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1.
Inorg Chem ; 60(15): 11014-11024, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242021

RESUMO

We present three new hybrid copper(II) chloride layered perovskites of generic composition ACuCl4 or A2CuCl4, which exhibit three distinct structure types. (m-PdH2)CuCl4 (m-PdH22+ = protonated m-phenylenediamine) adopts a Dion-Jacobson (DJ)-like layered perovskite structure type and exhibits a very large axial thermal contraction effect upon heating, as revealed via variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXRD). This can be attributed to the contraction of an interlayer block, via a slight repositioning of the m-PdH22+ moiety. (3-AbaH)2CuCl4 (3-AbaH+ = protonated 3-aminobenzoic acid) and (4-AbaH)2CuCl4 (4-AbaH+ = protonated 4-aminobenzoic acid) possess the same generic formula as Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) layered perovskites, A2BX4, but adopt different structures. (4-AbaH)2CuCl4 adopts a near-staggered structure type, whereas (3-AbaH)2CuCl4 adopts a near-eclipsed structure type, which resembles the DJ rather than the RP family. (3-AbaH)2CuCl4 also displays static disorder of the [CuCl4]∞ layers. The crystal structures of each are discussed in terms of the differing nature of the templating molecular species, and these are compared to related layered perovskites. Preliminary magnetic measurements are reported, suggesting dominant ferromagnetic interactions.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(23): 8761-8771, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076425

RESUMO

There has been a long debate on how and where active sites are created for molecular adsorption and catalysis in zeolites, which underpin many important industrial applications. It is well accepted that Lewis acidic sites (LASs) and basic sites (LBSs) as active sites in pristine zeolites are generally believed to be the extra-framework Al species and residue anion (OH-) species formed at fixed crystallographic positions after their synthesis. However, the dynamic interactions of adsorbates/reactants with pristine zeotype materials to "create" sites during real conditions remain largely unexplored. Herein, direct experimental observation of the establishment of induced active sites in silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) by an adsorbate is for the first time made, which contradicts the traditional view of the fixed active sites in zeotype materials. Evidence shows that an induced frustrated Lewis pair (FLP, three-coordinated framework Al as LAS and SiO (H) as LBS) can be transiently favored for heterolytic molecular binding/reactions of competitive polar adsorbates due to their ineffective orbital overlap in the rigid framework. High-resolution magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, and ab initio molecular dynamics demonstrate the transformation of a typical Brønsted acid site (Al(OH)Si) in SAPO zeolites to new induced FLP structure for hetereolytic binding upon adsorption of a strong polar adsorbate. Our unprecedented finding opens up a new avenue to understanding the dynamic establishment of active sites for adsorption or chemical reactions under molecular bombardment of zeolitic structures.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3583, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117225

RESUMO

Construction of C-C bonds via reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones is hindered by the highly negative reduction potential of these carbonyl substrates, particularly ketones, and this renders the formation of ketyl radicals extremely endergonic. Here, we report the efficient activation of carbonyl compounds by the formation of specific host-guest interactions in a hydroxyl-decorated porous photocatalyst. MFM-300(Cr) exhibits a band gap of 1.75 eV and shows excellent catalytic activity and stability towards the photoreductive coupling of 30 different aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding 1,2-diols at room temperature. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy confirm the generation of ketyl radicals via confinement within MFM-300(Cr). This protocol removes simultaneously the need for a precious metal-based photocatalyst or for amine-based sacrificial agents for the photochemical synthesis.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(28): 15243-15247, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848040

RESUMO

Selective oxidation of benzylic C-H compounds to ketones is important for the production of a wide range of fine chemicals, and is often achieved using toxic or precious metal catalysts. Herein, we report the efficient oxidation of benzylic C-H groups in a broad range of substrates under mild conditions over a robust metal-organic framework material, MFM-170, incorporating redox-active [Cu2 II (O2 CR)4 ] paddlewheel nodes. A comprehensive investigation employing electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction has identified the critical role of the paddlewheel moiety in activating the oxidant t BuOOH (tert-butyl hydroperoxide) via partial reduction to [CuII CuI (O2 CR)4 ] species.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(26): 14420-14428, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729669

