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1.
Food Chem ; 319: 126552, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151898

RESUMO

The resource utilization of soybean seed coats is currently poor. In this study, steam flash explosion (SFE) pretreatment was performed to extract valuable phytochemicals from soybean seed coats. The total content of phytochemicals and the antioxidant activity of extracts from SFE-treated soybean seed coat were systematically evaluated. On the basis of the application value of antioxidant activity, we optimized the process parameters of SFE-pretreated soybean seed coat to maximize the antioxidant activity. Additionally, the subsequently obtained ethyl acetate fraction with the highest antioxidant activity was analysed using HPLC-DAD-Q-Orbitrap HRMS/MS analysis. The results indicated that SFE could enhance the release of both aglycone and acetylglucoside forms of isoflavones from the cellular structure and enhance the antioxidant activity of soybean seed coats. This study provides evidence that SFE is a novel thermal processing technology with high efficiency and low energy consumption that improves the phytochemical composition and bioactivity of soybean seed coats.

2.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172519

RESUMO

Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is widely regarded as a stress-related and trauma disorder. The symptoms of PTSD are characterized as a spectrum of vulnerabilities after the exposure to an extremely traumatic stressor. Considering as one of complex mental disorders, little progress has been made toward its diagnostic biomarkers, despite the involvement of PTSD has been studied. Many studies into the underlying neurobiology of PTSD implicated the dysfunction of neurosteroids biosynthesis and neuorinflammatory processes. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been considered as one of the promising therapeutic biomarkers for neurological stress disorders (like PTSD, depression, anxiety, et al) without the benzodiazepine-like side effects. This protein participates in the formation of neurosteroids and modulation of neuroinflammation. The review outlines current knowledge involving the role of TSPO in the neuropathology of PTSD and the anti-PTSD-like effects of TSPO ligands.

3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 299, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153594

RESUMO

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is common in patients with cancer, and mounting clinical evidence suggests that it may shorten the survival of cancer patients. But how stroke affects the progression of cancer remains unclear. We inoculated B16 tumor cells (2 × 105) subcutaneously before distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) or sham surgery in C57BL/6 mice and found that compared to sham operated mice, dMCAO mice developed significantly increased tumor volume and were accompanied by lower survival rate. To explore the underlying mechanism, we performed RNA-sequencing analysis of the tumor tissue from mice with or without stroke and found prominent upregulation of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in the tumor from stroke mice compared to those from sham mice. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we confirmed increased mRNA expression of LCN2 as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines-Arg1, IL-10, and decreased mRNA level of pro-inflammatory cytokines-IL-6, IL-23 in the tumor of cancer-bearing stroke mice. Both immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis revealed that increased expression of LCN2 was mainly derived from the polymorphonuclear myeloid derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs) in the tumor. We also found that stroke reduced the PMN-MDSCs in the peripheral blood, but increased PMN-MDSCs in the tumor of the cancer-bearing mice after stroke. In conclusion, cerebral ischemic stroke may exacerbate cancer progression by increasing LCN2 expression in PMN-MDSCs, which turns out to be a promising therapeutic target to suppress cancer progression after ischemic stroke.

4.
Genetica ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096054

RESUMO

Crabs feed on a wide range of items and display diverse feeding strategies. The primary objective of this study was to investigate 10 digestive enzyme genes in representative crabs to provide insights into the genetic basis of feeding habits among crab functional groups. Crabs were classified into three groups based on their feeding habits: herbivores (HV), omnivores (OV), and carnivores (CV). To test whether crabs' feeding adaptations matched adaptive evolution of digestive enzyme genes, we examined the 10 digestive enzyme genes of 12 crab species based on hepatopancreas transcriptome data. Each of the digestive enzyme genes was compared to orthologous sequences using both nucleotide- (i.e., PAML and Datamonkey) and protein-level (i.e., TreeSAAP) approaches. Positive selection genes were detected in HV crabs (AMYA, APN, and MGAM) and CV crabs (APN, CPB, PNLIP, RISC, TRY, and XPD). Additionally, a series of positive selection sites were localized in important functional regions of these digestive enzyme genes. This is the first study to characterize the molecular basis of crabs' digestive enzyme genes based on functional feeding group. Our data suggest that HV crabs have evolved an enhanced digestion capacity for carbohydrates, and CV crabs have acquired digestion capacity for proteins and lipids.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087972

