential to improve soil remediation. However, little is known about biochar-microbe interactions nor the impact on environmental processes such as the immobilization and biodegradation of organochlorine compounds. In this study, we performed microcosm experiments to elucidate how biochar affected the biodegradation and sequestration of pentachlorophenol (PCP). Our results showed that the amendment of biochar markedly inhibited PCP biodegradation due to a strong sorption affinity for PCP under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Notably, the inhibitory effect was relatively weaker under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions. The addition of biochar can dramatically shift the bacterial community diversity in the PCP-spiked soils. Under aerobic conditions, biochar significantly stimulated the growth of PCP-degrading bacteria Bacillus and Sphingomonas, but reduced the opportunities for microbes to contact with PCP directly. Under anaerobic conditions, the non-strict organohalide-respiring bacteria Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, Geobacter and Desulfomonile were the main drivers of PCP transformation. Our results imply that the use of biochar as a soil remediation strategy for organochlorine compounds should be cautious.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113580, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753626

RESUMO

Plant-specific root-microbe-soil interactions play an indisputable role in microbial adaptation to environmental stresses. However, the assembly of plant rhizosphere microbiomes and their feedbacks in modification of pollution alleviation under organochlorine stress condition is far less clear. This study examined the response of root-associated bacterial microbiomes to lindane pollution and compared the dissipation of lindane in maize-cultivated dry soils and rice-cultivated flooded soils. Results showed that lindane pollution dramatically altered the microbial structure in the rhizosphere soil of maize but had less influence on the microbial composition in flooded treatments regardless of rice growth, when the reductive dechlorination of lindane was actively coupled with natural redox processes under anaerobic conditions. After 30 days of plant growth, lindane residues dissipated much faster in anaerobic than in aerobic environments, with only 1.08 mg kg-1 lindane remaining in flooded control compared to 12.79 mg kg-1 in dry control soils. Compared to the corresponding unplanted control, maize growth significantly increased, but rice growth slightly decreased the dissipation of lindane. Our study suggests that opposite impacts would lead to the self-purification of polluted soils during the growth of xerophytic maize and hygrocolous rice. This was attributed to the contrasting belowground micro-ecological processes regarding protection of root tissues and thereby assembly of rhizosphere microbiomes shaped by the xerophytic and hygrocolous crops under different water managements, in response to lindane pollution.

6.
ISME J ; 14(3): 757-770, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827246

RESUMO

Microorganisms play an important role in soil phosphorus (P) cycling and regulation of P availability in agroecosystems. However, the responses of the functional and ecological traits of P-transformation microorganisms to long-term nutrient inputs are largely unknown. This study used metagenomics to investigate changes in the relative abundance of microbial P-transformation genes at four long-term experimental sites that received various inputs of N and P nutrients (up to 39 years). Long-term P input increased microbial P immobilization by decreasing the relative abundance of the P-starvation response gene (phoR) and increasing that of the low-affinity inorganic phosphate transporter gene (pit). This contrasts with previous findings that low-P conditions facilitate P immobilization in culturable microorganisms in short-term studies. In comparison, long-term nitrogen (N) input significantly decreased soil pH, and consequently decreased the relative abundances of total microbial P-solubilizing genes and the abundances of Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria containing genes coding for alkaline phosphatase, and weakened the connection of relevant key genes. This challenges the concept that microbial P-solubilization capacity is mainly regulated by N:P stoichiometry. It is concluded that long-term N inputs decreased microbial P-solubilizing and mineralizing capacity while P inputs favored microbial immobilization via altering the microbial functional profiles, providing a novel insight into the regulation of P cycling in sustainable agroecosystems from a microbial perspective.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 709: 134488, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884291

