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1.
Environ Technol ; : 1-26, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001853

RESUMO

Bioclogging is a commonly encountered operational issue that lowers hydraulic conductivity and the overall performance of the infiltration systems. In this paper, a novel processing for alleviating bioclogging by filter media surface hydrophobic modification was presented. Two-dimensional porous media cells were used to observe the influence of hydrophobic modification on biofilm growth in the pore structure. Moreover, two continuous-flow columns packed with gravel, one of which half gravel was hydrophobically modified, were operated with artificial wastewater to verify the effect of hydrophobic modification on bioclogging alleviation. The results showed that the biofilm growth in the cell with hydrophobic modification was slow, and the biomass was less and liable to wipe off after hydrophobic treatment. Meanwhile, the hydraulic efficiency of the flow seepage field was also improved after hydrophobic treatment. The column tests results showed that the hydraulic conductivity of the filter bed with hydrophobic modification (Column B) decreased more slowly than that of another without hydrophobic modification (Column A). Column B had the hydraulic conductivity (k) of 0.66cm/s in the final stage of the experiment, while the k of Column A was 0.14 cm/s. It verified that hydrophobic modification of partial filter media can alleviate the bioclogging problem of the infiltration systems to some extent. The results provide a new idea and potential technical support for solving bioclogging problem.

2.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 15353702211060517, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871505

RESUMO

Among different types of congenital heart diseases, ventricular septal defect is the most frequently diagnosed type and is frequently missed in early prenatal screening programs. Herein, we explored the role of maternal serum-derived exosomes in detecting and predicting ventricular septal defect in fetuses in the early stage of pregnancy. A total of 104 pregnant women consisting of 52 ventricular septal defect cases and 52 healthy controls were recruited. TMT/iTRAQ proteomic analysis uncovered 15 maternal serum exosomal proteins, which showed differential expression between ventricular septal defect and control groups. Among these, four down-regulated proteins, lactoferrin, SBSN, DCD, and MBD3, were validated by Western blot. The protein lactoferrin was additionally verified by ELISA which was able to distinguish ventricular septal defects from controls with area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.804 (p < 0.001). Our findings reveal that lactoferrin in maternal serum-derived exosomes may be a potential biomarker for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal ventricular septal defects.

3.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886602

RESUMO

Objective:To explore the value of computed tomography angiography (CTA) combined with digital technology in the vascular anatomy of the anterior thigh flap in patients with operative defects after head, neck and maxillofacial tumor operation, and in the design of preoperative and intraoperative flaps. Methods:Twenty-five cases of patients with postoperative defect after head, neck and maxillofacial tumor surgery admitted to our hospital from April 2018 to April 2019 were selected. Preoperative CTA and digital technology were used to clarify vascular anatomy and other related conditions, and the operation was carried out. Consistency analysis was applied to evaluate the value of CTA, digital technology and CTA combined digital technology in the localization of anterolateral thigh perforator flap with operative defects after head, neck and maxillofacial tumor resection, and the diagnostic efficacy of the three methods was compared. Results:The preoperative CTA examination revealed that there were 26 intermuscular perforators with a diameter greater than 0.8 mm in the flap donor site, and 17 musculocutaneous perforators with a diameter greater than 1.0 mm. During the operation, it was actually found that there were 27 intermuscular perforators with a diameter greater than 0.8 mm and 17 musculocutaneous perforators with a diameter greater than 1.0 mm. The accuracy rates of Pre-operative examination were 96.29% and 100.00%, respectively.In addition, the lateral femoral circumflex artery determined by digital technology. The starting position of the descending branch, the diameter of the vessel, the direction of the perforating vessel, and the maximum length of the pedicle that can be cut were consistent with the actual observation during the operation. All the patients in the group successfully underwent flap removal and repair. After the operation, 2 skin flaps suffered from vascular crisis, and survived under the managements of anticoagulation, lifting of restraint, and massage. The rest of the flaps survived smoothly. The patients were followed up for 3-12 months postoperatively. Twenty-four cases of skin flaps had good appearance. One case had swollen wound And the appearance of the skin flap was satisfactory after elective secondary thinning. Among the 25 patients with head and neck defects, in the perforator location examination, 18 cases were detected by CTA, with a sensitivity of 90.0%, a specificity of 60.0%, an accuracy of 84.0%, and Kappa=0.500. 19 cases was detected by digital technology, with a sensitivity of 86.36%, a specificity of 66.67%, a accuracy rate of 84.00%, and Kappa=0.412. 21 cases was detected by CTA combined with digital technology,with a sensitivity of 95.45%, a specificity of 66.67%, a accuracy of 92.00%, and Kappa=0.621. The accuracy of CTA combined with digital technology in the perforator positioning of patients with head and neck tumor defects was significantly higher than that of the single method(P<0.05). Conclusion:CTA has good application value in the positioning of perforator in patients with head, neck and maxillofacial tumor defects. In addition, the combination of CTA and digital technology can improve the accuracy of the vascular anatomy of the anterior thighflap and the design of the preoperative and intraoperative flaps, which is beneficial to surgery clinical implementation.

