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1.
Langmuir ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651625

RESUMO

Interactions between water and graphene can be probed on a macroscopic level through wettability by measuring the water contact angle and on a microscopic level through water desorption kinetic studies using surface science methods. The contact angle studies of graphene pinpointed the critical role of sample preparation and measurement conditions in assessing the wettability of graphene. So far, studies of water desorption from graphene under the conditions of ultrahigh vacuum provided superior control over the environment but disregarded the importance of sample preparation. Here, we systematically examined the effect of the morphology of the growth substrate and of the transfer process on the macroscopic and microscopic wettability of graphene. Remarkably, the macroscopic wetting transparency of graphene does not always translate into microscopic wetting transparency, particularly in the case of an atomically defined Cu(111) substrate. Additionally, subtle differences in the type of substrates significantly alter the interactions between graphene and the first monolayer of adsorbed water but have a negligible effect on the apparent macroscopic wettability. This work looks into the correlations between the wetting properties of graphene, both on the macroscopic and microscopic scales, and highlights the importance of sample preparation in understanding the surface chemistry of graphene.

2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 102: 235-243, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637248

RESUMO

Biological processes have been widely used for the treatment of both domestic and industrial wastewaters. In such biological processes, pollutants are converted into pollution-free substances by microorganisms through oxidation-reduction reactions. Thus, how to quantify the internal oxidation-reduction properties wastewaters and seek out targeted countermeasures is essential to understand, operate, and optimize biological wastewater treatment systems. So far, no such approach is available yet. In this work, a novel concept of electron neutralization-based evaluation is proposed to describe the internal oxidation-reduction properties of wastewater. Pollutants in wastewater are defined as electron donor substances (EDSs) or electron acceptor substances (EASs), which could give or accept electrons, respectively. With such an electron neutralization concept, several parameters, i.e., electron residual concentration (R), economy-related index (E and Er), and economical evaluation index (Y and Yr), are defined. Then, these parameters are used to evaluate the performance and economic aspects of currently applied wastewater treatment processes and even optimize systems. Three case studies demonstrate that the proposed concept could be effectively used to reduce wastewater treatment costs, assess energy recovery, and evaluate process performance. Therefore, a new, simple, and reliable methodology is established to describe the oxidation-reduction properties of wastewater and assess the biological wastewater treatment processes.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Elétrons , Oxirredução , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
J Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used as a supportive therapy for IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We aimed to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of HCQ therapy in patients with IgAN. METHODS: A total of 180 patients with IgAN who had received HCQ therapy for at least 1 year were enrolled in this study. The changes in proteinuria and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed during the follow-up period. RESULTS: The level of proteinuria decreased from 1.69 [1.24, 2.30] to 1.01 [0.59, 1.74] g/day (- 37.58 [- 57.52, 8.24] %, P < 0.001) at 12 months and to 1.00 [0.59, 1.60] g/day (- 55.30 [- 71.09, - 3.44] %, P < 0.001) at 24 months. There was no significant change in the eGFR of these patients at 12 months (65.82 ± 25.22 vs. 63.93 ± 25.96 ml/min/1.73 m2, P = 0.411); however, the eGFR decreased from 65.82 ± 25.22 to 62.15 ± 25.81 ml/min/1.73 m2 at 24 months (P = 0.003). The cumulative frequency of all patients with a 50% decrease in proteinuria was 72.78% at 12 months. Sixty (33.3%) patients changed to corticosteroid therapy during the follow-up period. No serious adverse effects were documented during HCQ treatment. CONCLUSIONS: HCQ effectively and safely reduces proteinuria in IgAN patients with different levels of eGFR, supporting the maintenance of stable kidney function in the long term.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616384