RESUMO

As the agricultural sector seeks to feed a growing global population, climate-smart agriculture offers opportunities to concurrently mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and/or increasing carbon storage in soils. This study examined the potential for clay addition to reduce CO2 emissions from plant residues and soil organic matter in a sandy soil. Soils were sourced from a 15-year-old field trial where claying (200 t ha-1) had already demonstrated improvements in water infiltration, grain yield and profits. Isotopically labelled plant residues (wheat, canola, or pea) were used to separate residue-derived and soil-derived CO2 sources from a nil-clay control, a historically clayed, and two freshly created soils with either high (10%) or low (3%) subsoil clay additions. Laboratory incubations demonstrated that historically clayed soils released less CO2 from plant residues and soil organic matter. Clay addition also decreased the priming effect of adding fresh residue to soils. The results from clay experimentally added in the laboratory varied. Differences in chemical and biological indicators (pH, microbial biomass C and N, extractable organic C and N, NO3-, NH4+, abundance of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, LMCO, GH48 and CbhI genes) did not correlate with patterns of CO2 emissions across treatments. While claying practices have previously demonstrated benefits to crop productivity, this research demonstrates long-term changes in carbon-cycling that could promote greater carbon sequestration.


Assuntos
Solo , Agricultura , Carbono , Argila , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Caulim , Areia
8.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681180

RESUMO

The amendment of crop residues produced under elevated CO2 (eCO2) may alter soil microbial community structure and their functions on residue decomposition and carbon (C) cycling in soil. The key to understanding this process is to elucidate the structure of prokaryotic communities that metabolize crop residues derived from eCO2. A soil incubation experiment was conducted to explore the response of soil microbial community to the amendment of 13C-labeled soybean residues produced under ambient CO2 (aCO2) and eCO2 . The residues were applied to a Mollisol, followed by 13C-DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) and Illumina sequencing on soil prokaryotic community over time. The structure of residue-metabolizing community differed in response to the amendment of eCO2- and aCO2-derived residues after 28 days of incubation. In particular, genera Actinomadura, Nocardia, Non-omuraea, and Shimazuella were the dominant members of the residue-metabolizing bacteria, which contributed to this difference. The relative abundances of genera Actinomadura, Nocardia and Shimazuella were 118-144%, 71-113%, and 2-4-fold higher in the Mollisol amended with aCO2-derived than eCO2-derived residue. In contrast, the relative abundance of Non-omuraea was 87-90% greater in the eCO2-residue treatment. However, during the incubation period, there was no difference between the two residue treatments in the community structure as a whole without SIP. These results implied that a pioneering prokaryotic community metabolized the residue initially prior to the entire community. Those bacteria genera being inhibited with the amendment of the eCO2-derived residue, compared to aCO2-derived residue, were likely preferential to metabolize recalcitrant C, which might be associated with changes of chemical composition of the residue under eCO2.

9.
Metallomics ; 11(12): 2097-2110, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681916

RESUMO

With similar chemistry, Mn and Fe interact in their many essential roles in plants but the magnitude and mechanisms involved of these interactions are poorly understood. Leaves of soybean (a Mn-sensitive species) developed a mild chlorosis and small dark spots and distorted trifoliate leaves with 30 µM Mn and 0.6 µM Fe in nutrient solution (pH 5.6; 3 mM ionic strength). At 0.6 µM Fe, lower alternate leaves of sunflower (a Mn-tolerant species) were chlorotic at 30 µM Mn and had a pale chlorosis and necrosis at 400 µM Mn. A concentration of 30 and 300 µM Fe in solution alleviated these typical symptoms of Mn toxicity and decreased the concentration of Mn from >3000 to ca. 800 mg kg-1 dry mass (DM) in all leaf tissues. As expected, increased Fe supply increased Fe in leaves from <100 up to 1350 mg Fe kg-1 DM. In situ synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy showed that increased Fe supply caused an overall decrease in Mn in the leaf tissue but had little effect on the pattern of its distribution. Similarly, X-ray absorption spectroscopy identified only slight effects of Fe supply on Mn speciation in leaf tissues. Thus, the results of this study indicate that increased Fe supply ameliorated Mn toxicity in soybean and sunflower largely through decreased Mn uptake and translocation to leaf tissues rather than through changes in Mn distribution or speciation within the leaves.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 135-145, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319251