RESUMO

In both normal turnover of the hepatic tissue and acute hepatic injury, the liver predominantly activates terminally differentiated hepatocytes to proliferate and repair. However, in chronic and severe chronic injury, this capacity fails, and liver progenitor cells (LPCs) can give rise to hepatocytes to restore both hepatic architecture and liver metabolic function. Although the promotion of LPC-to-hepatocyte differentiation to acquire a considerable number of functional hepatocytes could serve as a potentially new therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver disease, its development first requires the identification of the molecular mechanisms driving this process. Here, we found that the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a progenitor cell marker, regulates the differentiation of LPCs into hepatocytes through Notch1 signaling pathway. Western blotting (WB) revealed a consistent expression pattern of EpCAM and Notch1 during LPC-to-hepatocyte differentiation in vitro. Additionally, overexpression of EpCAM blocked LPC-to-hepatocyte differentiation, which was in consistent with the repressive role of Notch signaling during hepatic differentiation. WB and immunofluorescence data also showed that the upregulation of EpCAM expression increased the generation of Notch intracellular domain (N1ICD), indicating the promotion of Notch1 activity. Our results established the EpCAM-Notch1 signaling axis as an inhibitory mechanism preventing LPC-to-hepatocyte differentiation in vitro.

6.
Genomics ; 112(1): 65-70, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437541

RESUMO

The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) has been widely used in phylogenetics and molecular evolution as a parameter, due to its simple genetic structure, high evolutionary rate, and compositional heterogeneity properties. Alpheidae is a large and highly diverse family of the Caridea infraorder, currently containing about 600 species dispersed all over the world. However, only a few shrimps in Alpheidae have their complete mitogenome annotated in GenBank. In our study, the entire mitogenomes of two shrimps from Alpheidae were determined, Alpheus randalli and Alpheus bellulus. The mitogenomes of both shrimps share the complete set of 37 mitochondrial genes found in other Alpheidae species. In A. randalli the AT-skew is slightly positive and GC-skew is negative, whereas in A. bellulus the AT-skew is negative and GC-skew is slightly positive. Furthermore, the secondary structures of trnS1 in the two shrimps are partially missing, and another three tRNAs formed the typical cloverleaf shaped secondary structures. Also, the trnS1 of A. randalli has an unusual anticodon stem with some unpaired nucleotides. Comparative genomic analysis suggests that the mitochondrial gene order of Alpheus genus exhibits a different gene rearrangement compared with that of Caridea. Most species in Alpheus share the same gene order, except for A. lobidens, which has an additional pseudogenomic trnQ (trnQ*). Compared with the mitochondrial gene order of Caridea the Alpheus trnE underwent both translocation and inversion, which were caused by a recombination event. Bayesian inferences (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analyses of 105 species amino acid datasets resulted in a well-supported topology, whereas four families in Caridea are monophyletic and can be divided into two major clades. Moreover, we demonstrated the phylogenetic relationships of six infraorders in Decapoda (Dendrobranchiata, (Caridea, (Stenopodidea, (Achelata, (Polychelida, Astacidea))))). This study used the large taxon sampling available to date for phylomitogenomic analysis. The results provide a theoretical basis for further research on the evolution of the Decapoda order, specifically Caridea infraorder.

7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 96: 32-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786343

RESUMO

The red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) is the most important economic shrimp species in China, and is an important model crustacean organism in many fields of research. In crustaceans, gills interface directly with the ambient environment and thus play a vital role in the toxicology. In the context of increasing environmental heavy metal pollution, the relationship between copper (Cu2+) stress and the immune response of P. clarkii has recently received considerable attention. However, impact of Cu2+ on the crayfish immune system is still not fully understood. In this study, we used Illumina sequencing technology to perform a transcriptome analysis of the gills of P. clarkii after 24 h of Cu2+ treatment. A total of 37,226,812 unigenes were assembled, and 1943 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed between the control and Cu2+ treatment groups. Functional categorization of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that genes related to antioxidant activity, detoxication, metabolic processes, biosynthetic processes, and immune system processes were differentially regulated during Cu2+ stress. In addition, DEGs in the immune system were classified as being related to the MAPK signaling pathway, purine metabolism, Toll and Imd signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Hippo signaling pathway. Five genes (CuZnSOD, CAT, IDH1, PHYH and DECR2) were significantly up-regulated in the peroxisome pathway, which plays an important role in reacting to oxidative stress. Importantly, qRT-PCR validation of the results for seven genes chosen at random (NDK, ATP6L, ATP5C1, RPS14, RPL22e, CTSF and HSP90A) confirmed the Illumina sequencing results. This study provides a valuable starting point for further studies to elucidate the molecular basis of the immune system's response to Cu2+ stress in crayfish.