4.
Talanta ; 240: 123118, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942473

RESUMO

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection with high sensitivity plays an important role in biomedical research and food engineering. By combining colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), we synthetize a novel H2O2 dual-sensor constructed via TMB-Fe3O4@AuNPs. In the presence of H2O2, the peroxide model enzyme might catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'- tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as blue charge transfer complex (CTC) for colorimetry, and then facilitate the sensitivity improvement of SERS detection. The achieved results show that in colorimetry, the linear range is from 40 µM to 5.5 mM with the detection limit of 11.1 µM; in SERS detection, the linear range is from 2 nM to 1 µM with the detection limit of 0.275 nM. Clearly, this mutual reference strategy improves both the detection limit of colorimetry and the sensitivity of SERS detection. Moreover, this colorimetry/SERS dual-sensor constructed via TMB-Fe3O4@AuNPs is successfully applied to the H2O2 detection in plasma and milk, indicating the excellent performance and flexibility.

5.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(6): 798-808, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966643

RESUMO

Background and Aims: The immune system plays vital roles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) initiation and progression. The present study aimed to construct an immune-gene related prognostic signature (IRPS) for predicting the prognosis of HCC patients. Methods: Gene expression data were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. The IRPS was established via least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and multivariate Cox regression analysis. The prognostic values of the IRPS were further validated using the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) dataset. Results: A total of 62 genes were identified as candidate immune-related prognostic genes. According to the results of Lasso and multivariate Cox regression analysis, we established an IRPS and confirmed its stability and reliability in the ICGC dataset. The IRPS was significantly associated with advanced clinicopathological characteristics. Both Cox regression analyses revealed that the IRPS could be independent risk factors influencing prognosis of HCC patients. The relationships between the IRPS and infiltration of immune cells demonstrated that the IRPS was associated with immune cell infiltration. Furthermore, a nomogram was constructed to estimate the survival probability of HCC patients. Conclusions: The IRPS was effective for predicting prognosis of HCC patients, which might serve as novel prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers for HCC.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846228

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to investigate psychological symptoms and post-traumatic growth (PTG) among the general population in Wuhan, China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An online survey was conducted using convenience sampling. Participants were invited to fill out this questionnaire, which included information on sociodemographic characteristics and other survey objectives. The Psychological Questionnaire for Emergent Events of Public Health (PQEEPH) and the Chinese version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were used. The prevalence of depression, neurasthenia, fear, obsessive-anxiety, and hypochondriasis among 311 participants were 61.1%, 69.8%, 97.8%, 57.2%, and 45%, respectively. Results indicated that a substantial proportion of the general population may have experienced psychological symptoms as well as PTG, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings demonstrate the importance of developing targeted psychological interventions for those at risk for mental health symptoms. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(xx), xx-xx.].

7.
Opt Express ; 29(22): 35678-35690, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808997

RESUMO

Plasmonic nanostructures with dual surface plasmon resonances capable of simultaneously realizing strong light confinement and efficient light radiation are attractive for light-matter interaction and nanoscale optical detection. Here, we propose an optical nanoantenna by adding gold nanoring to the conventional Fano-type resonance antenna. With the help of gold nanoring, the following improvements are simultaneously realized: (1). The near-field intensity of the Fano-type antenna is further enhanced by the Fabry Perot-like resonance formed by the combination of the gold nanoring and the substrate waveguide layer. (2). Directional radiation is realized by the collaboration of the gold nanoring and the Fano-type antenna, thus improving the collection efficiency of the far-field signal. (3). The multi-wavelength tunable performance of the Fano resonance antenna is significantly improved by replacing the superradiation mode in the Fano resonance with the dipole resonance induced by the gold nanoring. The optical properties of the nanoantennas are demonstrated by numerical simulations and practical devices. Therefore, the proposed optical nanoantenna provides a new idea for further improving the performance of conventional Fano-type nanoantennas and opens new horizons for designing plasmonic devices with enhancements in both near- and far-field functionalities, which can be applied in a wide range of applications such as surface-enhanced spectroscopy, photoluminescence, nonlinear nanomaterials/emitters and biomedicine sensing.

