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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 1): 588-599, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411830

RESUMO

Selective oxidation of alcohols is an essential reaction for fine chemical production. Here, the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals was investigated to clarify the mechanism of selective oxidation with this process. Reactivity when in contact with three distinct ZnO nanocrystal shapes: nanocones, nanorods and nanoplates, was studied in order to compare crystal facet-specific effects in the reaction system. The same non-hydrothermal and non-hydrolytic aminolysis method was used to synthesise all three nanocrystal shapes. The ZnO catalysts were characterized using by a range of techniques to establish the key properties of the prominent ZnO crystal facets exposed to the reaction medium. The ZnO nanocrystals photocatalysed the benzyl alcohol oxidation reaction when irradiated by a 370 - 375 nm LED output and each ZnO crystal morphology exhibited different reaction kinetics for the oxidation reaction. ZnO nanocones displayed the highest benzyl alcohol conversion rate while nanorods gave the lowest. This established a facet-dependent kinetic activity for the benzyl alcohol reaction of (101¯1) > (0001) > (101¯0). Experimental and density functional theory computation results confirm that the {101¯1} facet is a surface that exposes undercoordinated O atoms to the reaction medium, which explains why the reactant benzyl alcohol adsorption on this facet is the highest. Light irradiation can excite valence band electrons to the conduction band, which are then captured by O2 molecules to yield superoxide (O2•-). In a non-aqueous solvent, the photogenerated holes oxidise benzyl alcohol to form a radical species, which reacts with O2•- to yield benzaldehyde. This results in 100% product selectivity for benzaldehyde, rather than the carboxylic acid derivative.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Nanotubos , Óxido de Zinco , Catálise , Oxirredução
2.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829861

RESUMO

In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) with hydroxyapatite (HA), with the incorporation of physical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), was created and equipped through a surface coating technique in order to form PEG-HA-AuNP nanocomposites. The surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle assessment. The effects of PEG-HA-AuNP nanocomposites on the biocompatibility and biological activity of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells, endothelial cells (EC), macrophages (RAW 264.7), and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as well as the guiding of osteogenic differentiation, were estimated through the use of an in vitro assay. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory, biocompatibility, and endothelialization capacities were further assessed through in vivo evaluation. The PEG-HA-AuNP nanocomposites showed superior biological properties and biocompatibility capacity for cell behavior in both MC3T3-E1 cells and MSCs. These biological events surrounding the cells could be associated with the activation of adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation processes on the PEG-HA-AuNP nanocomposites. Indeed, the induction of the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by PEG-HA-AuNP nanocomposites and enhanced mineralization activity were also evidenced in this study. Moreover, from the in vivo assay, we further found that PEG-HA-AuNP nanocomposites not only facilitate the anti-immune response, as well as reducing CD86 expression, but also facilitate the endothelialization ability, as well as promoting CD31 expression, when implanted into rats subcutaneously for a period of 1 month. The current research illustrates the potential of PEG-HA-AuNP nanocomposites when used in combination with MSCs for the regeneration of bone tissue, with their nanotopography being employed as an applicable surface modification approach for the fabrication of biomaterials.

3.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831077

RESUMO

A nanocomposite composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) incorporated with various concentrations (~17.4, ~43.5, ~174 ppm) of gold nanoparticles (Au) was created to investigate its biocompatibility and biological performance in vitro and in vivo. First, surface topography and chemical composition was determined through UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), free radical scavenging ability, and water contact angle measurement. Additionally, the diameters of the PEG-Au nanocomposites were also evaluated through dynamic light scattering (DLS) assay. According to the results, PEG containing 43.5 ppm of Au demonstrated superior biocompatibility and biological properties for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as well as superior osteogenic differentiation, adipocyte differentiation, and, particularly, neuronal differentiation. Indeed, PEG-Au 43.5 ppm induced better cell adhesion, proliferation and migration in MSCs. The higher expression of the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis may be associated with MMPs activation and may have also promoted the differentiation capacity of MSCs. Moreover, it also prevented MSCs from apoptosis and inhibited macrophage and platelet activation, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory, biocompatibility, and endothelialization capacity of PEG-Au was measured in a rat model. After implanting the nanocomposites into rats subcutaneously for 4 weeks, PEG-Au 43.5 ppm was able to enhance the anti-immune response through inhibiting CD86 expression (M1 polarization), while also reducing leukocyte infiltration (CD45). Moreover, PEG-Au 43.5 ppm facilitated CD31 expression and anti-fibrosis ability. Above all, the PEG-Au nanocomposite was evidenced to strengthen the differentiation of MSCs into various cells, including fat, vessel, and bone tissue and, particularly, nerve cells. This research has elucidated that PEG combined with the appropriate amount of Au nanoparticles could become a potential biomaterial able to cooperate with MSCs for tissue regeneration engineering.

