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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121176, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525683

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion is a promising approach for waste activated sludge (WAS) disposal. However, a wide range of exogenous pollutants (e.g. heavy metals, nanoparticles) exists in WAS and their influences on anaerobic digestion are neglected. This study investigates the correlations between exogenous pollutants and anaerobic digestion performance. The results indicate that exogenous pollutants exhibit dose-dependent influences on WAS digestion. Most of the pollutants improve the performance of anaerobic digestion by partially or wholly promoting the hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis processes at low dose, but exhibit negative effects at high levels due to their toxicity. Generally, methanogens are more vulnerable than those hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria. Poly-aluminum chloride and polyacrylamide show strong inhibition on WAS digestion, which are primarily attributed to their physical enmeshments of organic matters in WAS. The synergistic effects of different mixed pollutants and the mitigating strategies for typical pollutants inhibition deserve more attention in light of WAS anaerobic digestion.

2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 146: 294-302, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783205

RESUMO

Brassica napus (rapeseed) serves as a main source of edible oil, and the oil's quality is mainly determined by the relative proportions of fatty acids. A high oleic acid concentration in B. napus oil increases its shelf life and oxidative stability. Therefore, attaining a high oleic acid concentration is necessary to enhance the nutritional quality of rapeseed oil. Here, an association study of candidate genes was conducted using a population of 324 genetically diverse rapeseed accessions, and several loci related to oleic acid content were identified. Furthermore, these loci were functionally characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to assess their functions, and the promising candidate loci were validated using single nucleotide polymorphic markers in an independent inbred population. The results increased our understanding of fatty acid metabolism in B. napus. Moreover, these findings may assist in marker-based breeding efforts to improve the fatty acid composition and quality of B. napus oil.

3.
Bioorg Chem ; : 103362, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668463

RESUMO

A novel cyclopentenone derivative, talarocyclopenta A (1), a new phenolicethers derivative, talarocyclopenta B (2) and a new itaconic acid derivative, talarocyclopenta C (3) together with four known itaconic acid derivatives (4-7) were isolated from the Talaromyces assiutensis JTY2. Their structures were elucidated by the detailed analysis of comprehensive spectroscopic data. Among them, talarocyclopent (1) is the first represent an unusual type of cyclopentenone derivative, possessing a cyclopentenone unit, a 2-butanone unit and a 3-hydroxybutyric acid unit. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. Compounds 1-4 showed inhibitory activities against the nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. Compound 2 showed broad spectrum antibacterial against six terrestrial pathogenic bacteria.

4.
J Electrocardiol ; 58: 46-50, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of early recurrence (ER) of atrial tachyarrhythmia (ATA) defined as atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial tachycardia (AT), or atrial flutter (AFL) during a 90-day blanking period after pulmonary vein isolation by cryoablation (PVI-C) in patients with symptomatic drug refractory AF. Specifically, to determine if ER of ATA during the blanking period can predict late recurrence (LR) during a 12-month follow-up period. METHOD: A total of 51 patients with symptomatic AF (who received PVI-C) were monitored by trans-telephonic wireless electrocardiogram (TWECG) event recording during the landmark 90-day blanking period following an index ablation. Recurrent ATA was defined as any AF, AT, or AFL lasting longer than 30 s (as recorded by 12­lead ECG, 24-hour Holter monitor, or TWECG). For data analysis, patients were grouped into ER and non-ER cohorts during the 90-day blanking period and then cohorted into LR or non-LR groups during the 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: During the 90-day blanking period, 23 patients had an ER event of ATA while 28 patients had a non-ER experience. Also, during the 12-month follow-up period, 15 patients had a LR event while 36 patients were free from ATA (and placed in the non-LR cohort). Overall, the average success rate of cryoablation for AF was 70.6% at the 12-month follow-up period. Compared to the non-LR group, patients with LR showed a higher average percentage of diabetes mellitic (33.3% vs. 5.56%; P = 0.008) and had a larger mean left atrium diameter (41.2 ±â€¯4.3 mm vs. 36.5 ±â€¯4.2 mm; P = 0.0006). During evaluation of the 90-day blanking period, the LR group had more frequent attacks of ATA than compared to the non-LR group (27.7% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.001). Only two patients (7.1%) without ER in the blanking period (non-ER cohort) had relapsed into a LR of ATA during the one-year period. After multi-logistic regression analysis, ER could individually predict the risk of LR (RR = 58.8; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In our study, ER of ATA was a common phenomenon during the 90-day blanking period after PVI-C for AF, and it mostly occurred in the first month following the index ablation across all patients. ER is not equal to the LR of ATA; however, patients with an ER event had a higher risk of a LR during the 12-month follow-up period.

