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1.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 2719-2727, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040713

RESUMO

Purpose: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a significant prognostic factor for overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and this is independent of stage and liver function. Inflammation plays a significant role in HCC development and progression. It was hypothesized that the inflammatory status of HCC patients may affect their HRQoL. The relationship between HRQoL and inflammatory status was explored using indicators IL-8 level and modified inflammation-based index (mIBI, based on IL-8, C-reactive protein, and albumin). Methods: From 2007-2011, HCC patients were enrolled prospectively. Baseline HRQoL assessment utilized the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HCC18; clinical and laboratory data were collected at diagnosis. Two summary indices, C30 and HCC18 index-scores, were calculated. Correlation analyses were performed between HRQoL and inflammatory markers. Results: In the 445 patients studied, significant correlations were found between IL-8 levels and EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-HCC18, C30, and HCC18 index-scores. The strongest correlated factors were those reflective of constitutional symptoms, namely QLQ-C30 "appetite loss" (with Pearson's correlation coefficient, r=0.322, P<0.0001); QLQ-C30 "fatigue" (r=0.311, P<0.0001); QLQ-C30 "role functioning" (r=-0.305, P<0.0001); QLQ-HCC18 "nutrition" (r=0.317, P<0.0001); and QLQ-HCC18 "fatigue" (r=0.306, P<0.0001). In addition, moderate but significant correlations were also observed with HCC18 index score (r=0.321, P<0.0001), and C30 index score (r=0.306, P<0.0001). HRQoL factors were also significantly correlated with mIBI. Conclusion: Baseline HRQoL using the conventional assessments of EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HCC18, as well as C30 and HCC18 index-scores, significantly correlated with inflammatory indicators (IL-8 level and mIBI) in HCC patients. Among the strongest correlations were those between IL-8 level and the two index-scores, as well as HRQoL aspects that represent constitutional symptoms. When paralleled with molecular findings, traditional HRQoL assessment in HCC has gained a new level of understanding: pattern recognition within an HRQoL instrument could potentially identify patients with more severe inflammatory state.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2054, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053729

RESUMO

Bone area is one measure of bone size that is easily derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. In a GWA study of DXA bone area of the hip and lumbar spine (N ≥ 28,954), we find thirteen independent association signals at twelve loci that replicate in samples of European and East Asian descent (N = 13,608 - 21,277). Eight DXA area loci associate with osteoarthritis, including rs143384 in GDF5 and a missense variant in COL11A1 (rs3753841). The strongest DXA area association is with rs11614913[T] in the microRNA MIR196A2 gene that associates with lumbar spine area (P = 2.3 × 10-42, ß = -0.090) and confers risk of hip fracture (P = 1.0 × 10-8, OR = 1.11). We demonstrate that the risk allele is less efficient in repressing miR-196a-5p target genes. We also show that the DXA area measure contributes to the risk of hip fracture independent of bone density.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Fraturas do Quadril/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoartrite/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estatura/genética , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colágeno Tipo XI/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 5 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2358, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127096

RESUMO

The original HTML version of this Article was updated shortly after publication to add links to the Peer Review file.In addition, affiliations 16 and 17 incorrectly read 'School of Medicine Sydney, University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney, WA, 6160, Australia' and 'St Vincent's Clinical School, University of New South Wales Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.' This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

4.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 66, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QOL) assessments with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, QLQ-HCC18, C30 and HCC18 index scores have been shown to be prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), independent of disease stage and liver function. Liver function parameters (including bilirubin, albumin, international normalized ratio [INR], Child-Pugh class, ALBI grade, MELD, alkaline phosphatase [ALP]-to-platelet ratio, albumin-to-ALP ratio) have also been found to be independent prognostic factors for OS in HCC patients. There has been scanty data on whether QOL and baseline liver function per se are correlated in HCC patients. This study investigates the correlations between baseline QOL data and liver function variables in HCC patients. METHODS: From 2007 to 2011, 517 patients were enrolled. Baseline QOL was assessed at diagnosis using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HCC18; thereafter C30 and HCC18 index scores were derived. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. For liver function assessment, Child-Pugh class, ALBI grade, MELD, ALP-to-platelet ratio and albumin-to-ALP ratio were derived. Correlation analyses were performed between QOL and liver function data. RESULTS: Complete QOL data were available in 472 HCC patients. After adjusting for clinical variables, significant correlations were found between QOL (QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HCC18) and dichotomized liver function variables (including Child-Pugh class, ALBI grade and the presence of ascites). It was demonstrated that QOL had significant and potentially clinically important correlations with continuous liver function variables (albumin, bilirubin, ALP and albumin-to-ALP ratio), with the highest Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) exceeding 0.4. HCC18 and C30 index scores were also significantly correlated with these liver function variables. HCC18 index score, which had rho up to 0.37, generally performed better than C30 index score, which had rho up to 0.33. CONCLUSIONS: In HCC patients, baseline QOL assessment (using EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-HCC18, C30 index-score or HCC18 index-score) is significantly correlated with liver function. Based on the findings of this study, future trials are warranted to assess whether treatment to enhance liver function could improve HCC patients' QOL.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Albuminas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Ascite/etiologia , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Fígado/metabolismo , Testes de Função Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Contagem de Plaquetas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15186, 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315195