4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 2): 1162-1172, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735852

RESUMO

Increasing the electrochemical stability window and working temperature range of supercapacitor aqueous electrolyte is the major task in order to advance aqueous electrolyte-based supercapacitors. Here, a supramolecular induced new electrolyte of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water co-solvent system is proposed. Adjusting the coordination structure among LiTFSI, DMSO, and water in the electrolyte via supramolecular interactions results in its high ionic conductivity, low viscosity, wide electrochemical stability window, and large working temperature range. The new electrolyte-based supercapacitors can work in 2.40 V working potential and 130 °C working-temperature range from -40 to 90 °C. The devices exhibit good electrochemical performances, especially the energy density over 21 Wh kg-1, which is much higher than that with traditional aqueous electrolytes (<10 Wh kg-1). The work paves a way to develop high-performance aqueous electrolytes for supercapacitors.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(21): 24290-24312, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740995

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease with high morbidity and mortality, is a serious threat to public health. Previously we demonstrated that a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, Jiedu Tongluo Tiaogan Formula (JDTL), exerted a favorable hypoglycemic effect due to unknown molecular mechanisms involving interactions among JDTL compounds and various cellular components. This study aimed to explore JDTL mechanisms for alleviating hyperglycemia using an integrated strategy incorporating system pharmacology, bioinformatics analysis, and experimental verification. This strategy entailed initial elucidation of JDTL chemical composition using fingerprint analysis via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Next, functions of putative shared target genes and associated pathways were deduced using GO and KEGG pathway enrichment and molecular docking analyses. Ultimately, targets associated with JTDL anti-T2DM effects were found to be functionally associated with biological functions related to lipopolysaccharide and cytokine receptor binding. These results implicated PI3K-Akt signaling pathway involvement in JDTL anti-T2DM effects, as this pathway had been previously shown to play significant roles in glucose and lipid metabolism-related diseases. Furthermore, addition of JDTL to INS-1 and HepG2 cell cultures stimulated cellular mRNA-level and protein-level expression leading to enhanced production of IRS1, Akt, and PI3K. In summary, here JDTL bioactive ingredients, potential targets, and molecular mechanisms underlying JDTL anti-T2DM effects were identified using a multi-component, multi-target, and multi-channel analytical approach, thus providing an important scientific foundation to facilitate development of new drugs mechanistic strategies for preventing and treating T2DM.

6.
Bioorg Chem ; : 105494, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836643

RESUMO

Both HIV and DENV are serious threats to human life, health and social economy today. So far, no vaccine for either HIV or DENV has been developed successfully. The research on anti-HIV or DENV drugs is still of great significance. In this study we developed a series of novel 2-Aryl-1H-pyrazole-S-DABOs with C6-strucutral optimizations as potent NNRTIs, among which, 8 compounds had low cytotoxicity and EC50 values in the range of 0.0508 âˆ¼ 0.0966 µM, and their selectivity index was SI > 1415 âˆ¼ 3940. In particular, two compounds 4a and 4b were identified to have good inhibitory effects on DENV of four serotypes. The EC50 of compound 4a and 4b against DENV-II (13.2 µM and 9.23 µM, respectively) were better than that of the positive control ribavirin (EC50 = 40.78 µM). In addition, the effect of C-6 substituents on the anti-HIV or anti-DENV activity of these compounds was also discussed.

7.
Gut ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mostly a family-based infectious disease. To facilitate its prevention and management, a national consensus meeting was held to review current evidence and propose strategies for population-wide and family-based H. pylori infection control and management to reduce the related disease burden. METHODS: Fifty-seven experts from 41 major universities and institutions in 20 provinces/regions of mainland China were invited to review evidence and modify statements using Delphi process and grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system. The consensus level was defined as ≥80% for agreement on the proposed statements. RESULTS: Experts discussed and modified the original 23 statements on family-based H. pylori infection transmission, control and management, and reached consensus on 16 statements. The final report consists of three parts: (1) H. pylori infection and transmission among family members, (2) prevention and management of H. pylori infection in children and elderly people within households, and (3) strategies for prevention and management of H. pylori infection for family members. In addition to the 'test-and-treat' and 'screen-and-treat' strategies, this consensus also introduced a novel third 'family-based H. pylori infection control and management' strategy to prevent its intrafamilial transmission and development of related diseases. CONCLUSION: H. pylori is transmissible from person to person, and among family members. A family-based H. pylori prevention and eradication strategy would be a suitable approach to prevent its intra-familial transmission and related diseases. The notion and practice would be beneficial not only for Chinese residents but also valuable as a reference for other highly infected areas.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771481