5.
New Phytol ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733154

RESUMO

•The papaya diminutive mutant exhibits miniature stature, retarded growth, and reduced fertility. This undesirable mutation appeared in the variety Sunset, the progenitor of the transgenic line SunUp, and was accidentally carried forward into breeding populations. •The diminutive mutation was mapped to chromosome 2 and fine mapped to scaffold 25. Sequencing of a bacterial artificial chromosome in the fine mapped region led to the identification of the target gene responsible for the diminutive mutant, a gene orthologous to MMS19 with a 36.8 kb deletion co-segregating with the diminutive mutant. •The genomic sequence of CpMMS19 is 62 kb, consisting of 20 exons and 19 introns. It encodes a protein of 1143 amino acids while the diminutive allele encodes a truncated protein of 287 amino acids. Expression of the full-length CpMMS19 was able to complement the thermosensitive growth of the yeast mms19 deletion mutant while expression of the diminutive allele resulted in increased thermosensitivity. Over-expression of the diminutive allele in Arabidopsis met18 mutant results in a high-frequency of seed abortion. •The papaya diminutive phenotype is caused by an alteration in gene function rather than a loss-of-function mutation. SCAR markers were developed for rapid detection of the diminutive allele in breeding populations.

6.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693306

RESUMO

Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating disease of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To date, the genetic mechanisms of rapeseed' interactions with S. sclerotiorum are not fully understood, and molecular-based breeding is still the most effective control strategy for this disease. Here, Arabidopsis thaliana GDSL1 was characterized as an extracellular GDSL lipase gene functioning in Sclerotinia resistance. Loss of AtGDSL1 function resulted in enhanced susceptibility to S. sclerotiorum. Conversely, overexpression of AtGDSL1 in B. napus enhanced resistance, which was associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and salicylic acid (SA) levels, and reduced jasmonic acid levels. In addition, AtGDSL1 can cause an increase in lipid precursor phosphatidic acid levels, which may lead to the activation of downstream ROS/SA defence-related pathways. However, the rapeseed BnGDSL1 with highest sequence similarity to AtGDSL1 had no effect on SSR resistance. A candidate gene association study revealed that only one AtGDSL1 homolog from rapeseed, BnaC07g35650D (BnGLIP1), significantly contributed to resistance traits in a natural B. napus population, and the resistance function was also confirmed by a transient expression assay in tobacco leaves. Moreover, genomic analyses revealed that BnGLIP1 locus was embedded in a selected region associated with SSR resistance during the breeding process, and its elite allele type belonged to a minor allele in the population. Thus, BnGLIP1 is the functional equivalent of AtGDSL1 and has a broad application in rapeseed S. sclerotiorum-resistance breeding.