8.
Comput Biol Med ; 139: 105030, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800809

RESUMO

This paper presents a fully automatic method for multi-organ segmentation from 3D abdominal CT volumes. Firstly, spines and ribs are removed by exponential transformation and binarization to reduce the disturbance to subsequent segmentation. Then, a Local Linear Embedding (LLE)-based graph partitioning approach is employed to perform initial segmentation for liver, spleen, and bilateral kidneys simultaneously, and a novel segmentation refinement scheme is applied composed of hybrid intensity model, 3D Chan-Vese model, and histogram equalization-based organ separation algorithm. Finally, a pseudo-3D bottleneck detection algorithm is introduced for boundary correction. The proposed method does not require heavy training or registration process and is capable of dealing with shape and location variations as well as the weak boundaries of target organs. Experiments on XHCSU20 database show the proposed method is competitive with state-of-the-art methods with Dice similarity coefficients of 95.9%, 95.1%, 94.7%, and 94.5%, Jaccard indices of 92.2%, 90.8%, 90.0%, and 89.5%, and average symmetric surface distances of 1.1 mm, 1.0 mm, 0.9 mm and 1.1 mm, for liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, respectively, and the average running time is around 6 min for a CT volume. The accuracy, precision, recall, and specificity also maintain high values for each of the four organs. Moreover, experiments on SLIVER07 dataset prove its high efficiency and accuracy on liver-only segmentation.

9.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a previously uncharacterized function of Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) in inhibition of gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs). METHODS: MKN74 and MKN45, two CD44 positive gastric cancer cell lines with stem cell properties were used. The cells were divided into 2 groups. Treatment group was treated with SJZD (1-5 mg/mL) for indicated time (48 h-14 days). The control group was treated with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline. Cell Counting Assay Kit-8 were used to measure cell viability. Spheroid colony formation and GCSCs marker expression were performed to determine GCSCs stemness. Cell fractionation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to assess the distribution and DNA-binding activity of ß-catenin after SJZD treatment, respectively. RESULTS: SJZD treatment repressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in MKN74 and MKN45 cell lines (P<0.05). Moreover, SJZD dramatically inhibited formation of spheroid colony and expression of GCSC markers in GC cells (P<0.05). Mechanistically, SJZD reduced nuclear accumulation and DNA binding activity of ß-catenin (P<0.05), the key regulator for maintaining CSC stemness. CONCLUSION: SJZD inhibits GCSCs by attenuating the transcriptional activity of ß-catenin.

10.
Hematology ; 26(1): 885-895, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a highly proliferative hematologic malignancy. Circular RNA hsa_circ_0000745 (circ_0000745) has been reported as an oncogene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, whether circ_0000745 can drive T-ALL progression by controlling notch receptor 1 (NOTCH1) expression is unclear. METHODS: Relative expression of circ_0000745 and NOTCH1 in bone marrow (BM) samples and T-ALL cells was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Loss- and gain-of-function experiments were executed to evaluate the effects of circ_0000745 and NOTCH1 on T-ALL cell proliferation and apoptosis. The microRNAs (miRs) that might jointly interact with circ_0000745 and NOTCH1 were predicted by bioinformatics analysis and verified by dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. RESULTS: Circ_0000745 and NOTCH1 were overexpressed in T-ALL BM and T-ALL cells. Functionally, both circ_0000745 and NOTCH1 overexpression promoted T-ALL cell proliferation and curbed T-ALL cell apoptosis. In contrast, both circ_0000745 and NOTCH1 silencing restrained T-ALL cell proliferation and induced T-ALL cell apoptosis. Furthermore, circ_0000745 could control T-ALL cell proliferation and apoptosis through regulating NOTCH1 expression. Importantly, circ_0000745 regulated NOTCH1 expression by sponging miR-193b-3p. CONCLUSION: Our findings proposed a novel model in which circ_0000745 promoted cell proliferation and curbed cell apoptosis via upregulating NOTCH1 through serving as a miR-193b-3p sponge in T-ALL.


Assuntos
Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Regulação para Cima
11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 734708, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631567

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is a common gynecologic aggressive neoplasm. The mortality of ovarian cancer is top among gynecologic malignancies due to the insidious onset, atypical early symptoms, and chemoresistance. Therefore, it is urgent to seek another promising treatment for ovarian cancer. Purified vitexin compound 1 (VB1) is a kind of neolignan from the seed of traditional Chinese herb vitex negundo that possessed diverse pharmacological effects. VB1 can exhibit anti-neoplastic activities against various cancers. However, the role of VB1 in ovarian cancer treatment has not been elaborated, and the mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of VB1 in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, along with the molecular mechanism of action. In vitro, VB-1 can effectively suppress the proliferation, induce apoptosis, and block cell cycle at G2/M phase with a concentration dependent manner in ovarian cancer cells. Western blot assay showed that VB1 induce apoptosis via upregulating expression of cleaved-caspase3 and block cell cycle at G2/M phase through upregulating expression of P21. Meanwhile, VB1 can effectively inhibit tumor growth in xenograft mouse model. Our research indicated that VB1 can significantly exert its anti-neoplastic effects and may represent a new class of agents in ovarian cancer therapy.