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were fabricated with biocompatible collagen (Col) and then conjugated with berberine (BB), denoted as Au-Col-BB, to investigate the endocytic mechanisms in Her-2 breast cancer cell line and in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Owing to the superior biocompatibility, tunable physicochemical properties, and potential functionalization with biomolecules, AuNPs have been well studied as carriers of biomolecules for diseases and cancer therapeutics. Composites of AuNPs with biopolymer, such as fibronectin or Col, have been revealed to increase cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. BB is a natural compound with impressive health benefits, such as lowering blood sugar and reducing weight. In addition, BB can inhibit cell proliferation by modulating cell cycle progress and autophagy, and induce cell apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. In the current research, BB was conjugated on the Col-AuNP composite ("Au-Col"). The UV-Visible spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy confirmed the conjugation of BB on Au-Col. The particle size of the Au-Col-BB conjugate was about 227 nm, determined by dynamic light scattering. Furthermore, Au-Col-BB was less cytotoxic to BAEC vs. Her-2 cell line in terms of MTT assay and cell cycle behavior. Au-Col-BB, compared to Au-Col, showed greater cell uptake capacity and potential cellular transportation by BAEC and Her-2 using the fluorescence-conjugated Au-Col-BB. In addition, the clathrin-mediated endocytosis and cell autophagy seemed to be the favorite endocytic mechanism for the internalization of Au-Col-BB by BAEC and Her-2. Au-Col-BB significantly inhibited cell migration in Her-2, but not in BAEC. Moreover, apoptotic cascade proteins, such as Bax and p21, were expressed in Her-2 after the treatment of Au-Col-BB. The tumor suppression was examined in a model of xenograft mice treated with Au-Col-BB nanovehicles. Results demonstrated that the tumor weight was remarkably reduced by the treatment of Au-Col-BB. Altogether, the promising findings of Au-Col-BB nanocarrier on Her-2 breast cancer cell line suggest that Au-Col-BB may be a good candidate of anticancer drug for the treatment of human breast cancer.

9.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 139: 103674, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737063

RESUMO

Deformed wing virus (DWV) infection is believed to be closely associated with colony losses of honeybee (Apis mellifera) due to reduced learning and memory of infected bees. The adenosine (Ado) pathway is important for maintaining immunity and memory function in animals, and it enhances antivirus responses by regulating carbohydrate metabolism in insects. Nevertheless, its effect on the memory of invertebrates is not yet clear. This study investigated how the Ado pathway regulates energy metabolism and memory in honeybees following DWV infection. Decreased Ado receptor (Ado-R) expression in the brain of infected bees resulted in a carbohydrate imbalance as well as impairments of glutamate-glutamine (Glu-Gln) cycle and long-term memory. Dietary supplementation with Ado not only increased the brain energy metabolism but also rescued long-term memory loss by upregulating the expression of memory-related genes. The present study demonstrated the regulation of the Ado pathway upon DWV infection and provides insights into the mechanisms underlying energy regulation and the neurological function of honeybees.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806810

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important endogenous gasotransmitter, but the targeted delivery and real-time feedback of exogenous H2S are still challenging. With the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we designed a new 1,3-dithiolium-4-olate (DTO) compound, which can react with a strained alkyne via the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and the retro-Diels-Alder reaction to generate carbonyl sulfide (COS) as the precursor of H2S, and a thiophene derivative with turn-on fluorescence. Moreover, the diphenylamino substituent in DTO greatly increases the mitochondrial targeting of this H2S delivery system. Such a bioorthogonal click-and-release reaction has integrated three functions in one system for the first time: (1) in-situ controllable H2S release, (2) concomitant fluorescence response, and (3) mitochondria-targeted delivery. In addition, we investigated the mitochondrial membrane potential loss alleviation by using this system in H9c2 cells under oxidative stress.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e2105276, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738668