RESUMO

In this paper, we aim at discovering genetic factors of psoriasis through searching for statistically significant SNP-SNP interactions exhaustively from two real psoriasis genome-wide association study datasets (phs000019.v1.p1 and phs000982.v1.p1) downloaded from the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes. To deal with the enormous search space, our search algorithm is accelerated with eight biological plausible interaction patterns and a pre-computed look-up table. After our search, we have discovered several SNPs having a stronger association to psoriasis when they are in combination with another SNP and these combinations may be non-linear interactions. Among the top 20 SNP-SNP interactions being found in terms of pairwise p-value and improvement metric value, we have discovered 27 novel potential psoriasis-associated SNPs where most of them are reported to be eQTLs of a number of known psoriasis-associated genes. On the other hand, we have inferred a gene network after selecting the top 10000 SNP-SNP interactions in terms of improvement metric value and we have discovered a novel long distance interaction between XXbac-BPG154L12.4 and RNU6-283P which is not a long distance haplotype and may be a new discovery. Finally, our experiments with the synthetic datasets have shown that our pre-computed look-up table technique can significantly speed up the search process.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Psoríase/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Fenótipo
6.
Bioinformatics ; 34(10): 1741-1749, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329369

RESUMO

Motivation: Individual genetic variants explain only a small fraction of heritability in some diseases. Some variants have weak marginal effects on disease risk, but their joint effects are significantly stronger when occurring together. Most studies on such epistatic interactions have focused on methods for identifying the interactions and interpreting individual cases, but few have explored their general functional basis. This was due to the lack of a comprehensive list of epistatic interactions and uncertainties in associating variants to genes. Results: We conducted a large-scale survey of published research articles to compile the first comprehensive list of epistatic interactions in human diseases with detailed annotations. We used various methods to associate these variants to genes to ensure robustness. We found that these genes are significantly more connected in protein interaction networks, are more co-expressed and participate more often in the same pathways. We demonstrate using the list to discover novel disease pathways. Contact: kevinyip@cse.cuhk.edu.hk. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Epistasia Genética , Proteínas/genética , Humanos , Proteínas/análise , Software
8.
BMC Womens Health ; 17(1): 55, 2017 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28750616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy improves outcome of patients with early breast cancer. However, chemotherapy may be associated with long term toxicities. In this retrospective cohort study, the objectives were to determine body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and fasting lipids levels of young premenopausal Chinese breast cancer patients after adjuvant chemotherapy. Potential factors associated with these parameters were identified. METHODS: Eligibility criteria include premenopausal Chinese patients who were diagnosed to have stage I-III breast cancer within 3-10 years, age < 45 and having received adjuvant chemotherapy at the time of breast cancer diagnosis. Information at initial breast cancer diagnosis were retrieved from patients' medical records and include age at diagnosis, tumor characteristics, anti-cancer treatments, blood pressure and body weight and height. At study entry, all patients had additional background demographics collected, as well as blood pressure, body weight and fasting serum lipid profiles measured. Incidence of chemotherapy-related amenorrhoea (CRA) and menopause were determined. Factors associated with weight gain, hypertension and dyslipidaemias were analyzed. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty patients were studied. The median age at breast cancer diagnosis was 41 years (range: 24-45). The median time from breast cancer diagnosis to study entry was 5.0 years. The median age at study entry was 46.5 years (range: 28-54). 91.1% developed CRA; 48.9% had become menopausal and 10% were peri-menopausal. Between initial breast cancer diagnosis and the time of study entry, the median weight gain was 1.8 kg; 63.2% gained weight by >2%; 52.1% were overweight/obese; 30.7% had hypertension. Abnormal total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol occurred in 34.3% and 56.1% respectively. On multivariate analyses, older age was associated with reduced risk while occurrence of CRA and having received taxane-containing regimens were associated with increased risk of weight gain. Oestrogen-receptor positivity was associated with reduced risk while overweight/obese statuses were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Use of tamoxifen was associated with reduced risk of abnormal LDL-cholesterol. Weight gain, overweight/obese, older age, progression to post/peri-menopausal status at study entry, having received corticosteroid premedication before adjuvant chemotherapy and having received taxane-containing adjuvant chemotherapy were associated with increased risk of dyslipidaemias. CONCLUSION: Among young premenopausal Chinese breast cancer patients who had received adjuvant chemotherapy, the current study has revealed that although there was only a median weight gain of 1.8 kg, there was a nearly 60% increase in abnormal BMI. Further, a significant proportion of patients were detected to have hypertension and dyslipidaemias. Interventional studies with lifestyle modifications are warranted.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/sangue , Pré-Menopausa , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Genet ; 49(5): 801-805, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28319091

