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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202203646, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332641

RESUMO

The development of cost-effective and long-life rechargeable aluminium ion batteries (AIBs) shows promising prospects for sustainable energy storage applications. Here, we report a heteroatom π-conjugated polymer featuring synergistic C=O and C=N active centres as a new cathode material in AIBs using a low-cost AlCl3 /urea electrolyte. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the fused C=N sites in the polymer not only benefit good π-conjugation but also enhance the redox reactivity of C=O sites, which enables the polymer to accommodate four AlCl2 (urea)2 + per repeating unit. By integrating the polymer with carbon nanotubes, the hybrid cathode exhibits a high discharge capacity and a long cycle life (295 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and 85 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 over 4000 cycles). The achieved specific energy density of 413 Wh kg-1 outperforms most Al-organic batteries reported to date. The synergistic redox-active sites strategy sheds light on the rational design of organic electrode materials.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247278

RESUMO

Licorice flavonoids, a bioactive substance derived from glycyrrhiza, have been reported for many pharmacological properties and are beneficial to animal health. This study aimed to explore the effects of licorice flavonoids powder (LFP) on growth performance and intestinal health of piglets. A total of 96 weaned piglets were randomly assigned into four treatments and supplemented with 0, 50, 150 and 250 mg/kg LFP for 5 weeks. Dietary LFP supplementation tended to increase (p = 0.068) average daily gain (ADG) and reduce (p = 0.089) the feed intake/body gain (F/G) of piglets than that of the control group during 15-35 days; and concentrations of LFP supplementation reduced (p < 0.01) diarrhoea index during 14-35 days and 0-35 days. Piglets fed on diets supplied with LFP had a lower (p < 0.05) pH in caecum and colon. Dietary LFP supplementation increased (p < 0.01) the villi height and the ratio of villi height/crypt depth in duodenum, and reduced (p < 0.05) crypt depth in duodenum. Compared with the control group, 250 mg/kg LFP supplementation up-regulated (p < 0.05) the mRNA level of occludin (OCLN) in ileum. Meanwhile, dietary LFP supplementation down-regulated (p < 0.05) mRNA abundance of Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-8 and induced nitrogen monoxide synthase (INOS) in duodenum. Dietary 150 mg/kg LFP supplementation down-regulated (p < 0.05) mRNA abundance of IL-1ß and 250 mg/kg LFP up-regulated (p < 0.05) the expression of IL-10 in ileum. In summary, dietary LFP supplementation has a trend to improve the performance of weaning piglets, those improvements are accompanied by reduction in diarrhoea, enhancement of intestinal morphological structure, barrier function, immune function, and development. In general, 150 mg/kg LFP supplementation is more effective.

3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326202

RESUMO

This study used 40 castrated male pigs to determine the protective effects of a new selenium molecule (hydroxy selenomethionine, OH-SeMet) on dietary oxidative stress (DOS) induced hepatic lipid metabolism disorder, and corresponding response of selenotranscriptome. The pigs were randomly grouped into 5 dietary treatments and fed a basal diet formulated with either normal corn and oils or oxidized diet in which the normal corn and oils were replaced by aged corn and oxidized oils, and supplemented with OH-SeMet at 0.0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mg Se/kg for a period of 16 weeks (n = 8). The results showed that DOS induced liver damage, increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, decreased serum triacylglycerol (TG) level, suppressed antioxidant capacity in the liver, and changed lipid metabolism enzyme activity, thus causing lipid metabolism disorder in the liver. The DOS-induced lipid metabolism disorder was accompanied with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, changes in lipid metabolism-related genes and selenotranscriptome in the liver. Dietary Se supplementation partially alleviated the negative impact of DOS on the lipid metabolism. These improvements were accompanied by increases in Se concentration, liver index, anti-oxidative capacity, selenotranscriptome especially 11 selenoprotein-encoding genes, and protein abundance of GPX1, GPX4 and SelS in the liver, as well as the decrease in SelF abundance. The Se supplementation also alleviated ER stress, restored liver lipid metabolism enzyme activity, increased the mRNA expression of lipid synthesis-related genes, and decreased the mRNA levels of lipidolysis-related genes. In conclusion, the dietary Se supplementation restored antioxidant capacity and mitigated ER stress induced by DOS, thus resisting hepatic lipid metabolism disorders that are associated with regulation of selenotranscriptome.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(6): 1840-1851, 2022 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129337