RESUMO

Electrochemical sensors for detecting micromolecule organics are desirable for improving the perception of environmental quality and human health. However, currently, the electrochemical sensors for formaldehyde are substantially limited on the market due to the long-term unsolved problems of the low electrooxidation efficiency and CO poisoning issue of commercial Pd catalysts. Here, a 2D Cr-doped Pd metallene (Cr-Pdene) with few atomic layers is shown as an advanced catalyst for ultrasensitive and selective sensing of formaldehyde via a highly efficient formaldehyde electrooxidation. It is found that the doping of Cr into Pd metallene can efficiently optimize the electronic structure of Pd and weaken the interaction between Pd and CO, providing an anti-poisoning means to favor CO2 production and suppress CO adsorption. The Cr-Pdene-based electrochemical sensor exhibits one order of magnitude higher detection range and, especially, much higher anti-interference for formaldehyde than that of the conventional sensors. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that the Cr-Pdene can be integrated into commercializable wireless sensor networks or handheld instruments for promising applications relating to the environment, health, and food.

12.
iScience ; 24(10): 103056, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755080

RESUMO

Impairment in the learning/memory behavior of bees is responsible for the massive disappearance of bee populations and its consequent agricultural economic losses. Such impairment might be because of o both pesticide exposure and pathogen infection, with a key contributor deformed wing virus (DWV). The present study found that sodium butyrate (NaB) significantly increased survival and reversed the learning/memory impairment of DWV-infected bees. A next-generation sequencing analysis showed that NaB affected the expression of genes involved in glycolytic processes and memory formation, which were suppressed by DWV infection. In addition, we performed a large-scale movement tracking experiment by using a wireless sensor network-based automatic real-time monitoring system and confirmed that NaB could improve the homing ability of DWV-infected bees. In short, we demonstrated the mechanism of how epigenetic regulation can resume the memory function of honeybees and suggest strategies for applying NaB to reduce the incidence of colony losses.

13.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 856, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols were rapidly adopted in many surgeries such as fast-track arthroplasty. The study aimed to investigate the impact of ERAS protocols on the clinical effect of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) via the midvastus approach. METHODS: A total of 69 patients who underwent primary unilateral TKA via the midvastus approach from October 2018 to June 2019 were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: ERAS group and Control group. The ERAS protocols were adopted for the ERAS group and consisted of pure juice drinking 2 h before the surgery, optimization of the preoperative anesthesia plan, phased use of tourniquets, and the use of tranexamic acid as well as a drug cocktail. The operative time, first postoperative walking time, first straight leg elevation time, postoperative hospitalization time, visual analogue scale score (VAS score), Hospital for Special Surgery score (HSS score), conventional Knee Society score (KSS), and knee range of motion (ROM) were used to assess the clinical effects in the two groups. All the included patients were followed up for 12 months. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the basic demographic information and operation time between the ERAS and Control groups (P > 0.05). The first postoperative walking time (2.11 ± 0.11 h) and first postoperative straight leg elevation time (6.14 ± 1.73 h) in the ERAS group were significantly earlier than those in the Control group (P < 0.001) and the postoperative hospitalization time was significantly shorter (3.11 ± 0.32 days). The postoperative mean VAS scores in both groups were significantly reduced compared with those before surgery (P < 0.001). The VAS scores for the ERAS group were significantly lower than those for the Control group at 1, 2, and 7 days after surgery (P < 0.001). The mean HSS scores, KSS, and knee ROM were significantly increased in both the ERAS and Control groups at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery (P < 0.001). In addition, the HSS scores, KSS, and knee ROM in the ERAS group were significantly higher than those in the Control group at 1 month after surgery (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ERAS protocols improved the clinical effects of TKA via the midvastus approach, facilitating early out-of-bed activity and comfortable postoperative rehabilitation exercise, and further increasing patient satisfaction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04873544 .


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Torniquetes
14.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(5): 747-752, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Dajizhi (Euphorbium) on selenite-induced cataracts. METHODS: Wistar rat pups were divided into 9 groups. Rats in group 1 were subcutaneously injected with saline, and rats in the other groups were injected with sodium-selenite. Every right eye was treated with 5 µL eye drops 3 times per day, and the left eye received no treatment. The eyes of rats in group 3 were treated with pirenoxine; rats in groups 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were respectively treated with Dajizhi (Euphorbium) (25 mg/mL), Dajizhi (Euphorbium) (5 mg/mL), Dajizhi (Euphorbium) methanol extract (25 mg/mL), Dajizhi (Euphorbium) methanol extract (5 mg/mL), euphol (25 mg/mL), euphol (5 mg/mL). Cataracts were observed by a slit lamp before and after treatment. Electroretinograms were acquired at set intervals. The morphological changes of the rat eyes were observed in vitro, and the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the lenses and aqueous humour were estimated at set intervals. RESULTS: Slit lamp examination showed decreased degrees of cataracts after administration of the different treatments. Morphological comparison showed that Dajizhi (Euphorbium) can reduce the turbidity of the lenses, meaning that Dajizhi (Euphorbium) has the anti-cataract effects. Low-concentration of Dajizhi (Euphorbium), its methanol extract and euphol treatment prevented the b-wave amplitudes of the electroretinograms from falling. Euphorbium treatment significantly restored GSH-Px and SOD levels in the lenses and aqueous humour, especially after 10 and 25 d of administration. Euphorbium may help lenses fight oxidative stress caused by selenite. CONCLUSION: The administration of Dajizhi (Euphorbium) can inhibit selenite-induced cataracts.