7.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 1112019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: interleukin-37 (IL-37) is as a natural suppressor of the innate inflammatory and immune responses. It has also been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis and metastasis. The present case-control study was designed to investigate the role of serum levels of IL-37 in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: serum IL-37 levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 180 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and 100 healthy controls. The association between IL-37 levels and clinical factors was assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic significance of these parameters in gastric cancer. RESULTS: serum IL-37 levels in gastric cancer patients (5.606 ± 0.837 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (2.364 ± 0.210 pg/ml, p < 0.001). High serum IL-37 levels were related to a poorly differentiated histologic type (p = 0.046) and advanced T stage (p = 0.003). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the high-IL-37 group had a poorer overall survival and progression-free survival (overall survival [OS]: 39.0 months vs 13.0 months, p < 0.001, progression-free survival [PFS]: 25.0 months vs 10.0 months, p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed serum IL-37 to be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients (OS: hazard ratios [HR] = 1.842, 95% CI: 1.190-2.854, p = 0.006; PFS: HR = 1.547, 95% CI: 1.014-2.359, p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: in conclusion, serum IL-37 levels were associated with poor overall survival and progression-free survival in gastric cancer patients. IL-37 may be a potential predictor of prognosis in gastric cancer.

8.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104400, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669962

RESUMO

Two novel epimer pairs of acetaminophen derivatives penicilquei A-D (1-4) were isolated from Penicillium herquei JX4. Their structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of penicilquei A-D (1-4) were determined by modifified Mosher's method, and comparing their experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Penicilquei A-D (1-4) are the first example of acetaminophen derivatives featuring an unprecedented carbon skeleton. The inhibitory activities of all compounds against nine phytopathogenic fungi and α-glucosidase were evaluated. Penicilquei A-D (1-4) showed strong inhibitory activities against at least eight phytopathogenic fungus.

9.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8671-8682, 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Primary lymphoma of the breast is rare, and primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the breast is very rare. This study aimed to identify the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment associated with prognosis in patients with primary DLBCL of the breast. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study included the clinical and treatment data from 46 women with a histological diagnosis of primary DLBCL. Patients were staged using Ann Arbor staging criteria, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and the international prognostic index (IPI) scores were obtained. Laboratory finding included serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the immunohistochemistry findings were recorded. RESULTS Patients (n=46), included stage I (n=18), stage II (n=18), stage III (n=3), and stage IV DLBCL (n=9). Treatment included chemotherapy with rituximab (n=16), and radiotherapy (n=12). The median follow-up time was 40.5 months, the 5-year OS rate was 36.2%, and the 5-year PFS rate was 29.1%. Univariate analysis showed that clinical stage, serum LDH, the IPI score, chemotherapy cycles >3, and Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 expression were correlated with the 5-year OS and PFS. Multivariate risk regression analysis showed that the number of chemotherapy cycles (>3) and Bcl-6 expression were independent prognostic factors in primary DLBCL of the breast (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS A retrospective study of 46 patients with primary DLBCL of the breast showed that >3 cycles of chemotherapy and expression of Bcl-6 resulted in improved OS and PFS. Radiotherapy controlled local tumor recurrence but did not improve the OS and PFS. Rituximab did not improve patient survival.

11.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768690

RESUMO

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium laser enucleation of prostate (HoLEP) for treating urinary retention in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Thirty-eight cases of advanced prostate cancer with urinary retention were enrolled in this retrospective study. All the 38 patients were treated with CAB as a basis. Among them, 21 cases chose HoLEP additionally (HoLEP group). Seventeen cases stuck to CAB alone (CAB group). Serum PSA level, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life score (QoLs), maximal flow rate (Qmax), and post-void residual volume (PVR) at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after treatment were comparatively analyzed. The perioperative and postoperative parameters of HoLEP were assessed. Both groups demonstrated significant improvement in IPSS, QoLs, Qmax, and PVR during follow-up. But these parameters of HoLEP group improved more rapidly, significantly, and durably than CAB group. No serious complications were observed during and after HoLEP. PSA level of patients in both groups declined dramatically after surgery. But PSA in HoLEP group showed more dramatic and continuous drop. Besides, 1 of 21 patients in HoLEP group transferred into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) at 18th month of follow-up. While in CAB group, 5 of 17 patients developed into CRPC at 12th month of follow-up (P = 0.02 < 0.05). HoLEP was minimally invasive, safe, and effective, and could serve as a palliative approach to rapidly restore the patients' urine and play a cytoreductive role in advanced PCa to improve the oncological prognosis.