RESUMO

The residues of dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), internationally-banned agricultural insecticides, continue to exceed government guidelines in some surface soils 30 years after use. Little is known regarding the soil factors and microbial community dynamics associated with the in-situ biodegradation of these organochlorine chemicals. We hypothesised that soil organic matter, a key factor affecting microbial biomass and diversity, affects the biodegradation and total loss of the pollutants 30 years after use. We sampled 12 contaminated paddocks with residue concentrations monitoring data since 1988 that represent two different agricultural surface-soils. The total loss and current concentrations of the residues was correlated with soil physicochemical properties, microbial biomass carbon, microbial community diversity indices and microbial community abundance. Current dieldrin and DDT residue concentrations were positively correlated with soil organic matter and clay contents. However, key indicators for loss of residues after 23-30 years were low carbon-to­nitrogen ratios, high microbial-C-to-total-C ratios and high fungal community evenness. The results support the composition of soil organic matter as an important factor affecting degradation of organochlorines and that co-metabolism of dieldrin and DDT could be enhanced by manipulating the composition of soil organic matter to cater for a broad diversity of microbial function.

11.
Environ Int ; 131: 104975, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284116

RESUMO

Organochlorine pesticides have been extensively used for many years to prevent insect diseases of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but little is known about their residual impacts on the underground micro-ecology in anaerobic environment. In this glasshouse study, we characterized the lindane effects on the assembly of root-associated microbiomes of commonly used indica, japonica and hybrid rice cultivars, and their feedback in turn, in modifying lindane anaerobic dissipation during 60 days' rice production. The results showed that rice growth inhibited the anaerobic dissipation of lindane, but was not affected apparently by lindane at initial spiked concentration of 4.62 and 18.54 mg kg-1 soil. Suppressed removal of lindane in rice planted treatments as compared with that in unplanted control was likely due to inhibited reductive dechlorination induced by a comprehensive effect of radial O2 secretion of rice root and co-occurring Fe(III) reduction that consumed electron competitively in rice rhizosphere. However, the hybrid cultivar exhibited a less suppression than the conventional cultivars in high polluted soils. Bacteria was more sensitively responded to lindane pollution than fungal taxa, and Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria were the main different phyla between hybrid and conventional cultivars, with a more stable community structure exhibited in the hybrid rice under lindane stress. Our study highlights the assembly and variation of root-associated microbiomes in responses of lindane pollution, and suggests that hybrid rice cultivar might be most competent for cultivation in paddy fields polluted by lindane and other organochlorine pesticides, especially in the area with high residual levels.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8890, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222122

RESUMO

Organic and inorganic amendments with equivalent nutrient content may have comparable fertilizer effects on crop yield, but their effects on the soil microbial community and subsequent plant-soil-microbe interactions in this context are unknown. This experiment aimed to understand the relationship between soil microbial communities, soil physicochemical characteristics and crop performance after addition of amendments to soil. Poultry litter and synthetic fertilizer with balanced total nitrogen (N) content equivalent to 1,200 kg ha-1 were added to the topsoil (0-10 cm) or subsoil layer (20-30 cm) of repacked soil columns. Wheat plants were grown until maturity. Soil samples were taken at Zadoks 87-91 (76 days after sowing) for analysis of bacterial and fungal communities using 16S and ITS amplicon sequencing. The interaction between amendment type and placement depth had significant effects on bacterial and fungal community structure and diversity in the two soil layers. Addition of poultry litter and fertilizer stimulated or suppressed different taxa in the topsoil and subsoil leading to divergence of these layers from the untreated control. Both amendments reduced microbial community richness, diversity and evenness in the topsoil and subsoil compared to the nil-amendment control, with these reductions in diversity being consistently negatively correlated with plant biomass (root and shoot weight, root length, grain weight) and soil fertility (soil NH4+, shoot N). These results indicate that in this experimental system, the soil microbial diversity was correlated negatively with plant productivity.

13.
Environ Int ; 129: 451-460, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154147

RESUMO

Nitrification and denitrification are two important processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle. Under heavy-metal pollution with water management of paddy soils, these two processes are not well understood. This study aimed to examine the effect of cadmium (Cd) on N transformation under flooding and non-flooding conditions. A paddy soil was incubated under two water regimes (flooding and non-flooding) and four Cd levels (0, 2, 5 and 10 mg kg-1). The availability of Cd was higher in the non-flooding than flooding conditions. Cadmium contamination significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased the copy number of archaeal and bacterial amoA genes, bacterial nirS, nirK and nosZ genes under both conditions with the decrease being greater under non-flooding. High level of Cd (10 mg kg-1) was more toxic in non-flooding than flooding conditions to the nitrifiers and denitrifiers, which in turn decreased N transformation through microbially-mediated processes. Its contamination decreased N2O emission initially under both water regimes but the effect was greater under the non-flooding condition. However, the non-significant stimulatory effect of Cd on N2O emission was observed during the late phase. The microbial community structure was changed with time and water regimes. Irrespective of water regime, the dominated fungal phyla were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota while the dominated bacteria phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Acidobacteria. In summary, water regimes and Cd bioavailability changed soil N transformations via microbial mediated processes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Água , Bactérias/genética , Cádmio/química , Desnitrificação , Metais Pesados/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Oryza , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/química
14.
Ann Bot ; 124(6): 1033-1042, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209480