RESUMO

Adequate dietary fiber intake during gestation is critical for maternal-fetal health. This experiment aims to uncover the impacts of maternal long-term intake of inulin on fetal development and its underlying mechanism. Eighty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups receiving either a fiber-free diet or an inulin diet (inulin) for three parities. On the 19th day of pregnancy in the third parity, blood, intestinal, placental, and colonic digesta samples were collected. Results showed that maternal intake of inulin significantly decreased the within-litter birth weight variation in parities 2 and 3. Inulin intake modified the gut microbiome profiles and elevated the colonic contents of short chain fatty acids (propionate and butyrate). Inulin decreased the serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the colon, whereas it increased the 5-HT concentrations in serum and placenta and the number of 5-HT+ enterochromaffin cells in the colon. The protein expression of melatonin-synthesizing enzyme (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase) and the melatonin concentration in the placenta were also increased by inulin. Inulin improved the placental redox status and nutrient transport. These findings indicated that maternal long-term intake of inulin improves fetal development by altering the intestinal microbiota and related metabolites in rats.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inulina , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Placenta , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 496-504, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heat stress (HS) has a negative impact on the intestinal barrier and immune function of pigs. Selenium (Se) may improve intestinal health through affecting selenoproteins. Thus we investigate the protective effect of new organic Se (2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid, HMSeBA) on jejunal damage in growing pigs upon HS and integrate potential roles of corresponding selenoproteins. RESULTS: HS decreased the villus height and increased (P < 0.05) the protein abundance of HSP70, and downregulated (P < 0.05) protein levels of tight junction-related proteins (CLDN-1 and OCLD). HS-induced jejunal damage was associated with the upregulation of four inflammation-related genes and ten selenoprotein-encoding genes, downregulation (P < 0.05) of four selenoprotein-encoding genes and decreased (P < 0.05) the protein abundance of GPX4 and SELENOS. Compared with the HS group, HMSeBA supplementation not only elevated the villus height and the ratio of V/C (P < 0:05), but also reduced (P < 0.05) the protein abundance of HSP70 and MDA content, and increased (P < 0.05) the protein abundance of OCLD. HMSeBA supplementation downregulated the expression of seven inflammation-related genes, changed the expression of 12 selenoprotein-encoding genes in jejunum mucosa affected by HS, and increased the protein abundance of GPX4, TXNRD1 and SELENOS. CONCLUSION: Organic Se supplementation beyond nutritional requirement alleviates the negative effect of HS on the jejunum of growing pigs, and its protective effect is related to the response of corresponding selenoproteins. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Jejuno/imunologia , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/imunologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/imunologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Selenoproteínas/genética , Selenoproteínas/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia
6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942970

RESUMO

Melatonin (MT) is a bio-antioxidant that has been widely used to prevent pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia and IUGR during gestation. This experiment evaluated the impacts of dietary MT supplementation during pregnancy on reproductive performance, maternal-placental-fetal redox status, placental inflammatory response, and mitochondrial function, and sought a possible underlying mechanism in the placenta. Sixteen fifth parity sows were divided into two groups and fed each day of the gestation period either a control diet or a diet that was the same but for 36 mg of MT. The results showed that dietary supplementation with MT increased placental weight, while the percentage of piglets born with weight < 900 g decreased. Meanwhile, serum and placental MT levels, maternal-placental-fetal redox status, and placental inflammatory response were increased by MT. In addition, dietary MT markedly increased the mRNA levels of nutrient transporters and antioxidant-related genes involved in the Nrf2/ARE pathway in the placenta. Furthermore, dietary MT significantly increased ATP and NAD+ levels, relative mtDNA content, and the protein expression of Sirt1 in the placenta. These results suggested that MT supplementation during gestation could improve maternal-placental-fetal redox status and reproductive performance by ameliorating placental antioxidant status, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial dysfunction.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748497, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745120