RESUMO

The weak adhesion between two hydrogel layers may lead to the delamination of bilayer hydrogels or low force transfer efficiency during deformation. Here, tough interfacial adhesive bilayer hydrogels with rapid shape deformation and recovery were prepared by simple attachment-heating of two gel layers. The bilayer hydrogels, composed of a shape memory gel (S-gel) and an elastic gel (E-gel), exhibited extremely tough interfacial adhesion between two layers (Γ âˆ¼ 2200 J/m2). The shape deformation and shape recovery of the bilayer hydrogels, tuned by "heating-stretching" mode and "stretching-heating-stretching" mode, were rapid (<5 s) and no delamination between two gel layers was detected during shape deformation. Based on the fast shape deformation and recovery, the bilayer hydrogels could mimic the flower and hand, and a gel gripper could be fabricated to catch the object in the hot water. This work provides a simple method to prepare tough adhesive bilayer hydrogels with controlled shape deformation.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1275, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627666

RESUMO

Synthetic lethality is emerging as an important cancer therapeutic paradigm, while the comprehensive selective treatment opportunities for various tumors have not yet been explored. We develop the Synthetic Lethality Knowledge Graph (SLKG), presenting the tumor therapy landscape of synthetic lethality (SL) and synthetic dosage lethality (SDL). SLKG integrates the large-scale entity of different tumors, drugs and drug targets by exploring a comprehensive set of SL and SDL pairs. The overall therapy landscape is prioritized to identify the best repurposable drug candidates and drug combinations with literature supports, in vitro pharmacologic evidence or clinical trial records. Finally, cladribine, an FDA-approved multiple sclerosis treatment drug, is selected and identified as a repurposable drug for treating melanoma with CDKN2A mutation by in vitro validation, serving as a demonstrating SLKG utility example for novel tumor therapy discovery. Collectively, SLKG forms the computational basis to uncover cancer-specific susceptibilities and therapy strategies based on the principle of synthetic lethality.

6.
Appl Opt ; 60(2): 239-249, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448945

RESUMO

The segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images is crucial to the diagnosis of many diseases. We propose a deep learning method for vessel segmentation based on an encoder-decoder network combined with squeeze-and-excitation connection and atrous spatial pyramid pooling. In our implementation, the atrous spatial pyramid pooling allows the network to capture features at multiple scales, and the high-level semantic information is combined with low-level features through the encoder-decoder architecture to generate segmentations. Meanwhile, the squeeze-and-excitation connections in the proposed network can adaptively recalibrate features according to the relationship between different channels of features. The proposed network can achieve precise segmentation of retinal vessels without hand-crafted features or specific post-processing. The performance of our model is evaluated in terms of visual effects and quantitative evaluation metrics on two publicly available datasets of retinal images, the Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction and Structured Analysis of the Retina datasets, with comparison to 12 representative methods. Furthermore, the proposed network is applied to vessel segmentation on local retinal images, which demonstrates promising application prospect in medical practices.

7.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009233, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476325

RESUMO

Runx1 is highly expressed in osteoblasts, however, its function in osteogenesis is unclear. We generated mesenchymal progenitor-specific (Runx1f/fTwist2-Cre) and osteoblast-specific (Runx1f/fCol1α1-Cre) conditional knockout (Runx1 CKO) mice. The mutant CKO mice with normal skeletal development displayed a severe osteoporosis phenotype at postnatal and adult stages. Runx1 CKO resulted in decreased osteogenesis and increased adipogenesis. RNA-sequencing analysis, Western blot, and qPCR validation of Runx1 CKO samples showed that Runx1 regulates BMP signaling pathway and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. ChIP assay revealed direct binding of Runx1 to the promoter regions of Bmp7, Alk3, and Atf4, and promoter mapping demonstrated that Runx1 upregulates their promoter activity through the binding regions. Bmp7 overexpression rescued Alk3, Runx2, and Atf4 expression in Runx1-deficient BMSCs. Runx2 expression was decreased while Runx1 was not changed in Alk3 deficient osteoblasts. Atf4 overexpression in Runx1-deficient BMSCs did not rescue expression of Runx1, Bmp7, and Alk3. Smad1/5/8 activity was vitally reduced in Runx1 CKO cells, indicating Runx1 positively regulates the Bmp7/Alk3/Smad1/5/8/Runx2/ATF4 signaling pathway. Notably, Runx1 overexpression in Runx2-/- osteoblasts rescued expression of Atf4, OCN, and ALP to compensate Runx2 function. Runx1 CKO mice at various osteoblast differentiation stages reduced Wnt signaling and caused high expression of C/ebpα and Pparγ and largely increased adipogenesis. Co-culture of Runx1-deficient and wild-type cells demonstrated that Runx1 regulates osteoblast-adipocyte lineage commitment both cell-autonomously and non-autonomously. Notably, Runx1 overexpression rescued bone loss in OVX-induced osteoporosis. This study focused on the role of Runx1 in different cell populations with regards to BMP and Wnt signaling pathways and in the interacting network underlying bone homeostasis as well as adipogenesis, and has provided new insight and advancement of knowledge in skeletal development. Collectively, Runx1 maintains adult bone homeostasis from bone loss though up-regulating Bmp7/Alk3/Smad1/5/8/Runx2/ATF4 and WNT/ß-Catenin signaling pathways, and targeting Runx1 potentially leads to novel therapeutics for osteoporosis.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(4): 1259-1271, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496176