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: The rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) has been explained from the perspective of microbial responses to root exudates and nutrient availability. This study introduced a chemical process that could also contribute to RPE: root exudates (organic acid ligands) could liberate mineral-protected carbon (C) in soil for microbial degradation. METHODS: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) near-isogenic lines varying in citrate efflux were grown for 6 weeks in a C4 soil supplied with either low (10 µg g-1) or high P (40 µg g-1). Total below-ground CO2 was trapped and partitioned for determination of soil organic C decomposition and RPE using a stable isotopic tracing technique. Mineral dissolution was examined by incubating soil with citric ligand at a series of concentrations. KEY RESULTS: High P increased RPE (81 %), shoot (32 %) and root biomass (57 %), root-derived CO2-C (20 %), microbial biomass C (28 %) and N (100%), soil respiration (20 %) and concentrations of water-extractable P (30 %), Fe (43 %) and Al (190 %), but decreased inorganic N in the rhizosphere. Compared with Egret-Burke, wheat line Egret-Burke TaMATE1B with citrate efflux had lower inorganic N, microbial biomass C (16 %) and N (30 %) in the rhizosphere but greater RPE (18 %), shoot biomass (12 %) and root-derived CO2-C (low P 36 %, high P 13 %). Egret-Burke TaMATE1B also had higher concentrations of water-extractable P, Fe and Al in the rhizosphere, indicating the release of mineral-protected C. In addition, citrate ligand facilitated Fe and Al release from soil, with their concentrations rising with increasing ligand concentration and incubation time. CONCLUSIONS: While high P supply increased microbial growth and RPE possibly due to higher total root exudation, citrate efflux from the root might have facilitated the liberation of mineral-bound C, leading to the higher RPE under Egret-Burke TaMATE1B. Mineral dissolution may be an important process that regulates RPE and should be considered in future RPE research.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740093

RESUMO

Although archaea are ubiquitous in various environments, the knowledge gaps still exist regarding the biogeographical distribution of archaeal communities at regional scales in agricultural soils compared with bacteria and fungi. To provide a broader biogeographical context of archaeal diversity, this study quantified the abundance and community composition of archaea across the black soil zone in northeast China using real-time PCR and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) methods. Archaeal abundances across all soil samples ranged from 4.04 × 107 to 26.18 × 107 16S rRNA gene copies per gram of dry soil. Several soil factors were positively correlated with the abundances including soil pH, concentrations of total C, N, and P, and available K in soil, and soil water content. Approximately 94.2, 5.7, and 0.3% of archaeal sequences, and 31, 151, and 3 OTUs aligned within the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota, respectively. Within the phylum of Thaumarchaeota, group 1.1b was a dominating genus accounting for an average of 87% archaeal sequences and phylogenetically classified as Nitrososphaera, a genus of ammonia oxidizing archaea. The response of dominating OTUs to environmental factors differed greatly, suggesting the physiological characteristics of different archaeal members is diversified in the black soils. Although the number of OTUs was not related with any particular soil parameters, the number of OTUs within Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota was marginally related with soil pH. Archaeal community compositions differed between samples, and a Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis indicated that soil pH and the latitude of sampling locations were two dominating factors in shifting community structures. A variance partitioning analysis (VPA) analysis showed that the selected soil parameters (32%) were the largest drivers of community variation, in particular soil pH (21%), followed by geographic distances (19%). These findings suggest that archaeal communities have distinct biogeographic distribution pattern in the black soil zone and soil pH was the key edaphic factor in structuring the community compositions.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 666: 405-413, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802656

