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1.
Opt Lett ; 46(2): 328-331, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449020

##### RESUMO

Cavity nonlinear optics enables intriguing physical phenomena to occur at micro- or nano-scales with modest input powers. While this enhances capabilities in applications such as comb generation, frequency conversion, and quantum optics, undesired nonlinear effects including photorefraction and thermal bistability are exacerbated. In this Letter, we propose and demonstrate a highly effective method of achieving cavity stabilization using an auxiliary laser for controlling photorefraction in a z-cut periodically poled lithium niobate (LN) microcavity system. Our numerical study accurately models the photorefractive effect under high input powers, guiding future analyses and development of LN microcavity systems.

2.
Opt Lett ; 46(2): 432-435, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449046

##### RESUMO

We report intracavity Bragg scattering induced by the photorefractive (PR) effect in high-Q lithium niobate ring resonators at cryogenic temperatures. We show that when a cavity mode is strongly excited, the PR effect imprints a long-lived periodic space-charge field. This residual field in turn creates a refractive index modulation pattern that dramatically enhances the back scattering of an incoming probe light, and results in selective and reconfigurable mode splittings. This PR-induced Bragg scattering effect, despite being undesired for many applications, could be utilized to enable optically programmable photonic components.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(18): 183901, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196267

##### RESUMO

Microcavity solitons enable miniaturized coherent frequency comb sources. However, the formation of microcavity solitons can be disrupted by stimulated Raman scattering, particularly in the emerging crystalline microcomb materials with high Raman gain. Here, we propose and implement dissipation control-tailoring the energy dissipation of selected cavity modes-to purposely raise or lower the threshold of Raman lasing in a strongly Raman-active lithium niobate microring resonator and realize on-demand soliton mode locking or Raman lasing. Numerical simulations are carried out to confirm our analyses and agree well with experiment results. Our work demonstrates an effective approach to address strong stimulated Raman scattering for microcavity soliton generation.

4.
Opt Lett ; 45(16): 4499-4502, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796993

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to mid-infrared wavelengths in single-crystalline aluminum nitride waveguides. Tunable dispersive waves are observed at the mid-infrared regime by precisely controlling the waveguide widths. In addition, ultraviolet light is generated through cascaded second-harmonic generation in the modal phase-matched waveguides. Numerical simulation indicates a high degree of coherence of the generated spectrum at around the telecom pump and two dispersive waves. Our results establish a reliable path for multiple octave supercontinuum comb generation in single-crystalline aluminum nitride to enable applications including precision frequency metrology and spectroscopy.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3237, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591510

##### RESUMO

Hybrid quantum systems are essential for the realization of distributed quantum networks. In particular, piezo-mechanics operating at typical superconducting qubit frequencies features low thermal excitations, and offers an appealing platform to bridge superconducting quantum processors and optical telecommunication channels. However, integrating superconducting and optomechanical elements at cryogenic temperatures with sufficiently strong interactions remains a tremendous challenge. Here, we report an integrated superconducting cavity piezo-optomechanical platform where 10 GHz phonons are resonantly coupled with photons in a superconducting cavity and a nanophotonic cavity at the same time. Taking advantage of the large piezo-mechanical cooperativity (Cem ~7) and the enhanced optomechanical coupling boosted by a pulsed optical pump, we demonstrate coherent interactions at cryogenic temperatures via the observation of efficient microwave-optical photon conversion. This hybrid interface makes a substantial step towards quantum communication at large scale, as well as novel explorations in microwave-optical photon entanglement and quantum sensing mediated by gigahertz phonons.

6.
Opt Express ; 28(8): 11144-11155, 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403631

##### RESUMO

Nonlinear optical effects in integrated microcavities have been studied extensively with the advantages of strong light-matter interaction, great scalability, and stability due to the small mode volume. However, the pump lasers stimulating nonlinear effects impose obstacles for practical applications, since the material absorption causes thermal resonance drift and instability. Here we experimentally demonstrate an all-optical control of the thermal behavior in optical microcavities for tunable doubly-resonant second-harmonic (SH) generation on an integrated photonic chip. Through an auxiliary control laser, the temperature of a selected microring can be efficiently changed, thus allowing precise frequency tuning of the doubly-resonant wavelength while eliminating the distortion of the lineshape induced by the thermo-optic effect. Although the phase-matching conditions will limit the tuning range of 55GHz, the technique is still potential to achieve a larger tuning range in combination with temperature regulation. Additionally, this approach has the advantage of quick reconfiguration, showing a fast modulation rate up to about 256âkHz. The theoretical model behind our experimental scheme is universal and applicable to other microcavity-enhanced nonlinear optical processes, and our work paves the way for controlling and utilizing the thermal effect in the applications of microcavities.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(3): 033602, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031838

##### RESUMO

Cooling microwave resonators to near the quantum ground state, crucial for their operation in the quantum regime, is typically achieved by direct device refrigeration to a few tens of millikelvin. However, in quantum experiments that require high operation power such as microwave-to-optics quantum transduction, it is desirable to operate at higher temperatures with non-negligible environmental thermal excitations, where larger cooling power is available. In this Letter, we present a radiative cooling protocol to prepare a superconducting microwave mode near its quantum ground state in spite of warm environment temperatures for the resonator. In this proof-of-concept experiment, the mode occupancy of a 10 GHz superconducting resonator thermally anchored at 1.02 K is reduced to 0.44±0.05 from 1.56 by radiatively coupling to a 70 mK cold load. This radiative cooling scheme allows high-operation-power microwave experiments to work in the quantum regime, and opens possibilities for routing microwave quantum states to elevated temperatures.