RESUMO

Electronic metal-support interactions (EMSI) describe the electron flow between metal sites and a metal oxide support. It is generally used to follow the mechanism of redox reactions. In this study of CuO-CeO2 redox, an additional flow of electrons from metallic Cu to surface carbon species is observed via a combination of operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, near ambient pressure near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. An electronic metal-support-carbon interaction (EMSCI) is proposed to explain the reaction pathway of CO oxidation. The EMSCI provides a complete picture of the mass and electron flow, which will help predict and improve the catalytic performance in the selective activation of CO2 , carbonate, or carbonyl species in C1 chemistry.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 822, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547288

RESUMO

Optimising the balance between propene selectivity, propene/ethene ratio and catalytic stability and unravelling the explicit mechanism on formation of the first carbon-carbon bond are challenging goals of great importance in state-of-the-art methanol-to-olefin (MTO) research. We report a strategy to finely control the nature of active sites within the pores of commercial MFI-zeolites by incorporating tantalum(V) and aluminium(III) centres into the framework. The resultant TaAlS-1 zeolite exhibits simultaneously remarkable propene selectivity (51%), propene/ethene ratio (8.3) and catalytic stability (>50 h) at full methanol conversion. In situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and inelastic neutron scattering coupled with DFT calculations reveal that the first carbon-carbon bond is formed between an activated methanol molecule and a trimethyloxonium intermediate. The unprecedented cooperativity between tantalum(V) and Brønsted acid sites creates an optimal microenvironment for efficient conversion of methanol and thus greatly promotes the application of zeolites in the sustainable manufacturing of light olefins.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(8): 3205-3218, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596070

RESUMO

Understanding structural responses of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to external stimuli such as the inclusion of guest molecules and temperature/pressure has gained increasing attention in many applications, for example, manipulation and manifesto smart materials for gas storage, energy storage, controlled drug delivery, tunable mechanical properties, and molecular sensing, to name but a few. Herein, neutron and synchrotron diffractions along with Rietveld refinement and density functional theory calculations have been used to elucidate the responsive adsorption behaviors of defect-rich Zr-based MOFs upon the progressive incorporation of ammonia (NH3) and variable temperature. UiO-67 and UiO-bpydc containing biphenyl dicarboxylate and bipyridine dicarboxylate linkers, respectively, were selected, and the results establish the paramount influence of the functional linkers on their NH3 affinity, which leads to stimulus-tailoring properties such as gate-controlled porosity by dynamic linker flipping, disorder, and structural rigidity. Despite their structural similarities, we show for the first time the dramatic alteration of NH3 adsorption profiles when the phenyl groups are replaced by the bipyridine in the organic linker. These molecular controls stem from controlling the degree of H-bonding networks/distortions between the bipyridine scaffold and the adsorbed NH3 without significant change in pore volume and unit cell parameters. Temperature-dependent neutron diffraction also reveals the NH3-induced rotational motions of the organic linkers. We also demonstrate that the degree of structural flexibility of the functional linkers can critically be affected by the type and quantity of the small guest molecules. This strikes a delicate control in material properties at the molecular level.

8.
Nat Mater ; 20(1): 84-92, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839589

RESUMO

Ni-rich layered cathode materials are among the most promising candidates for high-energy-density Li-ion batteries, yet their degradation mechanisms are still poorly understood. We report a structure-driven degradation mechanism for NMC811 (LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2), in which a proportion of the material exhibits a lowered accessible state of charge at the end of charging after repetitive cycling and becomes fatigued. Operando synchrotron long-duration X-ray diffraction enabled by a laser-thinned coin cell shows the emergence and growth in the concentration of this fatigued phase with cycle number. This degradation is structure driven and is not solely due to kinetic limitations or intergranular cracking: no bulk phase transformations, no increase in Li/Ni antisite mixing and no notable changes in the local structure or Li-ion mobility of the bulk are seen in aged NMCs. Instead, we propose that this degradation stems from the high interfacial lattice strain between the reconstructed surface and the bulk layered structure that develops when the latter is at states of charge above a distinct threshold of approximately 75%. This mechanism is expected to be universal in Ni-rich layered cathodes. Our findings provide fundamental insights into strategies to help mitigate this degradation process.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(1): 65-68, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295355