RESUMO

Inspired by the widely antiphytopathogenic application of diversified derivatives from natural sources, cryptolepine and its derivatives were subsequently designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antifungal activities against four agriculturally important fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The results obtained from in vitro assay indicated that compounds a1-a24 showed great fungicidal property against B. cinerea (EC50 < 4 µg/mL); especially, a3 presented significantly prominent inhibitory activity with an EC50 of 0.027 µg/mL. In the pursuit of further expanding the antifungal spectrum of cryptolepine, ring-opened compound f1 produced better activity with an EC50 of 3.632 µg/mL against R. solani and an EC50 of 5.599 µg/mL against F. graminearum. Furthermore, a3 was selected to be a candidate to investigate its preliminary antifungal mechanism to B. cinerea, revealing that not only spore germination was effectively inhibited and the normal physiological structure of mycelium was severely undermined but also detrimental reactive oxygen was obviously accumulated and the normal function of the nucleus was fairly disordered. Besides, in vivo curative experiment against B. cinerea found that the therapeutic action of a3 was comparable to that of the positive control azoxystrobin. These results suggested that compound a3 could be regarded as a novel and promising agent against B. cinerea for its valuable potency.

9.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis ; 38(1): 10-18, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362147

RESUMO

The detection of the optic disc (OD) and fovea is essential to many automatic diagnosis systems for retinal diseases. The single shot multibox detector (SSD) can generate predictions from feature maps of various resolutions, which has not been introduced into the OD and fovea detection. To enhance the detection performance, we propose an improved SSD network, which has strengthened information flow enabled by the dense connections. The proposed method can achieve multiscale detection of the OD and fovea with strengthened feature propagation. Extensive experiments on the publicly available Messidor database and local fundus images are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Compared with seven types of representative solutions in the Messidor database, the proposed method can achieve competitive performance compared to state-of-the-art algorithms. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to the excyclotropia screening. The screening results demonstrate promising application prospects for the proposed method in medical practice.

10.
Chemosphere ; : 129099, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272675

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, plays a crucial role in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism. There are a large number of artificial or natural molecules in the environment that can activate AhR. In this study, we developed a virtual screening procedure to identify potential ligands of AhR. One structure-based method and two ligand-based methods were used for the virtual screening procedure. The results showed that the precision rate (0.96) and recall rate (0.64) of our procedure were significantly higher than those of a procedure used in a previous study, which suggests that supervised machine learning techniques can greatly improve the performance of virtual screening. Moreover, a pesticide dataset including 777 frequently used pesticides was screened. Seventy-seven pesticides were identified as potential AhR ligands by all three screening methods, among which 12 have never been previously reported as AhR agonists. Two non-agonist AhR ligands and 14 of the 77 pesticides were randomly selected for testing by in vitro and in vivo assays. All 14 pesticides showed different degrees of AhR agonistic activity, and none of the two non-agonist AhR ligand pesticides showed AhR agonistic activity, which suggests that our procedure had good robustness. Four of the pesticides were reported as AhR agonists for the first time, suggesting that these pesticides may need further toxicity assessment. In general, our procedure is a rapid, powerful and computationally inexpensive tool for predicting chemicals with AhR agonistic activity, which could be useful for environmental risk prediction and management.