12.
Thorac Cancer ; 10(12): 2218-2224, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation status is essential to the optimal management of lung adenocarcinoma. Liquid biopsy has advantages such as noninvasiveness, speediness, and convenience. This study aimed to detect EGFR gene mutations using next-generation sequencing (NGS) from different types of body fluids from patients with lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 20 patients with lung adenocarcinoma recruited between January 2017 and December 2018 at the Beijing Hospital. All patients had adenocarcinoma with confirmed sensitizing EGFR mutations. Body fluid specimens included pleural effusion, ascites, pericardial effusion, and cerebrospinal fluid. NGS was conducted to test for nine lung cancer-related gene in body fluid supernatant free DNA, sedimentary tumor cells, and plasma free DNA. RESULTS: The EGFR gene mutation abundance of body fluid supernatant free DNA was higher than that of body fluid sedimentary tumor cells and plasma free DNA specimens (100% vs. 90% vs. 80%, respectively, all P < 0.05). The results of EGFR mutation from the body fluid supernatants were consistent with the results from the tissue biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that compared with body fluid sediment tumor cells and plasma free DNA samples, body fluid supernatant free DNA has a higher detection rate and sensitivity of tumor-specific mutations. Free DNA obtained from body fluid supernatants could be used as high-quality specimens for gene mutation detection in patients with lung cancer. This could be applied in treatment decisions and patient management.

13.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(5): 689-697, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646322

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ferroptosis in acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model induced by oleic acid (OA). ALI was induced in the mice via the lateral tail vein injection of pure OA. The histopathological score of lung, lung wet-dry weight ratio and the protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were used as the evaluation indexes of ALI. Iron concentration, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the lung tissues were measured using corresponding assay kits. The ultrastructure of pulmonary cells was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the expression level of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) mRNA was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Protein expression levels of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) in lung tissues were determined by Western blot. The results showed that histopathological scores of lung tissues, lung wet-dry weight ratio and protein in BALF in the OA group were higher than those of the control group. In the OA group, the mitochondria of pulmonary cells were shrunken, and the mitochondrial membrane was ruptured. The expression level of PTGS2 mRNA in the OA group was seven folds over that in the control group. Iron overload, GSH depletion and accumulation of MDA were observed in the OA group. Compared with the control group, the protein expression levels of GPX4 and ferritin in lung tissue were down-regulated in the OA group. These results suggest that ferroptosis plays a potential role in the pathogenesis of ALI in our mouse model, which may provide new insights for development of new drugs for ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Apoptose , Ácido Oleico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ferro/análise , Sobrecarga de Ferro/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/patologia , Malondialdeído/análise , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Membranas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura
14.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(10): 2119-2127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592084

RESUMO

With the release of the draft genome of the grass carp, researches on the grass carp from the genetic level and the further molecular mechanisms of economically valuable physiological behaviors have gained great attention. In this paper, we integrated a large number of genomic, genetic and some other data resources and established a web-based grass carp genomic visualization database (GCGVD). To view these data more effectively, we visualized grass carp and zebrafish gene collinearity and genetic linkage map using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format in the browser, and genomic annotations by JBrowse. Furthermore, we carried out some preliminary study on a whole-genome alternative splicing (AS)of the grass carp. The RNA-seq reads of 15 samples were aligned to the reference genome of the grass carp by Bowtie2 software. RNA-seq reads of each sample and density map of reads were also exhibited in JBrowse. Additionally, we designed a universal grass carp genome annotation data model to improve the retrieval speed and scalability. Compared with the published database GCGD previously, we newly added the visualization of some more genomic annotations, conserved domain and RNA-seq reads aligned to the reference genome. GCGVD can be accessed at http://122.112.216.104.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 260, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624233