RESUMO

MFM-722(Pb)-DMA undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformation to give MFM-722(Pb)-H2O via ligand substitution upon exposure to water vapour. In situ single crystal impedance spectroscopy reveals an increase in proton conductivity due to this structural transition, with MFM-722(Pb)-H2O showing a proton conductivity of 6.61 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 50 °C and 98% RH. The low activation energy (Ea = 0.21 eV) indicates that the proton conduction follows a Grotthuss mechanism.

10.
Nanoscale ; 12(45): 23206-23212, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201980

RESUMO

We investigate the geometric and electronic properties of single-atom catalysts (SACs) within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with respect to electrocatalytic CO2 reduction as a model reaction. A series of mid-to-late 3d transition metals have been immobilised within the microporous cavity of UiO-66-NH2. By employing Rietveld refinement of new-generation synchrotron diffraction, we not only identified the crystallographic and atomic parameters of the SACs that are stabilised with a robust MN(MOF) bonding of ca. 2.0 Å, but also elucidated the end-on coordination geometry with CO2. A volcano trend in the FEs of CO has been observed. In particular, the confinement effect within the rigid MOF can greatly facilitate redox hopping between the Cu SACs, rendering high FEs of CH4 and C2H4 at a current density of -100 mA cm-2. Although only demonstrated in selected SACs within UiO-66-NH2, this study sheds light on the rational engineering of molecular interactions(s) with SACs for the sustainable provision of fine chemicals.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 59(21): 15646-15658, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044820

RESUMO

Designing porous materials which can selectively adsorb CO2 or CH4 is an important environmental and industrial goal which requires an understanding of the host-guest interactions involved at the atomic scale. Metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) showing permanent porosity upon desolvation are rarely observed. We report a family of MOPs (Cu-1a, Cu-1b, Cu-2), which derive their permanent porosity from cavities between packed cages rather than from within the polyhedra. Thus, for Cu-1a, the void fraction outside the cages totals 56% with only 2% within. The relative stabilities of these MOP structures are rationalized by considering their weak nondirectional packing interactions using Hirshfeld surface analyses. The exceptional stability of Cu-1a enables a detailed structural investigation into the adsorption of CO2 and CH4 using in situ X-ray and neutron diffraction, coupled with DFT calculations. The primary binding sites for adsorbed CO2 and CH4 in Cu-1a are found to be the open metal sites and pockets defined by the faces of phenyl rings. More importantly, the structural analysis of a hydrated sample of Cu-1a reveals a strong hydrogen bond between the adsorbed CO2 molecule and the Cu(II)-bound water molecule, shedding light on previous empirical and theoretical observations that partial hydration of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials containing open metal sites increases their uptake of CO2. The results of the crystallographic study on MOP-gas binding have been rationalized using DFT calculations, yielding individual binding energies for the various pore environments of Cu-1a.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4008, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782245

RESUMO

Supported atomic metal sites have discrete molecular orbitals. Precise control over the energies of these sites is key to achieving novel reaction pathways with superior selectivity. Here, we achieve selective oxygen (O2) activation by utilising a framework of cerium (Ce) cations to reduce the energy of 3d orbitals of isolated copper (Cu) sites. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and density-functional theory simulations are used to demonstrate that a [Cu(I)O2]3- site selectively adsorbs molecular O2, forming a rarely reported electrophilic η2-O2 species at 298 K. Assisted by neighbouring Ce(III) cations, η2-O2 is finally reduced to two O2-, that create two Cu-O-Ce oxo-bridges at 453 K. The isolated Cu(I)/(II) sites are ten times more active in CO oxidation than CuO clusters, showing a turnover frequency of 0.028 ± 0.003 s-1 at 373 K and 0.01 bar PCO. The unique electronic structure of [Cu(I)O2]3- site suggests its potential in selective oxidation.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(35): 14903-14913, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786807