RESUMO

The increases in CO2 concentration and attendant temperature are likely to impact agricultural production. This study investigated the effects of elevated temperature alone and in combination with CO2 enrichment on grain yield and quality of soybean (Glycine max) and maize (Zea mays) grown in a Mollisol over five-year growing seasons. Plants were grown in open-top chambers with the ambient control, 2.1 °C increase in air temperature (eT) and eT together with 700 ppm atmospheric CO2 concentration (eTeCO2). While eTeCO2 but not eT increased the mean grain yield of soybean by 31%, eTeCO2 and eT increased the yield of maize similarly by around 25% compared to the ambient control. Furthermore, eT and eTeCO2 did not significantly affect grain protein of either species but consistently increased oil concentrations in grains of both species with eTeCO2 increasing more. The eT increased grain Fe concentration relative to the control treatment but decreased Ca concentration, while the relative concentrations of P, K, Mn and Zn varied with crop species. The elevated CO2 enlarged the eT effect on Fe concentration, but decreased the effect on Ca concentration. The results suggest that crop selection is important to maximize yield benefits and to maintain grain quality to cope with elevated CO2 and temperature of future climate change in this temperate region where the temperature is near or below the optimal temperature for crop production.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Mudança Climática , Estações do Ano , Soja/química , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 657: 1112-1120, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677878

RESUMO

Elevated CO2 (eCO2) may enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration via greater input of photosynthetic carbon (C). However, greater rhizodeposits under eCO2 may stimulate microbial decomposition of native SOC. This study aimed to examine the status and stability of SOC in three Australian cropping soils after long-term CO2 enrichment. Samples (0-5 cm) of Chromosol, Vertosol and Calcarosol soils were collected from an 8-year Free-air CO2 Enrichment (SoilFACE) experiment and were used to examine SOC dynamics by physical fractionation and incubation with 13C-glucose. Compared to the ambient CO2 (aCO2) (390-400 µmol mol-1), 8 years of elevated CO2 (eCO2) (550 µmol mol-1) did not increase SOC concentration of all soils, but changed SOC distribution with 12% more C in coarse soil fractions and 5% less C in fine fractions. Elevated CO2 also enhanced the susceptibility of SOC to 13C-glucose-induced priming, but this effect was only significant in the coarse-textured Calcarosol topsoil. The eCO2 history increased labile C (coarse C fraction, +13%) and soil pH (+0.25 units), and decreased available N (-30%) in the Calcarosol, which stimulated microbial biomass C by 28%, leading to an enhanced priming effect. Despite with greater total primed C, the Chromosol that had the highest amount of native C, had lower primed C per unit of SOC when compared to the low-C Calcarosol. In conclusion, the effect of long-term eCO2 enrichment on soil C and N availability in cropping soils depended on soil type with the coarse-textured Calcarosol soil being more susceptible to substrate-induced decomposition of its SOC.

18.
Ann Bot ; 123(1): 121-132, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101296

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Salt has been shown to affect Cd translocation and accumulation in plants but the associated mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the effects of salt type and concentration on Cd uptake, translocation and accumulation in Carpobrotus rossii. Methods: Plants were grown in nutrient solution with the same Cd concentration or Cd2+ activity in the presence of 25 mm NaNO3, 12.5 mm Na2SO4 or 25 mm NaCl for ≤10 d. Plant growth and Cd uptake were measured and the accumulation of peptides and organic acids, and Cd speciation in plant tissues were analysed. Key Results: Salt addition decreased shoot Cd accumulation by >50 % due to decreased root-to-shoot translocation, irrespective of salt type. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that, after 10 d, 61-94 % Cd was bound to S-containing ligands (Cd-S) in both roots and shoots, but its speciation was not affected by salt. In contrast, Cd in the xylem sap was present either as free Cd2+ or complexes with carboxyl groups (Cd-OH). When plants were exposed to Cd for ≤24 h, 70 % of the Cd in the roots was present as Cd-OH rather than Cd-S. However, NaCl addition decreased the proportion of Cd-OH in the roots within 24 h by forming Cd-Cl complexes and increasing the proportion of Cd-S. This increase in Cd-S complexes by salt was not due to changes in glutathione and phytochelatin synthesis. Conclusions: Salt addition decreased shoot Cd accumulation by decreasing Cd root-to-shoot translocation due to the rapid formation of Cd-S complexes (low mobility) within the root, without changing the concentrations of glutathione and phytochelatins.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Salinidade , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , 32418 , Transporte Biológico
19.
Environ Pollut ; 244: 792-800, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390452