RESUMO

We performed a genome-wide association study of total hip replacements, based on variants identified through whole-genome sequencing, which included 4,657 Icelandic patients and 207,514 population controls. We discovered two rare signals that strongly associate with osteoarthritis total hip replacement: a missense variant, c.1141G>C (p.Asp369His), in the COMP gene (allelic frequency = 0.026%, P = 4.0 × 10-12, odds ratio (OR) = 16.7) and a frameshift mutation, rs532464664 (p.Val330Glyfs*106), in the CHADL gene that associates through a recessive mode of inheritance (homozygote frequency = 0.15%, P = 4.5 × 10-18, OR = 7.71). On average, c.1141G>C heterozygotes and individuals homozygous for rs532464664 had their hip replacement operation 13.5 years and 4.9 years earlier than others (P = 0.0020 and P = 0.0026), respectively. We show that the full-length CHADL transcript is expressed in cartilage. Furthermore, the premature stop codon introduced by the CHADL frameshift mutation results in nonsense-mediated decay of the mutant transcripts.


Assuntos
Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Osteoartrite do Quadril/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Artroplastia de Quadril , Células Cultivadas , Códon sem Sentido , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Islândia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco
10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 38225, 2016 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27910883

RESUMO

Functional short tandem repeats (STR) are polymorphic in the population, and the number of repeats regulates the expression of nearby genes (known as expression STR, eSTR). STR in IGF1 promoter has been extensively studied for its association with IGF1 concentration in blood and various clinical traits and represents an important eSTR. We previously used an in-vitro luciferase reporter model to examine the interaction between STRs and SNPs in IGF1 promoter. Here, we further explored the mechanism how the number of repeats of the STR regulates gene transcription. An inverse correlation between the number of repeats and the extent of transactivation was found in a haplotype consisting of three promoter SNPs (C-STR-T-T). We showed that these adjacent SNPs located outside the STR were required for the STR to function as eSTR. The C allele of rs35767 provides a binding site for CCAAT/enhancer-binding-protein δ (C/EBPD), which is essential for the gradational transactivation property of eSTR and FOXA3 may also be involved. Therefore, we propose a mechanism in which the gradational transactivation by the eSTR is caused by the interaction of one or more transcriptional complexes located outside the STR, rather than by direct binding to a repeat motif of the STR.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Elementos de Resposta/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/biossíntese , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 6: 18898, 2016 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732145

RESUMO

Normalization is essential to get rid of biases in microarray data for their accurate analysis. Existing normalization methods for microarray gene expression data commonly assume a similar global expression pattern among samples being studied. However, scenarios of global shifts in gene expressions are dominant in cancers, making the assumption invalid. To alleviate the problem, here we propose and develop a novel normalization strategy, Cross Normalization (CrossNorm), for microarray data with unbalanced transcript levels among samples. Conventional procedures, such as RMA and LOESS, arbitrarily flatten the difference between case and control groups leading to biased gene expression estimates. Noticeably, applying these methods under the strategy of CrossNorm, which makes use of the overall statistics of the original signals, the results showed significantly improved robustness and accuracy in estimating transcript level dynamics for a series of publicly available datasets, including titration experiment, simulated data, spike-in data and several real-life microarray datasets across various types of cancers. The results have important implications for the past and the future cancer studies based on microarray samples with non-negligible difference. Moreover, the strategy can also be applied to other sorts of high-throughput data as long as the experiments have global expression variations between conditions.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
BMC Syst Biol ; 10 Suppl 1: 8, 2016 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis has been widely used to understand how genetic variations affect gene expressions in the biological systems. Traditional eQTL is investigated in a pair-wise manner in which one SNP affects the expression of one gene. In this way, some associated markers found in GWAS have been related to disease mechanism by eQTL study. However, in real life, biological process is usually performed by a group of genes. Although some methods have been proposed to identify a group of SNPs that affect the mean of gene expressions in the network, the change of co-expression pattern has not been considered. So we propose a process and algorithm to identify the marker which affects the co-expression pattern of a pathway. Considering two genes may have different correlations under different isoforms which is hard to detect by the linear test, we also consider the nonlinear test. RESULTS: When we applied our method to yeast eQTL dataset profiled under both the glucose and ethanol conditions, we identified a total of 166 modules, with each module consisting of a group of genes and one eQTL where the eQTL regulate the co-expression patterns of the group of genes. We found that many of these modules have biological significance. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a network based covariance test to identify the SNP which affects the structure of a pathway. We also consider the nonlinear test as considering two genes may have different correlations under different isoforms which is hard to detect by linear test.