RESUMO

Flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) undergo structural transformations in response to physical and chemical stimuli. This is hard to control because of feedback between guest uptake and host structure change. We report a family of flexible MOFs based on derivatized amino acid linkers. Their porosity consists of a one-dimensional channel connected to three peripheral pockets. This network structure amplifies small local changes in linker conformation, which are strongly coupled to the guest packing in and the shape of the peripheral pockets, to afford large changes in the global pore geometry that can, for example, segment the pore into four isolated components. The synergy among pore volume, guest packing, and linker conformation that characterizes this family of structures can be determined by the amino acid side chain, because it is repositioned by linker torsion. The resulting control optimizes noncovalent interactions to differentiate the uptake and structure response of host-guest pairs with similar chemistries.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(38): 42949-42954, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803955

RESUMO

Temperature- or pressure-swing sorption in porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials has been proposed for new gas separation technologies. The high tunability of MOFs toward particular adsorbates and the relatively low energy penalty for system regeneration indicate that reversible physisorption in MOFs has the potential to create economic and environmental benefits compared with state-of-the-art chemisorption systems. However, for MOF-based sorbents to be commercialized, they have to show long-term stability under the conditions imposed by the application. Here, we demonstrate the structural stability of MFM-300(Al) in the presence of a series of industrially relevant toxic and corrosive gases, including SO2, NO2, and NH3, over 4 years using long-duration synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Full structural analysis of gas-loaded MFM-300(Al) confirms the retention of these toxic gas molecules within the porous framework for up to 200 weeks, and cycling adsorption experiments verified the reusability of MFM-300(Al) for the capture of these toxic air pollutants.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4280, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855396

RESUMO

The demand for xylenes is projected to increase over the coming decades. The separation of xylene isomers, particularly p- and m-xylenes, is vital for the production of numerous polymers and materials. However, current state-of-the-art separation is based upon fractional crystallisation at 220 K which is highly energy intensive. Here, we report the discrimination of xylene isomers via refinement of the pore size in a series of porous metal-organic frameworks, MFM-300, at sub-angstrom precision leading to the optimal kinetic separation of all three xylene isomers at room temperature. The exceptional performance of MFM-300 for xylene separation is confirmed by dynamic ternary breakthrough experiments. In-depth structural and vibrational investigations using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and terahertz spectroscopy define the underlying host-guest interactions that give rise to the observed selectivity (p-xylene < o-xylene < m-xylene) and separation factors of 4.6-18 for p- and m-xylenes.

16.
Lab Chip ; 20(16): 2954-2964, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666988

RESUMO

The clean and reproducible conditions provided by microfluidic devices are ideal sample environments for in situ analyses of chemical and biochemical reactions and assembly processes. However, the small size of microchannels makes investigating the crystallization of poorly soluble materials on-chip challenging due to crystal nucleation and growth that result in channel fouling and blockage. Here, we demonstrate a reusable insert-based microfluidic platform for serial X-ray diffraction analysis and examine scale formation in response to continuous and segmented flow configurations across a range of temperatures. Under continuous flow, scale formation on the reactor walls begins almost immediately on mixing of the crystallizing species, which over time results in occlusion of the channel. Depletion of ions at the start of the channel results in reduced crystallization towards the end of the channel. Conversely, segmented flow can control crystallization, so it occurs entirely within the droplet. Consequently, the spatial location within the channel represents a temporal point in the crystallization process. Whilst each method can provide useful crystallographic information, time-resolved information is lost when reactor fouling occurs and changes the solution conditions with time. The flow within a single device can be manipulated to give a broad range of information addressing surface interaction or solution crystallization.