RESUMO

Background: Impaired intestinal barrier integrity plays a crucial role in the development of many diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 2 diabetes. Thus, protecting the intestinal barrier from pathological disruption is of great significance. Tryptophan can increase gut barrier integrity, enhance intestinal absorption, and decrease intestinal inflammation. However, the mechanism of tryptophan in decreasing intestinal barrier damage and inflammatory response remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that tryptophan can enhance intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and decrease inflammatory response mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR)/Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)/phospholipase Cγ1 (PLC-γ1) signaling pathway. Methods: IPEC-J2 cells were treated with or without enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 in the absence or presence of tryptophan, CaSR inhibitor (NPS-2143), wild-type CaSR overexpression (pcDNA3.1-CaSR-WT), Rac1-siRNA, and PLC-γ1-siRNA. Results: The results showed that ETEC K88 decreased the protein concentration of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1, CaSR, total Rac1, Rho family member 1 of porcine GTP-binding protein (GTP-rac1), phosphorylated phospholipase Cγ1 (p-PLC-γ1), and inositol triphosphate (IP3); suppressed the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER); and enhanced the permeability of FITC-dextran compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, 0.7 mM tryptophan increased the protein concentration of CaSR, total Rac1, GTP-rac1, p-PLC-γ1, ZO-1, claudin-1, occludin, and IP3; elevated the TEER; and decreased the permeability of FITC-dextran and contents of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and TNF-α. However, 0.7 mM tryptophan+ETEC K88 reversed the effects induced by 0.7 mM tryptophan alone. Rac1-siRNA+tryptophan+ETEC K88 or PLC-γ1-siRNA+tryptophan+ETEC K88 reduced the TEER, increased the permeability of FITC-dextran, and improved the contents of IL-8 and TNF-α compared with tryptophan+ETEC K88. NPS2143+tryptophan+ETEC K88 decreased the TEER and the protein concentration of CaSR, total Rac1, GTP-rac1, p-PLC-γ1, ZO-1, claudin-1, occludin, and IP3; increased the permeability of FITC-dextran; and improved the contents of IL-8 and TNF-α compared with tryptophan+ETEC K88. pcDNA3.1-CaSR-WT+Rac1-siRNA+ETEC K88 and pcDNA3.1-CaSR-WT+PLC-γ1-siRNA+ETEC K88 decreased the TEER and enhanced the permeability in porcine intestine epithelial cells compared with pcDNA3.1-CaSR-WT+ETEC K88. Conclusion: Tryptophan can improve intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and decrease inflammatory response through the CaSR/Rac1/PLC-γ1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Fosfolipase C gama/fisiologia , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Triptofano/farmacologia , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Linhagem Celular , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/química , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/análise , Proteínas de Fímbrias/análise , Inflamação , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Suínos
8.
Anim Nutr ; 7(4): 1173-1181, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754959