Assuntos
Modelos Genéticos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10129, 2016 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26733130

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) is a measure of osteoporosis and is useful in evaluating the risk of fracture. In a genome-wide association study of BMD among 20,100 Icelanders, with follow-up in 10,091 subjects of European and East-Asian descent, we found a new BMD locus that harbours the PTCH1 gene, represented by rs28377268 (freq. 11.4-22.6%) that associates with reduced spine BMD (P=1.0 × 10(-11), ß=-0.09). We also identified a new spine BMD signal in RSPO3, rs577721086 (freq. 6.8%), that associates with increased spine BMD (P=6.6 × 10(-10), ß=0.14). Importantly, both variants associate with osteoporotic fractures and affect expression of the PTCH1 and RSPO3 genes that is in line with their influence on BMD and known biological function of these genes. Additional new BMD signals were also found at the AXIN1 and SOST loci and a new lead SNP at the EN1 locus.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Fraturas Espontâneas/genética , Osteoporose/complicações , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fraturas Espontâneas/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Patched , Receptor Patched-1 , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Trombospondinas/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140842, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26485568

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this prospective cross-sectional study on young premenopausal breast cancer patients, the objectives were to: determine the incidences of chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) and menopause (CRM); identify associated factors; and assess plasma levels of estradiol (E2) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) among patients who developed menopause. METHODS: Eligibility criteria include Chinese stage I-III breast cancer patients, premenopausal, age ≤45 at breast cancer diagnosis, having received adjuvant chemotherapy, within 3-10 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Detailed menstrual history prior to and after adjuvant treatment was taken at study entry. Patients' background demographics, tumor characteristics and anti-cancer treatments were collected. The rates of CRA and CRM were determined. Analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with CRM. For postmenopausal patients, levels of E2 and FSH were analyzed. RESULTS: 286 patients were recruited; the median time from breast cancer diagnosis to study entry was 5.0 years. 255 patients (91.1%) developed CRA. Of these, 66.7% regained menstruation. At the time of study entry, 137 (48.9%) had developed CRM, amongst whom 84 were age ≤45. On multivariate analysis, age was the only associated factor. Among patients with CRM, the median FSH was 41.0 IU/L; this was significantly lower in those who were taking tamoxifen compared to those who were not (20.1 vs. 59.7 IU/L, p<0.0001). The E2 level was <40 pmol/L; there was no difference between those who were still on tamoxifen or not. CONCLUSION: After adjuvant chemotherapy, the majority of young Chinese breast cancer patients developed CRA; ~50% developed CRM, with 61% at age ≤45. Age at diagnosis is the only factor associated with CRM. FSH level may be affected by tamoxifen intake.


Assuntos
Amenorreia/epidemiologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Estradiol/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Menopausa Precoce/sangue , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Amenorreia/sangue , Amenorreia/induzido quimicamente , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
16.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 5(2): 167-74, 2014 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25504735