8.
Genomics ; 112(1): 10-19, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175980

RESUMO

Brachyuran crabs comprise the most species-rich clade among the crustacean order Decapoda and are divided into several major superfamilies. However, the monophyly of the superfamilies Ocypodoidea and Grapsoidea in their current compositions within the Brachyura remains inconclusive. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Uca lacteus (Ocypodoidea, Ocypodidae) was sequenced, annotated, and compared with those of other Brachyuran crabs. The circular mitogenome of U. lacteus is 15,661 base pairs long and contains the entire set of 37 genes and an A + T-rich region typically observed in decapod mitogenomes. Secondary structures of several tRNAs are partly missing (trnS1), and the number of bases is significantly decreased (trnD and trnF), as discovered in many other metazoans. We compared the gene order of U. lacteus with other species of Ocypodidae and found that they are consistent. The gene rearrangement of Ocypodidae is also identical to that of the ancestor of Brachyura. However, the order of the trnH gene varies from the rearrangement of ancestral Decapoda. Accordingly, we hypothesized that this rearrangement of trnH underwent a translocation during the evolution from Decapoda to Brachyura. The phylogenetic relationship of the 81 Brachyura species and one outgroup was recovered based on 13 protein-coding genes. This analysis confirmed that U. lacteus belongs to the family Ocypodidae and established a paraphyletic relationship between Ocypodoidea and Grapsoidea.

9.
Genomics ; 112(1): 82-91, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863840

RESUMO

Grapsoidea and Ocypodoidea, two of the most abundant and economically important groups in Brachyura, are of great commercial value to fisheries and aquaculture. However, the taxonomy of Ocypodoidea and Grapsoidea has long been highly disputed. Previous studies have investigated this problem through phylogenetic analysis based on limited taxonomic sampling, with different reports proposing either monophyly or paraphyly, but no definitive conclusion has been reached. In this study, the complete mitogenome of Macrophthalmus pacificus (Ocypodoidea, Macrophthalmidae) is reported on and the relationship between Ocypodoidea and Grapsoidea is further investigated. Sequencing the M. pacificus mitogenome, which is a closed circular molecule containing a typical 37 genes, preliminarily determined the ancestral gene order of Macrophthalmidae, which is consistent with previous studies. Comparative analyses of gene order among Ocypodoidea and Grapsoidea revealed that Varunidae (Grapsoidea) and Macrophthalmidae (Ocypodoidea) have the same rearrangement, which confirms previous research. Larger data analysis revealed that these two families (Varunidae and Macrophthalmidae) cluster into a monophyletic clade as sister groups. Rearrangement and phylogeny lines of evidence is concluded that Varunidae and Macrophthalmidae may be of common origin. Furthermore, the remaining Ocypodoidea and Grapsoidea families mix paraphyletically in the phylogenetic tree. Therefore, both gene rearrangement and phylogenetic analysis support the paraphyly of Ocypodoidea and Grapsoidea, which reinforces this view. These findings provide important information regarding Brachyura's phylogenetic relationships, which demonstrates the advantage of mitogenome sequence data in phylogenetic studies.

10.
Protein Sci ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855299

RESUMO

Primer design is essential to conduct whole plasmid site-directed mutagenesis for protein study. Traditionally, primers of mutagenesis are designed manually that is time-consuming and fallible. Here, we present a Python script for searching primers by presetting parameters of nucleotide composition and percentage of guanine-cytosine (GC content). The running results showed that the script is able to search primers with mutations of target residue automatically. This script may facilitate primer design for whole plasmid site-directed mutagenesis and aid protein mutant construction.

