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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7361-7374, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181729

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a common modification on endogenous RNA transcripts in mammalian cells. Technologies to precisely modify the RNA m6A levels at specific transcriptomic loci empower interrogation of biological functions of epitranscriptomic modifications. Here, we developed a bidirectional dCasRx epitranscriptome editing platform composed of a nuclear-localized dCasRx conjugated with either a methyltransferase, METTL3, or a demethylase, ALKBH5, to manipulate methylation events at targeted m6A sites. Leveraging this platform, we specifically and efficiently edited m6A modifications at targeted sites, reflected in gene expression and cell proliferation. We employed the dCasRx epitranscriptomic editor system to elucidate the molecular function of m6A-binding proteins YTHDF paralogs (YTHDF1, YTHDF2 and YTHDF3), revealing that YTHDFs promote m6A-mediated mRNA degradation. Collectively, our dCasRx epitranscriptome perturbation platform permits site-specific m6A editing for delineating of functional roles of individual m6A modifications in the mammalian epitranscriptome.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Mensageiro/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
2.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1304-1319.e9, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048708

RESUMO

Despite mounting evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engagement with immune cells, most express little, if any, of the canonical receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, using a myeloid cell receptor-focused ectopic expression screen, we identified several C-type lectins (DC-SIGN, L-SIGN, LSECtin, ASGR1, and CLEC10A) and Tweety family member 2 (TTYH2) as glycan-dependent binding partners of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Except for TTYH2, these molecules primarily interacted with spike via regions outside of the receptor-binding domain. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of pulmonary cells from individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicated predominant expression of these molecules on myeloid cells. Although these receptors do not support active replication of SARS-CoV-2, their engagement with the virus induced robust proinflammatory responses in myeloid cells that correlated with COVID-19 severity. We also generated a bispecific anti-spike nanobody that not only blocked ACE2-mediated infection but also the myeloid receptor-mediated proinflammatory responses. Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2-myeloid receptor interactions promote immune hyperactivation, which represents potential targets for COVID-19 therapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/genética , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/química , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas de Neoplasias/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Cancer Discov ; 11(5): 1192-1211, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328215

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) contains self-renewing GBM stem cells (GSC) potentially amenable to immunologic targeting, but chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has demonstrated limited clinical responses in GBM. Here, we interrogated molecular determinants of CAR-mediated GBM killing through whole-genome CRISPR screens in both CAR T cells and patient-derived GSCs. Screening of CAR T cells identified dependencies for effector functions, including TLE4 and IKZF2. Targeted knockout of these genes enhanced CAR antitumor efficacy. Bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing of edited CAR T cells revealed transcriptional profiles of superior effector function and inhibited exhaustion responses. Reciprocal screening of GSCs identified genes essential for susceptibility to CAR-mediated killing, including RELA and NPLOC4, the knockout of which altered tumor-immune signaling and increased responsiveness of CAR therapy. Overall, CRISPR screening of CAR T cells and GSCs discovered avenues for enhancing CAR therapeutic efficacy against GBM, with the potential to be extended to other solid tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: Reciprocal CRISPR screening identified genes in both CAR T cells and tumor cells regulating the potency of CAR T-cell cytotoxicity, informing molecular targeting strategies to potentiate CAR T-cell antitumor efficacy and elucidate genetic modifications of tumor cells in combination with CAR T cells to advance immuno-oncotherapy.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 995.

4.
Chin Med ; 15: 20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158495

RESUMO

Background: Cryptotanshinone (CPT), as a major component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), displays many pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. However, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activities of CPT remain to be elucidated. The present study was aimed to clarify its mechanisms on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in mouse macrophages, RAW264.7 cells. Methods: In the current study, the anti-inflammatory properties of CPT were evaluated using LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cell model. MTT assay was used to determine the viability of RAW264.7 cells. The anti-inflammatory effects of CPT were measured based on the detection of nitric oxide (NO) production (Griess and flow cytometry assay), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release (ELISA). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme expressions were also determined by western blotting. Besides, by using flow cytometry, we also evaluated the effect of CPT on LPS-induced calcium influx. Finally, the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms of CPT were investigated using western blotting to assess the protein levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Results: Our data showed that CPT inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release like IL-6, and TNF-α, as well as NO production. It displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the protein expressions such as iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB pathway like inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK)α/ß, inhibitor of kappa B (IκB)-α and NF-κB/p65, PI3K/AKT pathway like PI3K and AKT, and MAPK pathway like c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the immunofluorescence results indicated that CPT suppressed NF-κB/p65 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Further investigations showed that CPT treatment increased NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions together with its upstream mediator, Nrf2. In addition, CPT inhibited LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88 expressions in RAW264.7 macrophages. Conclusions: Collectively, we suggested that CPT exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects via modulating TLR4-MyD88/PI3K/Nrf2 and TLR4-MyD88/NF-κB/MAPK pathways.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2226-2230, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359646