RESUMO

Chronic stressful occurrences are documented as a vital cause of both depression and anxiety disorders. However, the stress-induced molecular mechanisms underlying the common and distinct pathophysiology of these disorders remains largely unclear. We utilized a chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model to differentiate and subgroup depression-susceptible, anxiety-susceptible, and insusceptible rats. The hippocampus was analyzed for differential proteomes by combining mass spectrometry and the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technique. Out of 2593 quantified proteins, 367 were aberrantly expressed. These hippocampal protein candidates might be associated with susceptibility to stress-induced depression or anxiety and stress resilience. They provide the potential protein systems involved in various metabolic pathways as novel investigative protein targets. Further, independent immunoblot analysis identified changes in Por, Idh2 and Esd; Glo1, G6pdx, Aldh2, and Dld; Dlat, Ogdhl, Anxal, Tpp2, and Sdha that were specifically associated to depression-susceptible, anxiety-susceptible, or insusceptible groups respectively, suggesting that identical CMS differently impacted the mitochondrial and metabolic processes in the hippocampus. Collectively, the observed alterations to protein abundance profiles of the hippocampus provided significant and novel insights into the stress regulation mechanism in a CMS rat model. This might serve as the molecular basis for further studies that would contributed to a better understanding of the similarities and differences in pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression or anxiety, and stress resiliency.

16.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(11): e908, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit (PRKDC), a key component of the DNA damage repair pathway, is associated with chemotherapy resistance and tumor progression. METHODS: Here we analyzed transcriptome data of ~2,000 breast cancer patients and performed functional studies in vitro to investigate the function of PRKDC in breast cancer. RESULTS: Our results revealed overexpression of PRKDC in multiple breast cancer subtypes. Consistent with patients' data, overexpression of PRKDC was also observed in breast cancer cell lines compared to normal breast epithelial cells. Knockdown of PRKDC in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines resulted in proliferation inhibition, reduced colony formation and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we showed that PRKDC knockdown induced proliferation inhibition through activation of p38 MAPK, but not ERK MAPK, signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. Blockage of p38 MAPK signaling could largely rescue proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest induced by PRKDC knockdown. Moreover, we analyzed gene expression and clinical data from six independent breast cancer cohorts containing ~1,000 patients. In all cohorts, our results consistently showed that high expression of PRKDC was significantly associated with poor survival in both treated and untreated breast cancer patients. CONCLUSION: Together, our results suggest that high expression of PRKDC facilitates breast cancer cell growth via regulation of p38 MAPK signaling, and is a prognostic marker for poor survival in breast cancer patients.

17.
Skin Res Technol ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defective skin's acidic mantle is a component of atopic dermatitis (AD) pathophysiology. We mapped the skin pH and determine its relationship with transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and disease severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving patients aged ≥18 years. Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) was assessed. Skin pH, TEWL and hydration were measured at 18 pre-determined sites. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients participated, 33(68.8%) females and 15(31.3%) males aged 28.46 ± 12.07 years. The overall skin pH was 5.32 ± 0.68 ranging from 5.16 ± 0.75 to 5.52 ± 0.59. The lowest pH 5.16 ± 0.75 was at anterior leg, popliteal fossae 5.18 ± 0.67, lower back 5.21 ± 0.64, forehead 5.22 ± 0.62, upper back 5.25 ± 0.65 and neck 5.26 ± 0.76. Highest pH was at the cheek 5.52 ± 0.59, anterior thigh 5.47 ± 0.68, dorsal arm 5.46 ± 0.68, volar arm 5.43 ± 0.67 and abdomen 5.39 ± 0.67. Lesional areas' pH (5.40 ± 0.13) was higher than nonlesional (5.27 ± 0.14), P = .01. pH at AD predilection sites was significantly lower non-predilection sites (5.26 ± 0.59 vs 5.34 ± 0.64). pH did not correlate with TEWL (r = .23, P = .12), EASI (r = .19, P = .20) and itch (r = .06, P = .70) but correlated with hydration r = -.33, P = .02. CONCLUSION: Skin pH was lower at AD predilection sites. There was no correlation between pH with AD severity and TEWL, pH correlated with hydration.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(41): 37693-37700, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532197