11.
Appl Opt ; 59(35): 11087-11097, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361937

RESUMO

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) image enhancement is a challenging task because speckle reduction and contrast enhancement need to be addressed simultaneously and effectively. We present a refined Retinex model for guidance in improving the performance of enhancing OCT images accompanied by speckle noise; a physical explanation is provided. Based on this model, we establish two sequential optimization functions in the logarithmic domain for speckle reduction and contrast enhancement, respectively. More specifically, we obtain the despeckled image of an entire OCT image by solving the first optimization function. Incidentally, we can recover the speckle noise map through removing the despeckle component directly. Then, we estimate the illumination and reflectance by solving the second optimization function. Further, we apply the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization algorithm to adjust the illumination, and project it back to the reflectance for achieving contrast enhancement. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of our proposed method. It performs well in both speckle reduction and contrast enhancement and is superior to the other two methods both in terms of qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment. Our method has the practical potential to improve the accuracy of manual screening and computer-aided diagnosis for retinal diseases.

12.
Water Res ; 189: 116589, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166922

RESUMO

Electroactive biofilms (EABs) can be integrated with conductive nanomaterials to boost extracellular electron transfer (EET) for achieving efficient waste treatment and energy conversion in bioelectrochemical systems. However, the in situ nanomaterial-modified EABs of mixed-culture, and their response under environmental stress are rarely revealed. Here, two nanocatalyst-decorated EABs were established by self-assembled Au nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide (Au-NPs/rGO) in mixed-biofilms with different maturities, then their multi-property were analyzed under long-term phenolic shock. Results showed that the power density of Au-NPs/rGO decorated EABs was significantly enhanced by 28.66-42.82% due to the intensified EET pathways inside biofilms. Meanwhile, the electrochemical and catalytic performance of EABs were controllably regulated by 0.3-3.0 g/L phenolic compounds, which, however, resulted in differential alterations in their architecture, composition, and viability. EABs originated with higher maturity displayed more compact structure, lower thickness (110 µm), higher biomass (8.67 mg/cm2) and viability (0.85-0.91), endowing it better antishock ability to phenolic compounds. Phenolic-shock also induced the heterogeneous distribution of extracellular polymeric substances in terms of both spatial and bonding degrees of the decorated EABs, which could be regarded as an active response to strike a balance between self-protection and EET under environmental pressure. Our findings provide a broader understanding of microbe-electrode interactions in the micro-ecology interface and improve their performance in the removal of complex contaminants for sustainable remediation and new-energy development.

13.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 469, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a well-known immunomodulator that was recently used in immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) due to its antiproteinuric effects. We investigated the effects of HCQ in patients with IgAN whose proteinuria remained above 1 g/d after conventional immunosuppressive (IS) therapy. METHODS: This study was a retrospective case-control study. Twenty-six patients with IgAN who received HCQ and had insufficient responses to IS therapy (corticosteroid (CS) therapy with/without IS agents) were included. Twenty-six matched historical controls who received conventional IS therapy were selected using propensity score matching. The clinical data from 6 months were compared. RESULTS: Proteinuria at baseline was comparable between the "IS therapy plus HCQ" and "conventional IS therapy" groups (2.35 [interquartile range (IQR), 1.47, 2.98] vs. 2.35 [IQR, 1.54, 2.98] g/d, p = 0.920). A significant reduction in proteinuria was noted in IgAN patients with HCQ treatment (2.35 [IQR, 1.47, 2.98] vs. 1.10 [IQR, 0.85, 1.61] g/d, p = 0.002). The percent reduction in proteinuria at 6 months was similar between the two groups (- 39.81% [- 66.26, - 12.37] vs. -31.99% [- 67.08, - 9.14], p = 0.968). The cumulative frequency of patients with a 50% reduction in proteinuria during the study was also comparable between the two groups (53.8% vs. 57.7%, p = 0.780). No serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed during the study. CONCLUSIONS: Use of HCQ achieved has similar reduction in proteinuria compared to conventional IS therapy in patients with IgAN who had insufficient responses to IS therapy.