11.
Shock ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced B cell numbers plays a critical role in sepsis immunosuppression. The role of B-cell maturation regulated by T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in reduced B cell numbers during sepsis remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that impaired B-cell maturation contributes to reduced B cell numbers. DESIGN: Retrospective study and observational prospective cohort study. SETTINGS: Critical care units. METHODS: To identify the exact lymphocyte counts that affect the prognosis of sepsis, we firstly conducted a retrospective study. Then in the prospective cohort study, differences in B-cell maturation, B cell death and numbers of circulating Tfh (cTfh) cell were compared between 28-day survivors and 28-day non-survivors, mainly by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MAIN RESULTS: In retrospective study (n = 123), we found patients with lymphocyte counts less than 0.4 × 10 cells/L had higher mortality than patients with lymphocyte counts above 0.4 × 10 cells/L. In observational prospective cohort study (n = 40), compared to survivors, non-survivors had fewer numbers of mature B cell and circulating Tfh (cTfh) cell (sepsis onset: memory B cells: 3.44% vs. 4.48%, antibody-secreting cells: 4.53% vs. 6.30%, cTfh cells: 3.57% vs. 4.49%; 24 h after sepsis onset: memory B cells: 4.05% vs. 7.20%, antibody-secreting cells: 5.25% vs. 8.78%, cTfh cells: 3.98% vs. 6.15%), while there were no differences in cell death of mature B cells between them. We further noticed the numbers of cTfh cell positively correlated with the numbers of mature B cell and immunoglobulin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired B-cell maturation contributes to reduced B cell numbers, while the numbers of cTfh cell, acting as a warning indicator for sepsis prognosis, may be a new therapeutic target for treating sepsis.

12.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 274, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early prediction of unfavorable outcome after ischemic stroke is of great significance to the clinical and therapeutic management. A nomogram is a better visual tool than earlier models and prognostic scores to predict clinical outcomes, which incorporates different factors to develop a graphic continuous scoring system and calculates accurately the risk probability of poor outcome entirely based on individual characteristics. However, to date, no nomogram models have been found to predict the probability of 6-month poor outcome after ischemic stroke. We aimed to develop and validate a nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of 6-month unfavorable outcome in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: Based on the retrospective stroke registry, a single-center study which included 499 patients from May, 2013 to May, 2018 was conducted in Nanjing First Hospital (China) for ischemic stroke within 12 h of symptoms onset. The main outcome measure was 6-month unfavorable outcome (mRS > 2). To generate the nomogram, NIHSS score on admission, Age, previous Diabetes mellitus and crEatinine (NADE) were integrated into the model. We assessed the discriminative performance by using the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) and calibration of risk prediction model by using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. RESULTS: A visual NADE nomogram was constructed that NIHSS score on admission (OR: 1.190, 95%CI: 1.125-1.258), age (OR: 1.068, 95%CI: 1.045-1.090), previous diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.995, 95%CI: 1.236-3.221) and creatinine (OR: 1.010, 95%CI: 1.002-1.018) were found to be significant predictors of 6-month unfavorable outcome after acute ischemic stroke in Chinese patients. The AUC-ROC of nomogram was 0.791. Calibration was good (p = 0.4982 for the Hosmer-Lemeshow test). CONCLUSION: The NADE is the first nomogram developed and validated in Chinese ischemic stroke patients to provide an individual, visual and precise prediction of the risk probability of 6-month unfavorable outcome.


Assuntos
Nomogramas , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Theranostics ; 9(22): 6690-6705, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588244

RESUMO

Rationale: The idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI) is a major cause of acute liver injury and a key challenge in late-stage drug development. Individual heterogeneity is considered to be an essential factor of iDILI. However, few in vitro model can predict heterogeneity in iDILI. We have previously shown that mouse and human hepatocytes can be converted to expandable liver progenitor-like cells in vitro (HepLPCs). However, the limited proliferation potential of human HepLPCs confines its industrial application. Here, we reported the generation of a novel hepatocyte model not only to provide unlimited cell sources for human hepatocytes but also to establish a tool for studying iDILI in vitro. Methods: Human primary hepatocytes were isolated by modified two-step perfusion technique. The chemical reprogramming culture condition together with gene-transfer were then used to generate the immortalized HepLPC cell lines (iHepLPCs). Growth curve, doubling time, and karyotype were analyzed to evaluate the proliferation characteristics of iHepLPCs. Modified Hepatocyte Maturation Medium and 3D spheroid culture were applied to re-differentiate iHepLPCs. Results: iHepLPCs exhibited efficient expansion for at least 40 population doublings, with a stable proliferative ability. They could easily differentiate back into metabolically functional hepatocytes in vitro within 10 days. Furthermore, under three-dimensional culture conditions, the formed hepatic spheroids showed multiple liver functions and toxicity profiles close to those of primary human hepatocytes. Importantly, we established a hepatocyte bank by generating a specific number of such cell lines. Screening for population heterogeneity allowed us to analyze the in vitro heterogeneous responses to hepatotoxicity induced by molecular targeted drugs. Conclusions: In light of the proliferative capacity and the heterogeneity they represented, these iHepLPCs cell lines may offer assistance in studying xenobiotic metabolism as well as liver diseases in vitro.