RESUMO

Idiopathic scoliosis occurs in 3% of individuals and has an unknown etiology. The objective of this study was to identify rare variants that contribute to the etiology of idiopathic scoliosis by using exome sequencing in a multigenerational family with idiopathic scoliosis. Exome sequencing was completed for three members of this multigenerational family with idiopathic scoliosis, resulting in the identification of a variant in the HSPG2 gene as a potential contributor to the phenotype. The HSPG2 gene was sequenced in a separate cohort of 100 unrelated individuals affected with idiopathic scoliosis and also was examined in an independent idiopathic scoliosis population. The exome sequencing and subsequent bioinformatics filtering resulted in 16 potentially damaging and rare coding variants. One of these variants, p.Asn786Ser, is located in the HSPG2 gene. The variant p.Asn786Ser also is overrepresented in a larger cohort of idiopathic scoliosis cases compared with a control population (P = 0.024). Furthermore, we identified additional rare HSPG2 variants that are predicted to be damaging in two independent cohorts of individuals with idiopathic scoliosis. The HSPG2 gene encodes for a ubiquitous multifunctional protein within the extracellular matrix in which loss of function mutation are known to result in a musculoskeletal phenotype in both mouse and humans. Based on these results, we conclude that rare variants in the HSPG2 gene potentially contribute to the idiopathic scoliosis phenotype in a subset of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Further studies must be completed to confirm the effect of the HSPG2 gene on the idiopathic scoliosis phenotype.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato/genética , Escoliose/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência
17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 57: 84-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25043418

RESUMO

CREB1 is a cAMP responsive transcriptional factor which plays a key role in neural development. CREB1 signal pathway (CSP) has been implicated repeatedly in studies of predisposition for schizophrenia. We speculated that CSP has undergone positive selection during evolution of modern human and some genes that have undergone natural selection in the past may predispose to schizophrenia (SCZ) in modern time. Positive selection and association analysis were employed to explore the molecular evolution of CSP and association with schizophrenia. Our results showed a pan-ethnic selection event on NRG1 and CREB1, as confirmed in all 14 ethnic populations studied, which also suggested a selection process occurred before the "Out of Africa" scenario. Analysis of 62 SNPs covering 6 CSP genes in 2019 Han Chinese (976 SCZ patients and 1043 healthy individuals) showed an association of two SNPs (rs4379857, P = 0.009, OR [95% CI]: 1.200 [1.379-1.046]; rs2238751, P = 0.023, OR [95% CI]: 1.253 [1.522-1.032]) with SCZ. However, none of these significances survived after multiple testing corrections. Nonetheless, we observed an association of a rare CREB1 haplotype CCGGC (Bonferroni corrected P = 1.74 × 10(-5)) with SCZ. Our study showed that there was substantial population heterogeneity in genetic predisposition to SCZ, and different genes in the CSP pathway may predispose to SCZ in different populations.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Neuregulina-1/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pathology ; 46(5): 375-82, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24992243

RESUMO

Inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) are a large group of rare genetic diseases. The spectrum and incidences of IMDs differ among populations, which has been well characterised in Caucasians but much less so in Chinese. In a setting of a University Hospital Metabolic Clinic in Hong Kong, over 100 patients with IMDs have been seen during a period of 13 years (from 1997 to 2010). The data were used to define the spectrum of diseases in the Southern Chinese population. Comparison with other populations revealed a unique spectrum of common IMDs. Furthermore, the incidence of the common IMDs was estimated by using population carrier frequencies of known recurrent mutations. Locally common diseases (their estimated incidence) include (1) glutaric aciduria type 1 (∼1/60,000), (2) multiple carboxylase deficiency (∼1/60,000), (3) primary carnitine deficiency (∼1/60,000), (4) carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (∼1/60,000), (5) glutaric aciduria type 2 (∼1/22,500), (6) citrin deficiency (∼1/17,000), (7) tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient hyperphenylalaninaemia due to 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency (∼1/60,000), (8) glycogen storage disease type 1 (∼1/150,000). In addition, ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy are common X-linked diseases. Findings of the disease spectrum and treatment outcome are summarised here which may be useful for clinical practice. In addition, data will also be useful for policy makers in planning of newborn screening programs and resource allocation.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/epidemiologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Mutação
19.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst ; 15(4): 547-52, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23390188

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study we investigated the gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in a population of Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1767 (843 male, 924 female) Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese were recruited. ACE I/D genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and serum ACE activity was determined using a commercially available kinetic kit. ACE I/D genotype distribution was compared by chi-square test, the correlation between ACE I/D polymorphism and serum ACE activity was analysed by ANOVA test and gender difference of serum ACE activity of different genotypes was compared by independent sample t-test. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference of genotype distribution between male and female subjects was found. Serum ACE activity was significantly correlated with ACE genotype. Overall, there was no gender difference of serum ACE activity; however, when sub-grouping the subjects by ACE I/D genotype, male subjects with DD genotype had higher serum ACE activity than female subjects with DD genotype. CONCLUSIONS: No significant gender difference of genotype distribution was found in elderly Chinese. Serum ACE activity was significantly correlated with ACE I/D polymorphism in elderly Chinese. Male subjects with DD genotype had higher serum ACE activity than female subjects with DD genotype.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Mutação INDEL/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , China , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino
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