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of spray-dried porcine plasma protein (SDPP) or spray-dried chicken plasma protein (SDCP) supplementation in diets without the inclusion of antibiotics and zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, fecal score, and fecal microbiota in early-weaned piglets. A total of 192 healthy weaning piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 21 d old) were blocked by BW (6.53 ± 0.60 kg) and randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: negative control (NC, basal diet), positive control (PC), basal diet + ZnO at 2 g/kg and antibiotics at 0.8 g/kg), SDPP (containing 5% SDPP), and SDCP (containing 5% SDCP). The experiment lasted 14 d. The SDPP group had higher (P < 0.05) final BW, average daily gain and average daily feed intake than the NC and SDCP groups. The percentage of piglets with fecal scores at 2 or ≥2 was higher (P < 0.05) in the NC and SDCP groups than in the PC group. A decreased (P < 0.05) bacterial alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes abundance, but increased (P < 0.05) Firmicutes abundance were observed in the PC and SDPP groups when compared to the NC group. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus was higher (P < 0.05) in the SDPP than in the SDCP group, and that of Streptococcus was higher (P < 0.01) in the PC and SDPP groups than in the NC group. The PC group also had higher (P < 0.01) Faecalibacterium abundance than the NC and SDCP groups. Additionally, the SDCP group had higher (P < 0.05) serum urea nitrogen than those fed other diets, and lower (P < 0.10) short-chain fatty acids to branched-chain fatty acids ratio than the PC and SDPP groups. Overall, SDPP was a promising animal protein for piglets in increasing feed intake, modifying gut microbiota profile, reducing gut protein fermentation and alleviating diarrhea frequency, thus promoting growth performance, under the conditions with limited in-feed utilization of antibiotics and ZnO.

9.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679693

RESUMO

Chronic heat stress (CHS) induces metabolic changes in skeletal muscle from growth to maintenance that jeopardizes growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of pigs. We investigated the protective effect of dietary organic selenium (hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid, OH-SeMet) on CHS-induced skeletal muscle damages of growing pigs, and the corresponding responses of selenoproteins. A total of 40 ((Landrace ×Yorkshire) × Duroc) pigs with an average live weight of 49.64 ± 2.48 kg were used in this 4-week trial. Pigs were randomly allotted to 5 groups: The control group was raised on a basal diet in a thermoneutral environment (22 ± 2 °C); and four CHS groups were raised on a basal diet and supplemented with Se 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg as OH-SeMet, respectively, in hyperthermal condition (33 ± 2 °C). CHS resulted in significant decrease of growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality, which were associated with reduced (p < 0.05) serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and increased (p < 0.05) serum creatine (CK), sarcous heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), glucokinase (GCK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Meanwhile, four metabolism-related genes and seven selenoprotein encoding genes were abnormally expressed in skeletal muscle. Dietary OH-SeMet addition partially alleviated the negative impact of CHS on carcass traits and improved meat quality. These improvements were accompanied by the increase in Se deposition, the anti-oxidative capacity of serum and muscle, and protein abundance of GPX1, GPX3, GPX4, and SELENOP. Supplementation with 0.6 mg Se/kg (OH-SeMet) restored the sarcous PEPCK, and 0.4 and 0.6 mg Se/kg (OH-SeMet) restored all abnormally expressed metabolism-related and selenoprotein encoding genes. In summary, dietary supplementation with OH-SeMet beyond Se requirement mitigated CHS-induced depression of carcass traits and meat quality of pigs associated with optimal skeletal metabolism, enhanced antioxidant capacity, and regulation of selenoproteins in skeletal muscle of pigs.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5550196, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336098

RESUMO

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling plays pivotal roles in cell growth and diseases. However, it remains mechanistically unclear about how to maintain mTORC1 activity during mammary glands development. Here we showed that mammary glands suffered from aggravated oxidative stress as pregnancy advanced and was accompanied by an increase in H2O2 levels, while the consumption for methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) rather than S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) were promoted in vivo. Likewise, H2O2 promoted SAM synthesis and reduced SAM utilization for methylation depending on H2O2 levels and treatment time in vitro. H2O2 inhibited phosphorylation of S6 kinase Thr 389 (p-S6K1 (T389)), 4E-BP1 Thr 37/46 and ULK1 Ser 757, the downstream of mTORC1, in mammary epithelial cells. However, methionine and SAM were shown to activate mTORC1 under H2O2-exposed condition. Moreover, this effect was not disabled by SGI-1027 which inhibits SAM transmethylation. In conclusion, methionine appeared to protect mammary cells against oxidative stress through producing SAM to maintain mTORC1 signaling activity.