15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105105, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619392

RESUMO

In this study, a total of 143 fecal samples (107 diarrheic and 36 non-diarrheic) were collected from 11 goat farms in southwest China, and 3.7% of diarrheic and 8.3% of non-diarrheic samples were detected as astrovirus-positive by RT-PCR. A nearly complete astrovirus genomic sequence (SWUN/F4/2019) of 6278 nucleotides (nt), which contained a 6186 bp open reading frame, was successfully obtained. The genome of strain SWUN/F4/2019 shared the highest nt identity (77.0%) and the closest genetic relationship with CapAstV-G5.1. It is worth noting that in the nonstructural protein 1ab, strain SWUN/F4/2019 shared the highest amino acid (aa) identity (93.8%) with strain CapAstV-G5.1; however, its capsid protein shared the highest aa identity (72.7%) with the Sichuan takin astrovirus strain LLT03 and only shared 23.1-64.8% aa identities with all available ovine and caprine astrovirus strains. Interestingly, a region recombination event was predicted in the ORF2 gene of strain SWUN/F4/2019, with CapAstV-G5.1 as the putative major parental strain and CcAstV/roe_deer/SLO/D5-14/2014 as the possible minor parental strain. According to the species classification criteria of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), SWUN/F4/2019 may represent a novel astrovirus in goats. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of astrovirus in goats in China and a novel astrovirus strain was identified in goats. These findings increase the understanding of the epidemic and the genetic evolution of astroviruses.

16.
Toxicology ; 463: 152967, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619302

RESUMO

Blister agents damage the skin, eyes, mucous membranes and subcutaneous tissues. Other toxic effects may occur after absorption. The response of the Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to a request from the OPCW Director-General in 2013 on the status of medical countermeasures and treatments to blister agents is updated through the incorporation of the latest information. The physical and toxicological properties of sulfur mustard and clinical effects and treatments are summarised. The information should assist medics and emergency responders who may be unfamiliar with the toxidrome of sulfur mustard and its treatment.

17.
Small ; 17(45): e2104557, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643326

RESUMO

MnO2 -based material is one of the most promising cathode candidates of aqueous zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), but its commercialization is hindered by the sluggish reaction kinetics and poor structural stability. Herein, a hierarchical framework consisting of core-shell structured carbon nanotubes@K-birnessite-MnO2 enwrapped by graphene/carbon black bicomponent networks (CNT@KMO@GC) via a simple method for ZIBs is designed and developed. The hierarchical framework characterized with favorable K+ preintercalation, δ-phase, and vertically aligned nanoflake arrays of KMO and 3D electrically conductive network shows the enhanced electronic/ionic conductivity and improved wettability with electrolyte, resulting in the fast charge/mass transport and stable structural stability of CNT@KMO@GC. When used as cathode in ZIBs, CNT@KMO@GC exhibits exciting electrochemical performance with remarkable capacity (405.5 mAh g-1 at 0.30 A g-1 ), high rate performance (166.6 mAh g-1 up to 10.0 A g-1 ), and impressive cycling stability (almost no capacity decay after 2000 cycles and 77.3% retention after 10 000 cycles at 10.0 A g-1 ). The energy storage mechanism of CNT@KMO@GC is clarified as H+ /Zn2+ coinsertion/extraction via electrochemical analysis and ex situ characterization. This study offers an innovative paradigm for the advance of ZIBs.