8.
Opt Lett ; 45(5): 1124-1127, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108786

##### RESUMO

Here, we report ${\chi ^{(3)}}$χ(3)-based optical parametric oscillation (OPO) with widely separated signal-idler frequencies from crystalline aluminum nitride microrings pumped at $2\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$2µm. By tailoring the width of the microring, OPO reaching toward the telecom and mid-infrared bands with a frequency separation of 64.2 THz is achieved. While dispersion engineering through changing the microring width is capable of shifting the OPO sideband by $\gt {9}\;{\rm THz}$>9THz, the OPO frequency can also be agilely tuned in the ranges of 1 and 0.1 THz, respectively, by shifting the pump wavelength and controlling the chip's temperature. At high pump powers, the OPO sidebands further evolve into localized frequency comb lines. Such large-frequency-shift OPO with flexible wavelength tunability will lead to enhanced chip-scale light sources.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(1): 010511, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976686

##### RESUMO

Quantum state transfer between microwave and optical frequencies is essential for connecting superconducting quantum circuits to optical systems and extending microwave quantum networks over long distances. However, establishing such a quantum interface is extremely challenging because the standard direct quantum transduction requires both high coupling efficiency and small added noise. We propose an entanglement-based scheme-generating microwave-optical entanglement and using it to transfer quantum states via quantum teleportation-which can bypass the stringent requirements in direct quantum transduction and is robust against loss errors. In addition, we propose and analyze a counterintuitive design-suppress the added noise by placing the device at a higher temperature environment-which can improve both the device quality factor and power handling capability. We systematically analyze the generation and verification of entangled microwave-optical-photon pairs. The parameter for entanglement verification favors the regime of cooperativity mismatch and can tolerate certain thermal noises. Our scheme is feasible given the latest advances on electro-optomechanics, and can be generalized to various physical systems.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4104, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506440

##### RESUMO

Single-photon counters are single-pixel binary devices that click upon the absorption of a photon but obscure its spectral information, whereas resolving the color of detected photons has been in critical demand for frontier astronomical observation, spectroscopic imaging and wavelength division multiplexed quantum communications. Current implementations of single-photon spectrometers either consist of bulky wavelength-scanning components or have limited detection channels, preventing parallel detection of broadband single photons with high spectral resolutions. Here, we present the first broadband chip-scale single-photon spectrometer covering both visible and infrared wavebands spanning from 600 nm to 2000 nm. The spectrometer integrates an on-chip dispersive echelle grating with a single-element propagating superconducting nanowire detector of ultraslow-velocity for mapping the dispersed photons with high spatial resolutions. The demonstrated on-chip single-photon spectrometer features small device footprint, high robustness with no moving parts and meanwhile offers more than 200 equivalent wavelength detection channels with further scalability.

11.
Opt Express ; 27(16): 22246-22253, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510521

##### RESUMO

In optical microresonators, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) competes with four-wave mixing process and impact Kerr comb generation. Here, we demonstrate Raman frequency combs in poly-crystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) microring resonators. The Raman shifts at transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) polarizations are characterized from AlN straight waveguides using backscattering geometries. In poly-crystalline AlN microring resonators, the frequency matching of cavity resonances with broad Raman gain enhances the SRS and leads to Raman-assisted frequency combs. As a result, comb lines near Raman scattering regions of AlN are generated.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2971, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278261

##### RESUMO

Ultraviolet frequency combs enable applications ranging from precision spectroscopy to atomic clocks by addressing electronic transitions of atoms and molecules. Access to ultraviolet light via integrated nonlinear optics is usually hampered by the strong material dispersion and large waveguide attention in ultraviolet regions. Here we demonstrate a simple route to chip-scale ultraviolet comb generators, simultaneously showing a gap-free frequency span of 128 terahertz and high conversion efficiency. This process relies on adiabatic quadratic frequency translation of a near-visible supercontinuum sourced by an ultrafast fiber laser. The simultaneous cubic and quadratic nonlinear processes are implemented in single-crystalline aluminum nitride thin films, where chirp-modulated taper waveguides are patterned to ensure a broad phase matching. The heterodyne characterization suggests that both the near-visible and ultraviolet supercontinuum combs maintain high coherence. Our approach is also adaptable to other non-centrosymmetric photonic platforms for ultrafast nonlinear optics with scalable bandwidth.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2743, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227711

##### RESUMO

High-index-contrast optical waveguides are crucial for the development of photonic integrated circuits with complex functionalities. Despite many similarities between optical and acoustic waves, high-acoustic-index-contrast phononic waveguides remain elusive, preventing intricate manipulation of phonons on par with its photonic counterpart. Here, we present the realization of such phononic waveguides and the formation of phononic integrated circuits through exploiting a gallium-nitride-on-sapphire platform, which provides strong confinement and control of phonons. By demonstrating key building blocks analogous to photonic circuit components, we establish the functionality and scalability of the phononic circuits. Moreover, the unidirectional excitation of propagating phononic modes allows the exploration of unconventional spin-orbit interaction of phonons in this circuit platform, which opens up the possibility of novel applications such as acoustic gyroscopic and non-reciprocal devices. Such phononic integrated circuits could provide an invaluable resource for both classical and quantum information processing.