Assuntos
Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Metionina/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Metionina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Small ; 17(32): e2101360, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216427

RESUMO

2D non-layered materials (2DNLMs) featuring massive undercoordinated surface atoms and obvious lattice distortion have shown great promise in catalytic/electrocatalytic applications, but their controllable synthesis remains challenging. Here, a new type of ultrathin carbon-wrapped titanium nitride nanomesh (TiN NM@C) is prepared using a rationally designed nano-confinement topochemical conversion strategy. The ultrathin 2D geometry with well-distributed pores offers TiN NM@C plentiful exposed active sites and rapid charge transfer, leading to outstanding electrocatalytic performance tackling the sluggish sulfur redox kinetics in lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs). LSBs employing TiN NM@C electrocatalyst deliver excellent rate capabilities (e.g., 304 mAh g-1 at 10 C), greatly outperforming that of using TiN nanoparticles embedded in carbon nanosheets (TiN NPs@C) as a benchmark. More impressively, a free-standing electrode for LSBs with a high sulfur loading of 7.3 mg cm-2 is demonstrated, showing a high peak areal capacity of 5.6 mAh cm-2 at a high current density of 6.1 mA cm-2 . This work provides a new avenue for the facile and controllable fabrication of 2DNLMs with impressive electrocatalysis for LSBs as well as other energy conversion and storage technologies.

12.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 12(1): 68, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic heat stress (CHS) disrupts hepatic metabolic homeostasis and jeopardizes product quality of pigs. Selenium (Se) may regulate the metabolic state through affect selenoprotein. Thus, we investigate the protective effect of dietary hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA) on CHS induced hepatic metabolic disorder in growing pigs, and the corresponding response of selenoprotein. METHODS: Forty crossbreed growing pigs were randomly assigned to five groups: control group raised in the thermoneutral environment (22 ± 2 °C) with basal diet; four CHS groups raised in hyperthermal condition (33 ± 2 °C) with basal diet and supplied with 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg Se/kg HMSeBA, respectively. The trial lasted 28 d. The serum biochemical, hepatic metabolism related enzyme, protein and gene expression and 25 selenoproteins in liver tissue were determined by real-time PCR, ELISA and western blot. RESULTS: CHS significantly increased the rectal temperature, respiration rate, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of pigs, up-regulated hepatic heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and induced lower liver weight, glycogen content, hepatic glucokinase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The CHS-induced liver metabolic disorder was associated with the aberrant expression of 6 metabolism-related gene and 11 selenoprotein encoding genes, and decreased the protein abundance of GCK, GPX4 and SELENOS. HMSeBA improved anti-oxidative capacity of liver. 0.4 or 0.6 mg Se/kg HMSeBA supplementation recovered the liver weight, glycogen content and rescue of mRNA abundance of genes related to metabolism and protein levels of GCK. HMSeBA supplementation changed expressions of 15 selenoprotein encoding genes, and enhanced protein expression of GPX1, GPX4 and SELENOS in the liver affected by CHS. CHS alone showed no impact while HMSeBA supplementation increased protein levels of p-AMPKα in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, HMSeBA supplementation beyond nutrient requirement mitigates CHS-induced hepatic metabolic disorder, recovered the liver glycogen content and the processes that are associated with the activation of AMPK signal and regulation of selenoproteins in the liver of growing pigs.