18.
Cancer Invest ; : 1-8, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of additional S-1 chemotherapy to S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) regimen chemotherapy for Stage III gastric carcinoma (GC) after radical resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 161 patients who were pathologically diagnosed as Stage III GC after D2 gastrectomy and received SOX regimen adjuvant chemotherapy between January 2012 and April 2016 were included in this retrospective study. SOX regimen postoperative chemotherapy was composed of Oxaliplatin and S-1, administrated every 3 weeks for 8 scheduled courses. After SOX chemotherapy, 76 patients preferred additional chemotherapy with S-1 (the ACT group), while additional S-1 chemotherapy was not given to the other 85 patients (control group). The ACT with S-1 was administrated every 3 weeks for 8 scheduled courses. Treatment was terminated in case of life-threatening adverse events or tumor progression, or patients' demand for termination. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events were analyzed. RESULTS: ACT group obtained markedly improved 3-year PFS [p = 0.04; hazard ratio (HR) for disease progression, 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.98] and OS than the control group (p = 0.0469; HR for death, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.32-0.99). No chemotherapy-related mortality occurred. Patients of the ACT group suffered more common and severer hand-foot syndrome (HFS) (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Additional S-1 chemotherapy may be helpful for improving the disease progression and survival for patients with Stage III GC after radical resection with an acceptable safety profile.

19.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697882

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate HbA1c and body weight changes when semaglutide 0.5- or 1.0-mg once-weekly (QW) is switched to dulaglutide 3.0- or 4.5-mg QW via exposure-response modelling. METHODS: HbA1c and body weight time-course models were developed and validated with data from the SUSTAIN 1 to 10 trials for semaglutide and the AWARD-11 trial for dulaglutide. Simulations were conducted for HbA1c and body weight over 52 weeks. In the initial 26 weeks, semaglutide was initiated at 0.25-mg and titrated to 0.5- or 1.0-mg QW via 4-weekly stepwise titration, followed by 26 weeks of dulaglutide initiated at 0.75- or 1.5-mg QW and escalated to 3.0- or 4.5-mg QW via 4-weekly stepwise titration. RESULTS: At 26 weeks, model-predicted mean changes from baseline in HbA1c and weight for semaglutide 0.5 mg were up to -1.55% and -3.44 kg, respectively. After switching to dulaglutide 3.0 mg, further reductions were 0.19% and 1.40 kg, respectively, at 52 weeks. Predicted mean HbA1c and weight changes for semaglutide 1.0 mg at 26 weeks were -1.84% and -4.96 kg, respectively; after switching to dulaglutide 4.5 mg, HbA1c was maintained with additional weight reduction of up to 0.57 kg at 52 weeks. Glycaemic control was preserved when switching from semaglutide 1.0 mg to dulaglutide 3.0 mg. CONCLUSION: Switching from semaglutide 0.5 mg to dulaglutide 3.0 or 4.5 mg with dose escalation potentially yields additional HbA1c and weight reductions; switching from semaglutide 1.0 mg to dulaglutide 4.5 mg may enhance weight loss.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Electronic health records (EHR) are commonly used for the identification of novel risk factors for disease, often referred to as an association study. A major challenge to EHR-based association studies is phenotyping error in EHR-derived outcomes. A manual chart review of phenotypes is necessary for unbiased evaluation of risk factor associations. However, this process is time-consuming and expensive. The objective of this paper is to develop an outcome-dependent sampling approach for designing manual chart review, where EHR-derived phenotypes can be used to guide the selection of charts to be reviewed in order to maximize statistical efficiency in the subsequent estimation of risk factor associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After applying outcome-dependent sampling, an augmented estimator can be constructed by optimally combining the chart-reviewed phenotypes from the selected patients with the error-prone EHR-derived phenotype. We conducted simulation studies to evaluate the proposed method and applied our method to data on colon cancer recurrence in a cohort of patients treated for a primary colon cancer in the Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPW) healthcare system. RESULTS: Simulations verify the coverage probability of the proposed method and show that, when disease prevalence is less than 30%, the proposed method has smaller variance than an existing method where the validation set for chart review is uniformly sampled. In addition, from design perspective, the proposed method is able to achieve the same statistical power with 50% fewer charts to be validated than the uniform sampling method, thus, leading to a substantial efficiency gain in chart review. These findings were also confirmed by the application of the competing methods to the KPW colon cancer data. DISCUSSION: Our simulation studies and analysis of data from KPW demonstrate that, compared to an existing uniform sampling method, the proposed outcome-dependent method can lead to a more efficient chart review sampling design and unbiased association estimates with higher statistical efficiency. CONCLUSION: The proposed method not only optimally combines phenotypes from chart review with EHR-derived phenotypes but also suggests an efficient design for conducting chart review, with the goal of improving the efficiency of estimated risk factor associations using EHR data.

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