14.
Environ Technol ; : 1-31, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206008

RESUMO

Pyrolysis can realize the harmlessness, reduction and resource utilization of petroleum sludge in a short period. In the present work, a tank bottom sludge (SSOS) and a landing sludge (SLOS) from Shengli Oilfield were used for experimental research. Thermogravimetric testing is used to initially determine the optimal range of pyrolysis temperature. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in a tube furnace reactor. Pyrolysis products were collected and analyzed separately. The char yield of SSOS and SLOS were 50% and 70%, respectively. Although there are differences in the oil content of the two types of petroleum sludge, the oil yield remained nearly the same, which were both between 7%-8%. As the pyrolysis temperature was raised to 500°C, the yield of each product did not change greatly while their composition had obvious changes. High temperature is more conducive to the production of small molecule products. Result showed that pyrolysis treatment of petroleum sludge can effectively recover energy materials in the form of pyrolysis gas and oil. The heating value of char is lower than that of petroleum sludge, which means that char is not suitable for direct use as fuel. Pyrolysis treatment also showed good curing effect on Cr, which reached 85%. However, the solidification effect decreased as pyrolysis temperature increasing. It is necessary to pay attention to the heavy metal contained in char as soil improver. The rich surface structure of char provides evidence to produce high value-added carbon materials.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143415, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248786

RESUMO

In this study, a core-shell Fe@Co nanoparticles uniformly modified graphite felt (Fe@Co/GF) was fabricated as the cathode by one-pot self-assembly strategy for the degradation of vanillic acid (VA), syringic acid (SA), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) in the Bio-Electro-Fenton (BEF) system. The Fe@Co/GF cathode showed dual advantages with excellent electrochemical performance and catalytic reactivity not only due to the high electron transfer efficiency but also the synergistic redox cycles between Fe and Co species, both of which significantly enhanced the in situ generation of H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (OH) to 152.40 µmol/L and 138.48 µmol/L, respectively. In this case, the degradation rates of VA, SA, and HBA reached 100, 94.32, and 100%, respectively, within 22 h. Representatively, VA was degraded and ultimately mineralized via demethylation, decarboxylation and ring-opening reactions. This work provided a promising approach for eliminating typical recalcitrant organic pollutants generated by the pre-treatment of lignocellulose resources.

16.
Appl Opt ; 59(28): 8628-8637, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104544

RESUMO

Poor visual quality of color retinal images greatly interferes with the analysis and diagnosis of the ophthalmologist. In this paper, we propose an enhancement method for low-quality color retinal images based on the combination of the Retinex-based enhancement method and the contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) algorithm. More specifically, we first estimate the illumination map of the entire image by constructing a Retinex-based variational model. Then, we restore the reflectance map by removing the illumination modified by Gamma correction and directly enable the reflectance as the initial enhancement. To further enhance the clarity and contrast of blood vessels while avoiding color distortion, we apply CLAHE on the luminance channel in CIELUV color space. We collect 60 low-quality color retinal images as our test dataset to verify the reliability of our proposed method. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to the other three related methods, both in terms of visual analysis and quantitative evaluation while testing on our dataset. Additionally, we apply the proposed method to four publicly available datasets, and the results show that our methods may be helpful for the detection and analysis of retinopathy.