13.
J Therm Biol ; 97: 102874, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863438

RESUMO

With the globe warming, heat stress (HS) has frequently affected animal production. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for animals and exerts most of its biological functions through selenoproteins. We previously demonstrated that the damage to C2C12 cells by HS accompanied with the response of selenoprotein encoding genes and proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate whether selenium supplementation (sodium selenite, SS and selenomethionine, SeMet) could alleviate the negative effect of heat stress on the differentiation of C2C12 cells, and interpret the potential corresponding selenoproteins response. The differentiated cells were cultured for 4 and 8 days under different condition: at 37 °C, 41.5 °C and 41.5 °C with 0.5 µmol Se/L SS or SeMet, and the HSP70, cell apoptosis, selenoproteins and cell differentiation-related gene or protein were detected. The result showed that HS up-regulated (P < 0.05) mRNA and protein levels of HSP70 and gene expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2, and down-regulated (P < 0.05) mRNA or protein levels of MYOGENIN and MYOD. Meanwhile, up to 15 and 17 selenoprotein genes expression were significantly changed response to 4-and 8-days HS challenge, respectively. Relative to the HS group, SS and SeMet supplementation down-regulated the mRNA and protein abundance of HSP70 to different degrees, and partly recovered (P < 0.05) the mRNA or protein abundance of MYOGENIN and MYOD at 4th and 8th day. Especially, 16 and 10 selenoprotein genes expression in cells affected by HS were altered by SS and SeMet supplementation, respectively. Both SS and SeMet supplementation modestly increased (P < 0.05) protein levels of GPX1 and SELENON in cells under HS. In summary, Se supplementation partly alleviated the negative impact of HS on myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells and the process may associate with the alternation of selenoprotein expression pattern, and SeMet exhibits better effect than SS.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Selenometionina/farmacologia , Selenito de Sódio/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Genoma , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Camundongos , Desenvolvimento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína MyoD/genética , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Miogenina/genética , Miogenina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Selenoproteínas/genética , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo
14.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(4): 3015-3032, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960454

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), an intestinotrophic hormone, has drawn considerable attention worldwide due to its potential to promote intestinal development. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of GLP-2 against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal inflammation and injury both in vitro and in vivo. Forty healthy piglets weaned at the age of 28 days with similar body weight (BW) were assigned to four in vivo treatments with ten piglets each: (i) nonchallenged control; (ii) LPS-challenged control; (iii) LPS + low dose GLP-2; and (iv) LPS + high dose GLP-2. Piglets were subcutaneously injected with phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with GLP-2 at doses of 0, 0, 2, and 10 nmol/kg BW per day for seven consecutive days. The piglets were challenged with an intraperitoneal injection with 100 µg/kg LPS on day 14 to induce intestinal damage. After that, the gene and protein expression levels of representative tight junction proteins and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)/phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC), as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. A high dose of GLP-2 pretreatment increased intestinal permeability by downregulating and redistributing tight junction proteins (p < .05), for example, zona occluden-1 (ZO-1) and occludin. GLP-2 decreased the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines genes including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α in small intestines (p < .05). GLP-2 prevented the LPS-induced increase in the expression of MLCK dose-dependently and the increase in pMLC levels in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. To assess further the protective effect of GLP-2 on LPS-induced intestinal barrier injury after weaning and its possible mechanism, an in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier model was established with IPEC-J2 monolayers and treated with 100 µg/ml LPS with or without 1 × 10-8 mol/L GLP-2 pretreatment. The in vitro analysis included control, LPS, and GLP-2 + LPS treatments. GLP-2 treatment alleviated the destructive effect of LPS on barrier permeability by restoring the expression and ultrastructure of ZO-1 and occludin (p < .05). In addition, GLP-2 reversed the LPS-induced MLCK hyperexpression and pMLC hyperphosphorylation (p < .05). Taken together, our findings revealed a mechanism by which GLP-2 alleviated LPS-challenged intestinal barrier injury and inflammation in weaned piglets and IPEC-J2 cells via the MLCK/pMLC signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Peptídeo 2 Semelhante ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/lesões , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/metabolismo , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Modelos Biológicos , Permeabilidade , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/ultraestrutura , Desmame
15.
Chemistry ; 27(6): 1921-1940, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779785

RESUMO

The increasing demand for high-performance rechargeable energy storage systems has stimulated the exploration of advanced electrode materials. MXenes are a class of two-dimensional (2D) inorganic transition metal carbides/nitrides, which are promising candidates in electrodes. The layered structure facilitates ion insertion/extraction, which offers promising electrochemical characteristics for electrochemical energy storage. However, the low capacity accompanied by sluggish electrochemical kinetics of electrodes as well as interlayer restacking and collapse significantly impede their practical applications. Recently, interlayer space engineering of MXenes by different chemical strategies have been widely investigated in designing functional materials for various applications. In this review, an overview of the most recent progress of 2D MXenes engineering by intercalation, surface modification as well as heterostructures design is provided. Moreover, some critical challenges in future research on MXene-based electrodes have been also proposed.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 788638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975882