RESUMO

An anaerobic incubation was launched with varying nitrate (1, 5, 10 and 20 mM exogenous NaNO3) and molybdate (20 mM Na2MoO4, a sulfate-reducing inhibitor) additions to investigate the characteristics of PCP dechlorination, as well as the reduction of natural co-occurring electron acceptors, including NO3-, Fe(III) and SO42-, and the responses of microbial community structures under a unique reductive mangrove soil. Regardless of exogenous addition, nitrate was rapidly eliminated in the first 12 days. The reduction process of Fe(III) was inhibited, while that of SO42- reduction depended on addition concentration as compared to the control. PCP was mainly degraded from orth-position, forming the only intermediate 2,3,4,5-TeCP by anaerobic microbes, with the highest PCP removal rate of average 21.9% achieved in 1 and 5 mM NaNO3 as well as 20 mM Na2MoO4 treatments and the lowest of 7.5% in 20 mM NaNO3 treatment. The effects of nitrate on PCP dechlorination depended on addition concentration, while molybdate promoted PCP attenuation significantly. Analyses of the Illumina sequencing data and the relative abundance of dominant microorganisms indicated that the core functional groups regulated PCP removal at genera level likely included Bacillus, Pesudomonas, Dethiobacter, Desulfoporosinus and Desulfovbrio in the nitrate treatments; while that was likely Sedimentibacter and Geosporobacter_Thermotalea in the molybdate treatment. Nitrate supplement but not over supplement, or addition of molybdate are suggested as alternative strategies for better remediation in the nitrate-deficient and sulfur-accumulated soil ecosystem contaminated by PCP, through regulating the growth of core functional groups and thereby coordinating the interaction between dechlorination and its coupled soil redox processes due to shifts of more available electrons to dechlorination. Our results broadened the knowledge regarding microbial PCP degradation and their interactions with natural soil redox processes under anaerobic soil ecosystems.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Pentaclorofenol/análise , Pentaclorofenol/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Compostos Férricos/química , Inundações , Halogenação , Molibdênio/química , Nitratos/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Oxirredução , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Sulfatos/química
20.
Ann Bot ; 123(3): 461-468, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Soil acidity currently limits root growth and crop production in many regions, and climate change is leading to uncertainties regarding future food supply. However, it is unknown how elevated CO2 (eCO2) affects the performance of wheat crops in acid soils under field conditions. We investigated the effects of eCO2 on plant growth and yield of three pairs of near-isogenic hexaploid wheat lines differing in alleles of aluminium-resistant genes TaALMT1 (conferring root malate efflux) and TaMATE1B (conferring citrate efflux). METHODS: Plants were grown until maturity in an acid soil under ambient CO2 (aCO2; 400 µmol mol-1) and eCO2 (550 µmol mol-1) in a soil free-air CO2 enrichment facility (SoilFACE). Growth parameters and grain yields were measured. KEY RESULTS: Elevated CO2 increased grain yield of lines carrying TaMATE1B by 22 % and lines carrying only TaALMT1 by 31 %, but did not increase the grain yield of Al3+-sensitive lines. Although eCO2 promoted tiller formation, coarse root length and root biomass of lines carrying TaMATE1B, it did not affect ear number, and it therefore limited yield potential. By contrast, eCO2 decreased or did not change these parameters for lines carrying only TaALMT1, and enhanced biomass allocation to grains thereby resulting in increased grain yield. Despite TaMATE1B being less effective than TaALMT1 at conferring Al3+ resistance based on root growth, the gene promoted grain yield to a similar level to TaALMT1 when the plants were grown in acid soil. Furthermore, TaALMT1 and TaMATE1B were not additive in their effects. CONCLUSIONS: As atmospheric CO2 increases, it is critical that both Al3+-resistance genes (particularly TaALMT1) should be maintained in hexaploid wheat germplasm in order for yield increases from CO2 fertilization to be realized in acid soils.


Assuntos
Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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