RESUMO

Na metal is a promising anode for Na batteries owing to its high theoretical capacity and low reduction potential. Nevertheless, an unstable and inhomogeneous solid electrolyte interphase originated from the instantaneous reactions between the Na metal anode and organic liquid electrolyte causes the intractable hurdles of dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency. Here, a sodium fluoride (NaF)-poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) inorganic-organic hybrid protective layer is constructed on a commercial Cu current collector via a simple blade-coating technique. A flexible PVDF matrix can endure volume change, maintaining the integrity of the anode/coating interface, while NaF particles provide improved Na+ diffusion conductivity and mechanical strength, suppressing the dendrite initiation and growth. Based on these synergetic effects, an excellent cycle life of more than ∼2100 h is realized at 1 mA cm-2 at 50% depth of discharge (DOD), which outperforms 10-fold lifetime of the Cu current collector (∼170 h). Moreover, the Cu current collector with a NaF-PVDF protective layer also delivers good cycling stability at 5 mA cm-2 and an ultrahigh DOD (80%). The rational design of the hybrid protective layer offers a new approach to realize stable Na metal batteries.

19.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373135

RESUMO

Plant height and branch number are essential components of rapeseed plant architecture and are directly correlated with its yield. Presently, improvement of plant architecture is a major challenge in rapeseed breeding. In this study, we first verified that the two rapeseed BnaMAX1 genes had redundant functions resembling those of Arabidopsis MAX1, which regulates plant height and axillary bud outgrowth. Therefore, we designed two sgRNAs to edit these BnaMAX1 homologs using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The T0 plants were edited very efficiently (56.30%-67.38%) at the BnaMAX1 target sites resulting in homozygous, heterozygous, bi-allelic and chimeric mutations. Transmission tests revealed that the mutations were passed on to the T1 and T2 progeny. We also obtained transgene-free lines created by the CRISPR/Cas9 editing, and no mutations were detected in potential off-target sites. Notably, simultaneous knockout of all four BnaMAX1 alleles resulted in semi-dwarf and increased branching phenotypes with more siliques, contributing to increased yield per plant relative to wild type. Therefore, these semi-dwarf and increased branching characteristics have the potential to help construct a rapeseed ideotype. Significantly, the editing resources obtained in our study provide desirable germplasm for further breeding of high yield in rapeseed.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 696: 133883, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446287

RESUMO

As a promising thermally driven separation process, membrane distillation (MD) is capable of treating challenging wastewaters. However, the traditional hydrophobic membranes are vulnerable to fouling by non-polar contaminants owing to the strong hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions. To address this problem, we developed novel anti-oil-fouling MD membranes in this study. The composite membranes with asymmetric wettability were fabricated through electrospinning polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibrous coating on a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane, followed by hydrolyzing the PAN coating with ethylenediamine (EDA) and NaOH, respectively. These two composite membranes exhibited excellent underwater superoleophobicity, with the underwater oil contact angle >150°, which can be attributed to the fibrous and re-entrant surface structure and the optimized surface hydrophilicity of the electrospun coating. During MD process using saline and oily emulsion as feed, the composite membranes presented robust anti-oil-fouling performance, indicating by stable permeate flux and salt rejection. A novel oil-droplet adhesion force probe was introduced to quasi-quantitatively elucidate oil-membrane interaction and evaluate membrane fouling propensity, the force spectroscopy indicated that the fabricated composite membranes had fairly less attractive to crude oil compared with the PTFE membrane. Our research results suggest that the novel composite membranes with asymmetric wettability were competent to serve as an anti-oil-fouling MD membrane for desalinating challenging saline and oily wastewaters.

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