RESUMO

Intestinal inflammation is a major threat to the health and growth of young animals such as piglets. As a next-generation probiotics, limited studies have shown that Akkermansia muciniphila could alleviate inflammation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In this study, a TNF-α-induced inflammatory model of IPEC-J2 cells, the intestinal porcine enterocytes, was built to evaluate the effects of active or inactive A. muciniphila on the inflammation of IECs. The viability of IPEC-J2 cells was the highest when treated with active (108 copies/mL) or inactive (109 copies/mL) A. muciniphila for 7.5 h (P < 0.01). Treated with 20 ng/mL of TNF-α and followed by a treatment of A. muciniphila, the mRNA level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α) was remarkably reduced (P < 0.05) along with the increased mRNA level of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and Occludin, P < 0.05). Flow cytometry analysis showed that active or inactive A. muciniphila significantly suppressed the rate of the early and total apoptotic of the inflammatory IPEC-J2 cells (P < 0.05). According to results of transcriptome sequencing, active and inactive A. muciniphila may decline cell apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of key genes in calcium signaling pathway, or up-regulating the expression of key genes in cell cycle signaling pathway. And the bacterium may alleviate the inflammation of IECs by down-regulating the expression of PI3K upstream receptor genes. Our results indicate that A. muciniphila may be a promising NGP targeting intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamação/dietoterapia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Akkermansia/imunologia , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Suínos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(1): 327-344, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701304

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dietary protein, as important macronutrient, is vital for intestinal function and health status. We aimed to determine the effects of dietary protein source on growth performance and intestinal function of neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in a pig model. METHODS: Eighteen pairs of IUGR and normal birth weight (NBW) weaned pigs were allotted to be fed starter diet containing soybean protein concentrate (SPC) or spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) for 2 weeks. Growth performance, antioxidant variables, intestinal morphology and absorption capability, microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were assessed. RESULTS: IUGR led to poor growth performance, absorption capability and changes on antioxidant variables, while SDPP diet improved the growth performance, diarrhea index, intestinal morphology and antioxidant variables of IUGR or NBW pigs relative to that fed SPC diet. Importantly, SDPP diet improved bacterial diversity and increased the abundance of phylum Firmicutes, but decreased the phylum Proteobacteria in colonic digesta, associating with higher genera Lactobacillus and lower genera Escherichia-Shigella, linking to the increased concentration of SCFA. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that IUGR impairs the growth rate, intestinal function and oxidative status of weaned pigs, which could be partly improved by SDPP diet either for IUGR or NBW pigs, associating with the better antioxidant capability, composition of microbiotas and their metabolites.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suínos
18.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 8149-8160, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696186

RESUMO

Flaxseed oil (FO), enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is an important oil source for intestinal development and health. We aimed to study the different effects of FO versus soybean oil (SO) on growth, intestinal health and immune function of neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) using a weaned piglet model. Forty pairs of male IUGR and normal birth weight piglets, weaned at 21 ± 1 d, were fed diets containing either 4% FO or SO for 3 weeks consecutively. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal function parameters, immunology and microbiota composition were determined. IUGR led to a poor growth rate, nutrient digestibility and abnormal immunology variables, whereas feeding FO diet improved systemic and gut immunity, as indicated by increased plasma concentration of immunoglobulin G and decreased CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes, and down-regulated intestinal expression of genes (MyD88, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-10). Although IUGR tended to decrease villous height, feeding FO diet tended to increase the villi-crypt ratio and up-regulated expressions of tight junction genes (Claudin-1 and ZO-1), together with increased mucosa contents of n-3 PUFAs and a lower Σn-6/Σn-3 ratio. Besides, FO diet decreased the abundance of pathogenic bacteria Spirochaetes, and increased phylum Actinobacteria, and genera Blautia and Bifidobacterium in colonic digesta. Our findings indicate that IUGR impairs growth rate, nutrient digestibility, and partly immunology variables, whereas feeding FO-supplemented diet could improve intestinal function and immunity of both IUGR and NBW pigs, associated with the altered gut microbiome and mucosal fatty acid profile.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Claudina-1/genética , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/microbiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia
19.
Br J Nutr ; 122(10): 1081-1090, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637977