17.
Appl Opt ; 59(30): 9558-9567, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104677

RESUMO

In this paper, an optical single-channel asymmetric cryptosystem based on the inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) and chaotic standard map for multi-image in cyan-magenta-yellow-black (CMYK) mode is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the color image in CMYK format is encoded into a real-valued two-dimensional (2D) format by the IDWT; thus, our scheme can be implemented in a single-channel step. In addition, we propose to generate the random phase mask based on the chaotic standard map. Due to the large key space and high efficiency of the chaotic standard map, the security level of the proposed scheme can be improved. The chaotic standard map is employed to generate the chaotic standard phase mask (CSPM). Then the encoded 2D image can be encrypted in the linear canonical transform domain based on the CSPM. Numerical simulation results are shown to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our cryptosystem. In addition, our approach outperforms other relevant cryptosystems and can be extended to encrypt multiple color images directly.

18.
Appl Opt ; 59(30): 9598-9606, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104682

RESUMO

The fringe skeleton method is the most straightforward method to estimate phase terms in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). It usually needs to binarize the fringe patterns. However, the massive inherent speckle noise and intensity inhomogeneity in ESPI fringe patterns make it difficult to binarize the ESPI fringe patterns. In this paper, we propose a binarization method for ESPI fringe patterns based on a modified M-net convolutional neural network. Our method regards the binarization of fringe patterns as a segmentation problem. The M-net is an excellent network for segmentation and has proven to be a useful tool for skeleton extraction in our previous work. Here we further modify the structure of the previous network a bit to suit our task. We train the network by pairs of ESPI fringe patterns and corresponding binary images. After training, we test our method on 20 computer-simulated and three groups of experimentally obtained ESPI fringe patterns. The results show that even for fringe patterns with high noise and intensity inhomogeneity, our method can obtain good binarization results without image preprocessing. We also compare the modified M-net with a classic segmentation network, the U-net, and a residual encoder-decoder network (RED-net). The RED-net was used for binarization of document images. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of our method.

19.
Sci Adv ; 6(44)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127686

RESUMO

Efficient single-cell assignment without prior marker gene annotations is essential for single-cell sequencing data analysis. Current methods, however, have limited effectiveness for distinct single-cell assignment. They failed to achieve a well-generalized performance in different tasks because of the inherent heterogeneity of different single-cell sequencing datasets and different single-cell types. Furthermore, current methods are inefficient to identify novel cell types that are absent in the reference datasets. To this end, we present scLearn, a learning-based framework that automatically infers quantitative measurement/similarity and threshold that can be used for different single-cell assignment tasks, achieving a well-generalized assignment performance on different single-cell types. We evaluated scLearn on a comprehensive set of publicly available benchmark datasets. We proved that scLearn outperformed the comparable existing methods for single-cell assignment from various aspects, demonstrating state-of-the-art effectiveness with a reliable and generalized single-cell type identification and categorizing ability.

20.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 21(11): 1451-1466, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954659

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) play a fundamental role in plant-fungal interactions. How pathogenic fungi manipulate plant-derived ROS/RNS is of importance to the outcomes of these interactions. In this study, we explored the individual and combined contributions of three transcription factors, VdAtf1, VdYap1, and VdSkn7, in the response to ROS/RNS, microsclerotia formation, and virulence in the plant wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae. We showed that VdYap1 is essential for ROS response. Additionally, mutants lacking any combination of the three genes shared significant hypersensitivity to nitro-oxidative stress like sodium nitroprusside dehydrate and double deletions lacking VdYap1 and VdAtf1 resulted in further increased sensitivity to ROS. Double deletion of VdAtf1 and VdSkn7 reduced melanin production and virulence while simultaneous lack of VdSkn7 and VdYap1 disrupted nitrogen metabolism and ROS resistance. Finally, comparison of transcriptional profiles of the respective single or double mutants in response to nitro-oxidative stress revealed that the three transcription factors are involved in denitrification of nitrated alkanes and lipids to protect against nitro-oxidative stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate convergent and distinctive functions of VdYap1, VdAtf1, and VdSkn7 in V. dahliae, and provide new data on their roles in response to ROS/RNS in fungi.

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