14.
Opt Lett ; 44(12): 3182-3185, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199411

##### RESUMO

Chip-based soliton frequency combs have been demonstrated on various material platforms, offering broadband, mutually coherent, and equally spaced frequency lines desired for many applications. Lithium niobate (LN), possessing both second- and third-order optical nonlinearities, as well as integrability on insulating substrates, has emerged as a novel source for microcomb generation and controlling. Here we demonstrate mode-locked soliton microcombs generated around 2 µm in a high-Q z-cut LN microring resonator. The intracavity photorefractive effect is found to be still dominant over the thermal effect in the 2 µm region, which facilitates direct accessing soliton states in the red-detuned regime, as reported in the telecom band. We also find that intracavity stimulated Raman scattering is greatly suppressed when moving the pump wavelength from the telecom band to 2 µm, thus alleviating Raman-Kerr comb competition. This Letter expands mode-locked LN microcombs to 2 µm, and could enable a variety of potential applications based on LN nanophotonic platform.

15.
Nano Lett ; 19(6): 3716-3722, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038975

##### RESUMO

Owing to their extraordinary sensitivity to external forces, nanomechanical systems have become an important tool for studying mesoscopic physics and realizing hybrid quantum systems. While nanomechanics has been widely applied in solid-state systems, its use in liquid receives less attention. There it finds unique applications such as biosensing, rheological sensing, and studying both classical and quantum fluid dynamics in unexplored regimes. In this work, we demonstrate efficient coupling of a nano-optomechanical resonator to a bosonic quantum fluid, superfluid 4He, through ultrahigh-frequency phonons (i.e., sound waves) approaching gigahertz frequencies. A high phonon exchange efficiency >92% and minimum excitation rate of 0.25 phonons per oscillations period, or equivalently kB T/ hfm Qm = 0.044 âª 1, are achieved. Based on our experimental results, we further predict that strong coupling between a nanomechanical resonator and superfluid cavity phonons with cooperativity up to 880 can be achieved. Our study opens new opportunities in controlling and manipulating superfluid at the nanoscale and low-excitation level.

16.
Opt Express ; 27(5): 6660-6671, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876246

##### RESUMO

Cavity-enhanced optical controlling is experimentally observed with a low-control laser power in a cavity-atom ensemble system. Here, the three-level atoms are coupled with two optical modes of a Fabry-Perot cavity, where a new theoretical model is developed to describe the effective three-wave mixing process between spin-wave and optical modes. By adjusting either temperature or cavity length, we demonstrate the precise frequency tuning of the hybrid optical-atomic resonances. When the doubly-resonant condition is satisfied, the probe laser can be easily modulated by a control laser. In addition, interesting non-Hermitian physics are predicted theoretically and demonstrated experimentally, and all-optical switching is also achieved. Such a doubly-resonant cavity-atom ensemble system without a specially designed cavity can be used for future applications, such as optical signal storage and microwave-to-optical frequency conversion.

17.
Opt Lett ; 44(5): 1150-1153, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821735

##### RESUMO

To extend the coherence of quantum transitions for laser locking, as well as increase the compactness and stability of the experimental setup, we propose to utilize photonic integrated resonators with high second-harmonic (SH) generation efficiencies as reliable frequency doublers that link the desired frequencies with the frequency references. In this Letter, a sufficiently strong SH signal up to microwatts was generated by a photonic integrated frequency doubler using a milliwatt infrared (IR) laser source. Furthermore, an increased SH generation bandwidth covering Rb85 and Rb87D2 transition lines, as well as saturated absorption spectroscopy, was demonstrated by tuning the pump power and chip temperature. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful locking of an IR laser to Rb saturated absorption lines via a photonic chip frequency doubler.

18.
Opt Lett ; 44(6): 1492-1495, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874684

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in unpoled lithium niobate waveguides, which are engineered to possess anomalous dispersion and pumped by a turn-key femtosecond laser centered at 1560 nm. Tunable dispersive waves and strong phase-matched second-harmonic generation are both observed by controlling the widths of the waveguides. The major features of the experimental spectra are reproduced by numerical modeling of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which can be used to guide waveguide designs for tailoring the supercontinuum spectrum. Our results identify a path to a simple and integrable supercontinuum source in lithium niobate nanophotonic platform and will enable new capabilities in precision frequency metrology.

19.
Nat Mater ; 18(1): 9-11, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542096

##### Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Silício , Bário
20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(19): 199901, 2018 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468603

##### RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.123605.

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