RESUMO

The present study compared the protective effect of sodium selenite (SS) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on heat stress (HS)-invoked porcine IPEC-J2 cellular damage and integrate potential roles of corresponding selenoprotein. Cells were cultured at 37°C until 80 % confluence and then subjected to four different conditions for 24 h: at 37°C (control), 41·5°C (HS), 41·5°C supplied with 0·42 µmol Se/L SS (SS), or SeMet (SeMet). HS significantly decreased cell viability, up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of tight junction-related proteins (claudin-1 (CLDN-1) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)). HS-induced cell injury was associated with the up-regulation (P < 0·05) of six inflammation-related genes and fourteen selenoprotein encoding genes and down-regulation (P < 0·05) of two inflammation-related genes and five selenoprotein encoding genes. Compared with the HS group, SS and SeMet supplementation resulted in an increase (P < 0·05) in cell viability, decreased (P < 0·05) mRNA expression of HSP70 and six inflammation-related genes and rescue (P < 0·05) of mRNA and protein levels of CLDN-1 and ZO-1. SS and SeMet supplementation changes the expressions of nineteen selenoprotein encoding genes in cells affected by HS. Both Se supplementation significantly recovered the protein level of glutathione peroxidase-1 and increased selenoprotein P in the IPEC-J2 cells under HS, respectively. In summary, Se supplementation alleviated the negative impact of HS on IPEC-J2 cells, and their cellular protective effect was associated with regulation expression of selenoproteins, and SeMet exhibited a better protective effect.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Selênio/farmacologia , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Selenoproteínas/genética , Suínos
20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2914-2926, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155652

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increased AA and energy intake during late gestation on reproductive performance, milk composition, and metabolic and redox status of sows. A total of 118 Yorkshire sows (third through sixth parity) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments from day 90 of gestation until farrowing. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA levels [14.7 or 20.6 g/d SID Lys, SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC (2012) recommendations] and 2 energy levels (28.24 or 33.78 MJ/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. After parturition, all sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for parameters on metabolism, redox status, and amino acid profile. The data were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed models to reveal the impact of dietary levels of energy, AA, and their interaction. Sows with increased intake of AA had greater BW gain (P < 0.01) during late gestation. Furthermore, the BW loss during lactation was increased in sows with increasing intake of energy (P < 0.05) or AA (P < 0.05). Sows fed high energy had higher total litter birth weights (20.2 kg vs. 18.4 kg, P < 0.05) and shorter duration of farrowing (261 min vs. 215 min, P < 0.05), compared with those fed low energy, which likely was due to higher (P < 0.05) plasma glucose and lower (P < 0.05) plasma lactate prior to parturition. High AA intake in late gestation increased the ADG of piglets during the following lactation (P < 0.05), and increased the concentrations of plasma urea, and the following AA: Lys, Met, Thr, Val, Ile, Leu, Phe, Asp, Ser, and Arg at farrowing (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the increased intake of energy increased total litter weight of newborns and shortened the farrowing duration, which likely was due to improved energy status at farrowing. Furthermore, sows with increased intake of AA led to higher growth rate of piglets during the following lactation, accompanying with the increasing levels of plasma urea and amino acids. Therefore, the higher energy intake in late gestation appeared to improve litter weight and farrowing duration, while higher AA intake may have positive effect on piglets performance in lactation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Leite/química , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estado Nutricional , Oxirredução , Paridade , Parto , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/microbiologia
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