17.
Science ; 368(6494): 1002-1006, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467390

RESUMO

The efficient removal of alkyne impurities for the production of polymer-grade lower olefins remains an important and challenging goal for many industries. We report a strategy to control the pore interior of faujasite (FAU) zeolites by the confinement of isolated open nickel(II) sites in their six-membered rings. Under ambient conditions, Ni@FAU showed remarkable adsorption of alkynes and efficient separations of acetylene/ethylene, propyne/propylene, and butyne/1,3-butadiene mixtures, with unprecedented dynamic separation selectivities of 100, 92, and 83, respectively. In situ neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering revealed that confined nickel(II) sites enabled chemoselective and reversible binding to acetylene through the formation of metastable [Ni(II)(C2H2)3] complexes. Control of the chemistry of pore interiors of easily scalable zeolites has unlocked their potential in challenging industrial separations.

18.
Anal Chem ; 92(11): 7754-7761, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365293

RESUMO

Understanding the transitions between polymorphs is essential in the development of strategies for manufacturing and maximizing the efficiency of pharmaceuticals. However, this can be extremely challenging: crystallization can be influenced by subtle changes in environment, such as temperature and mixing intensity or even imperfections in the crystallizer walls. Here, we highlight the importance of in situ measurements in understanding crystallization mechanisms, where a segmented flow crystallizer was used to study the crystallization of the pharmaceuticals urea: barbituric acid (UBA) and carbamazepine (CBZ). The reactor provides highly reproducible reaction conditions, while in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) enables us to monitor the evolution of this system. UBA has two polymorphs of almost equivalent free-energy and so is typically obtained as a polymorphic mixture. In situ PXRD analysis uncovered a progression of polymorphs from UBA III to the thermodynamic polymorph UBA I, where different positions along the length of the tubular flow crystallizer correspond to different reaction times. Addition of UBA I seed crystals modified this pathway such that only UBA I was observed throughout, while transformation from UBA III into UBA I still occurred in the presence of UBA III seeds. Information regarding the mixing-dependent kinetics of the CBZ form II to III transformation was also uncovered in a series of seeded and unseeded flow crystallization runs, despite atypical habit expression. These results illustrate the importance of coupling controlled reaction environments with in situ XRD to study the phase relationships in polymorphic materials.


Assuntos
Barbitúricos/química , Carbamazepina/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Ureia/química , Cristalização , Difração de Pó
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(34): 18757-18764, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149303

RESUMO

This article highlights the recent fundamental study in using achiral and chiral porous materials for the potential applications in asymmetric catalysis. Thanks to the new-generation synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXRD) facilities, we reveal the presence of the unique 'chiral region' in achiral zeolites with the MFI topology. Both the inherent site-isolation effect of the active sites and internal confinement restraints in zeolites are critical for creating 'chiral regions' that can aid the design of more enantioselective catalytic reactions. We also offer an outlook on the challenges and opportunities of this research area.

20.
Nat Mater ; 19(1): 86-93, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844281

RESUMO

The efficient production of light olefins from renewable biomass is a vital and challenging target to achieve future sustainable chemical processes. Here we report a hetero-atomic MFI-type zeolite (NbAlS-1), over which aqueous solutions of γ-valerolactone (GVL), obtained from biomass-derived carbohydrates, can be quantitatively converted into butenes with a yield of >99% at ambient pressure under continuous flow conditions. NbAlS-1 incorporates simultaneously niobium(V) and aluminium(III) centres into the framework and thus has a desirable distribution of Lewis and Brønsted acid sites with optimal strength. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy show that there is cooperativity between Nb(V) and the Brønsted acid sites on the confined adsorption of GVL, whereas the catalytic mechanism for the conversion of the confined GVL into butenes is revealed by in situ inelastic neutron scattering, coupled with modelling. This study offers a prospect for the sustainable production of butene as a platform chemical for the manufacture of renewable materials.


Assuntos
Alcenos/química , Lactonas/química , Zeolitas/química , Adsorção , Biomassa , Carboidratos/química , Catálise , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Teste de Materiais , Nêutrons , Espalhamento de Radiação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Síncrotrons
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