14.
Food Sci Nutr ; 7(9): 3062-3070, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572599

RESUMO

Seedpod, the nonedible portion of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), was reported to be rich in polyphenols. The objective of this study was to investigate the major bioactive polyphenols of the lotus seedpods. The total polyphenol content (TPC) from ethanol extract of lotus seedpod (PELS) was found to be 34.23 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mg extract. Four polyphenolic compounds were identified in the PELS, comprised of one flavan-3-ol (catechin) and three flavonoids (kaemferol, quercetin and hyperoside). In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of the PELS were evaluated. PELS exhibited 89.38%, 99.82%, 68.25%, and 95.82% scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, hydroxyl, and 2,2'azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals, respectively, at 1.6 mg/ml. The Fe3+ reducing power of PELS was 0.605 at 0.32 mg/ml, which is comparable to glutathione (GSH). The PELS showed 31.79% metal chelating capacity and 87.79% inhibition of linoleic acid auto-oxidation at 1.6 mg/ml. PELS showed cytotoxicity toward HepG2 and LNcap cell lines in vitro with IC50 values at 44.59 and 11.50 µg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study provide evidences that the inedible lotus seedpod could be a source for natural antioxidants and anticancer agents.

15.
Neurochem Res ; 44(11): 2619-2630, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562575

RESUMO

Andrographolide from leaves of Andrographis paniculata has been known to possess various bioactivities. In the present study, we aimed to explore the neuroprotection of andrographolide against inflammation-mediated injury and oxidative damage. In initial studies, our findings showed that pretreatment with andrographolide could effectively reduce neuronal cell death caused by LPS-induced conditioned supernatants. The further results indicated that this neuroprotective effect may be mainly due to the inhibition on the production of NO, TNF-α, IL-6, ROS, iNOS and enhancement of expression of anti-inflammatory marker CD206. Moreover, mechanism study revealed that the anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide may be related to the suppression of nuclear translocation of NF-κB as well as the activation of Nrf2 and HO-1. Our study also showed that andrographolide could scavenge ROS and protect PC12 cells against H2O2- and 6-OHDA-mediated oxidative damage. In addition, several derivatives of andrographolide were prepared for evaluating the role of 3, 14, 19-hydroxy group on anti-inflammatory effect and cytoprotection of andrographolide. In conclusion, andrographolide protected neurons against inflammation-mediated injury via NF-κB inhibition and Nrf2/HO-1 activation and resisted oxidative damage via inhibiting ROS production. Our results will contribute to further exploration of the therapeutic potential of andrographolide in relation to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Microglia/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Ratos
16.
ACS Omega ; 4(4): 6114-6125, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459757

RESUMO

We first report an efficient combined strategy that simultaneously integrates copolymerization, doping, and molecular self-assembly for the development of carbon-doping petal-like carbon nitride photocatalysts using melamine (MA), cyanuric acid (CA), and 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP) as the starting precursors and water as the only green solvent. The morphology, textural, optical, and electronic properties of carbon nitride could be engineered by rationally manipulating the doping content of TAP. In the process of molecular self-assembly, TAP can insert the aggregate edge easily according to the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The edge-termination effect of TAP made it easier for the modified carbon nitride materials to form petal-like nanosheets with porous structures and large BET surface areas. In addition, the incorporation of TAP also contributed to tuning the electronic band structures of carbon nitrides and enhancing the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers. The as-prepared materials exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities in the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-HCl) and rhodamine B (RhB). This work may not only offer universally powerful and stable photocatalysts for applications but also develop a new combined strategy to fabricate efficient photocatalysts in a facile and green way.