RESUMO

Using the White as basic medium, the effects of the exogenous IBA and endophytic fungal elicitor on the growth of in vitro roots cultures of Dysosma versipellis and production of podophyllotoxin were investigated in this study. The results showed that the IBA and the endophytic fungus Zasmidium syzygii elicitor could increase the content of podophyllotoxin of in vitro roots of D. versipellis after 3 weeks. The White medium added with 3 mg·L~(-1) IBA induced the highest increase of podophyllotoxin(1 830.86 µg·g~(-1)), which was 2.07 folds greater than the control, and followed by 1.5 mg·L~(-1) IBA, fungal elicitor, 1 mg·L~(-1) IBA, 0.5 mg·L~(-1) IBA and 4.5 mg·L~(-1) IBA, which was 1.82, 1.71, 1.63, 1.43 and 1.1 folds greater than the control, respectively. The results also showed that the growth of roots was certain positively correlated with the change of IBA concentration. Therefore, 3 mg·L~(-1) IBA was the most suitable for the production of podophyllotoxin in the in vitro roots of D. versipellis, and the stimulating effect of Z. syzygii fungal elicitor was between 1.5 mg·L~(-1) and 1 mg·L~(-1) IBA, which was a potential natural elicitor to induce the accumulation of podophyllotoxin in future production.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Berberidaceae/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Podofilotoxina/biossíntese , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Endófitos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1808-1813, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342706

RESUMO

To determine the inhibitory effect of endophytic fungi from Dysosma versipellis on HIV-1 IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction,the protein-protein interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1( HIV-1) integrase and lens epithelial growth factor p75 protein( LEDGF/p75) was used as a target. The homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence( HTRF) technique was used in the inhibitory activity assay. The results showed that eight endophytic fungi with anti-IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction activity were screened out from fifty-three strains with different morphological characteristic. Among them,106 strain showed strong inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction with IC50 value of 5. 23 mg·L-1,and was identified as a potential novel species of Magnaporthaceae family by the analyses of ITS-rDNA,LSU and RPB2 sequences data. This study demonstrated that potential natural active ingredients against the HIV-1 IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction exist in the endophytic fungi of D. versipellis. These results may provide available candidate strain resources for the research and development of new anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drugs.


Assuntos
Berberidaceae/microbiologia , Fungos/química , Integrase de HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Endófitos , Humanos , Ligação Proteica
7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12694, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127352

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8460, 2018 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855534

RESUMO

Dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA are major lipid-soluble constituents isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). In the present study, a systematic method was developed to simultaneously isolate and purify those compounds using macroporous adsorption resins and semi-preparative HPLC with a dynamic axial compress (DAC) system. The Danshen extract (95% alcohol) was divided into three fractions using different concentrations of alcohol (0%, 45%, and 90%) on D101 column. The content of total tanshinones of 90% alcohol eluent (TTS) was over 97%. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effects of those samples were investigated on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and three animal models. The results showed that the anti-inflammatory effect of TTS in vitro was superior to the one of any other sample including 0% and 45% eluent, and total tanshinones capsules. In addition, TTS exhibited a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than that of dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone IIA, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone I, respectively. For animal models, TTS could significantly suppress xylene-induced ear oedema and rescue LPS-induced septic death and acute kidney injury in mice. In summary, the separation process developed in the study was high-efficiency, economic, and low-contamination, which was fit to industrial producing. TTS is a potential agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Abietanos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Fenantrenos/química , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Abietanos/farmacologia , Abietanos/uso terapêutico , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/isolamento & purificação , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Fenantrenos/uso terapêutico , Células RAW 264.7 , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/patologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5929, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651009

RESUMO

The plant Dysosma versipellis is known for its antimicrobial and anticancer properties but is a rare and vulnerable perennial herb that is endemic to China. In this study, 224 isolates were isolated from various tissues of D. versipellis, and were classified into 53 different morphotypes according to culture characteristics and were identified by sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. Although nine strains were not assignable at the phylum level, 44 belonged to at least 29 genera of 15 orders of Ascomycota (93%), Basidiomycota (6%), and Zygomycota (1%). Subsequent assays revealed antimicrobial activities of 19% of endophytic extracts against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus. Antimicrobial activity was also determined using the agar diffusion method and was most prominent in extracts from four isolates. Moreover, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry analyses (UPLC-QTOF MS) showed the presence of podophyllotoxin in two Fusarium strains, with the highest yield of 277 µg/g in Fusarium sp. (WB5121). Taken together, the present data suggest that various endophytic fungi of D. versipellis could be exploited as sources of novel natural antimicrobial or anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Berberidaceae/química , Endófitos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Basidiomycota/efeitos dos fármacos , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 41(4): 2265-74, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24414000

RESUMO

The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are originally identified as negative regulators of cytokine-activated Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathway, but increasing evidence reveals that SOCS proteins play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes involving regulation of the insulin signaling and pancreatic ß-cell function, and that SOCS are promising to be the targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this review, we focus on the emerging role for SOCS and the potential drugs targeting SOCS for type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Família Multigênica , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/química , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Ubiquitinação
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