17.
Geriatr Nurs ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466807

RESUMO

This study was designed to examine the feasibility of a caregiving self-management support program developed for caregivers of relatives with dementia in Shanghai. A total of 41 caregivers were recruited for a quasi-experimental study. The experimental group of 26 participants attended six bi-weekly social support group sessions. The control group of 15 participants received three monthly telephone instructions. All of participants received an illustrated caregiver educational booklet and three educational presentations during a six-month follow-up period. The results demonstrated a stronger sense of self-efficacy regarding the gathering of information about dementia care in both study groups compared to the baseline data. Caregivers participating in the group sessions reported better health-related quality of life, improved responses to behavioral disturbances, and efficacy in the management of stress than those who received telephone instructions. This study provided some preliminary information regarding ways to improve self-management for the target population in mainland China.

18.
J Nat Prod ; 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244147

RESUMO

Six new cyathane diterpenoids, cyahookerins A-F (1-6), as well as nine known analogues (7-15), were isolated from the liquid culture of the basidiomycete Cyathus hookeri. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and ECD), and the absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1 and 2 represent the first unusual cyathane acetals featuring a dioxolane ring. Compounds 1-6 displayed differential nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in PC-12 cells at concentrations of 10 µM. In addition, cyahookerin B (2), cyathin E (9), cyathin B2 (12), and cyathin Q (13) showed significant nitric oxide production inhibition in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglial cells with IC50 values of 12.0, 6.9, 10.9, and 9.1 µM, respectively. Similar binding modes of the four compounds were indicated by molecular-docking studies, and structure-activity relationships are discussed.

19.
Stroke ; 50(7): 1869-1878, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177975

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Cerebral ischemic stroke elicits profound responses of CD4+ T cells, which in turn significantly affect the ischemic brain injury. ACC1 (acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1) is a key enzyme that has been recently found to propagate CD4+ T cell-associated inflammation by mediating de novo fatty acid synthesis; however, its role in the context of ischemic stroke remains unknown. Methods- Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes in mice. Seahorse XF glycolysis assay and targeted lipidomic profiling were used to detect metabolic changes in CD4+ T cell after stroke. CD4 cre mice were crossed with ACC1 fl/fl mice to generate the CD4+ T-cell-specific deletion of ACC1 (CD4 creACC1 fl/fl mice) mice. Pretreatment with calorie restriction (CR; with 30% reduction of food for 4 weeks before middle cerebral artery occlusion) or post-treatment with ACC1 inhibitor, soraphen A were both used to test the effect of ACC1 modulation on poststroke neuroinflammation. Results- Cerebral ischemic stroke increased glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis in peripheral CD4+ T cells, in which the expression of ACC1 was also upregulated. CR downregulated the expression of ACC1 in CD4+ T cells after stroke. Both CD4 creACC1 fl/fl mice and CR-pretreated mice exhibited significantly reduced ischemic brain injury and preserved the balance of peripheral regulatory T cells/T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Furthermore, conditional knockout of ACC1 in CD4+ T cells attenuated the protection exerted by CR both on ischemic brain injury and peripheral balance of regulatory T cells/Th17 cells. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC1 after middle cerebral artery occlusion attenuates neuroinflammation, preserves regulatory T cells/Th17 balance, and improves neurological outcomes after ischemic stroke. Conclusions- ACC1 is a novel immune metabolic modulation target to balance the regulatory T cells and Th17 cells and blunt neuroinflammation after stroke. Inhibition of ACC1 can be a previously unrecognized mechanism that underlies CR-afforded neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/imunologia , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Restrição Calórica , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 116: 109010, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136950

RESUMO

The most essential tools for studying drug hepatotoxicity, liver diseases, and bioartificial livers have always been models that can recapitulate liver physiology in vitro. The liver progenitor cell line HepaRG represents an effective surrogate of the primary hepatocyte. However, the differentiation of HepaRG relies on long-term induction using a high concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which may compromise the research of drug metabolism and restrict the applicability of this hepatic model. Here, we present a novel hepatic maturation medium (HMM) for the differentiation of HepaRG, which is based on a cocktail of soluble molecules that mimick the in vivo environment. We showed that HMM could rapidly (about nine days) induce HepaRG differentiation into polarized hepatocytes with maturely metabolic functions. In addition, under three-dimensional culture conditions, the hepatic spheroids showed multiple liver functions and toxicity profiles close to those of primary human hepatocytes (PHH). Our work demonstrates the utility of HMM as an alternative to the DMSO-dependent differentiation protocol for HepaRG; moreover, these results facilitate the application of HepaRG.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Meios de Cultura/química , Hepatócitos/citologia , Fígado/citologia , Linhagem Celular , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos
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