12.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1606-1609, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of serum protein ROCK2 in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). METHODS: The patients were divided into cGVHD group and control group (without cGVHD). The expression levels of serum protein ROCK2 were detected by ELISA in patients with or without cGVHD after allo-HSCT. RESULTS: The expression level of ROCK2 in serum of cGVHD patients was significantly higher than those in control group, moreover, the expression level of ROCK2 in severe cGVHD group was significant higher than that in moderate and mild cGVHD group (P<0.001). The expression level of ROCK2 was significantly decreased in the serum of cGVHD patients after treatment(P<0.01); the expression level of ROCK2 was significantly higher in the serum of cGVHD patients with lung as the target organ(P<0.01). The median survival time of patients with severe cGVHD were significantly shorter than that of patients with mild and moderate cGVHD(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: ROCK2 shows certain reference value in the evaluation of severity and prognosis of cGVHD, and may be a new target for the treatment of cGVHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Transplante Homólogo , Quinases Associadas a rho
13.
Front Genet ; 12: 717208, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567071

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to identify maternal circulating exosomal miRNAs as potential non-invasive biomarkers for the early detection of fetal ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Methods: In total, 182 pregnant women, comprising 91 VSD cases and 91 matched controls, were included in this study. Exosomes were isolated; dysregulated exosomal miRNAs were profiled using next-generation sequencing. Differential abundance of miRNAs was verified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by constructing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: In total, 77 serum exosomal miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in the VSD group compared to their expression in the control group. Among these, five downregulated exosomal miRNAs were validated using qRT-PCR. hsa-miR-146a-5p was identified to be capable of distinguishing VSD cases from controls (area under the ROC curve [AUC]: 0.997; p < 1.00E-05). Conclusion: Circulating exosomal miRNAs, particularly hsa-miR-146a-5p, may be predictive biomarkers for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal VSDs.

14.
Neural Netw ; 143: 767-782, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488013

RESUMO

Semantic segmentation is one of the essential prerequisites for computer vision tasks, but edge-precise segmentation stays challenging due to the potential lack of a proper model indicating the low-level relation between pixels. We have presented Refined UNet v2, a concatenation of a network backbone and a subsequent embedded conditional random field (CRF) layer, which coarsely performs pixel-wise classification and refines edges of segmentation regions in a one-stage way. However, the CRF layer of v2 employs a gray-scale global observation (image) to construct contrast-sensitive bilateral features, which is not able to achieve the desired performance on ambiguous edges. In addition, the naïve depth-wise Gaussian filter cannot always compute efficiently, especially for a longer-range message-passing step. To address the aforementioned issues, we upgrade the bilateral message-passing kernel and the efficient implementation of Gaussian filtering in the CRF layer in this paper, referred to as Refined UNet v3, which is able to effectively capture ambiguous edges and accelerate the message-passing procedure. Specifically, the inherited UNet is employed to coarsely locate cloud and shadow regions and the embedded CRF layer refines the edges of the forthcoming segmentation proposals. The multi-channel guided Gaussian filter is applied to the bilateral message-passing step, which improves detecting ambiguous edges that are hard for the gray-scale counterpart to identify, and fast Fourier transform-based (FFT-based) Gaussian filtering facilitates an efficient and potentially range-agnostic implementation. Furthermore, Refined UNet v3 is able to be extended to segmentation on multi-spectral datasets, and the corresponding refinement examination confirms the development of shadow retrieval. Experiments and corresponding results demonstrate that the proposed update can outperform its counterpart in terms of the detection of vague edges, shadow retrieval, and isolated redundant regions, and it is practically efficient in our TensorFlow implementation. The demo source code is available at https://github.com/92xianshen/refined-unet-v3.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação
15.
Neuropharmacology ; 200: 108806, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562441

RESUMO

Synapse pruning is essential not only for the developmental establishment of synaptic connections in the brain but also for the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. However, there are no effective pharmacological means to regulate synaptic pruning during early development. Using the eye-specific segregation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) as a model of synaptic pruning coupled with adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonism and knockout, we demonstrated while genetic deletion of the A2AR throughout the development attenuated eye-specific segregation with the attenuated microglial phagocytosis at postnatal day 5 (P5), selective treatment with the A2AR antagonist KW6002 at P2-P4 facilitated synaptic pruning of visual pathway with microglial activation, increased lysosomal activity in microglia and increased microglial engulfment of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) inputs in the dLGN at P5 (but not P10). Furthermore, KW6002-mediated facilitation of synaptic pruning was activity-dependent since tetrodotoxin (TTX) treatment abolished the KW6002 facilitation. Moreover, the A2AR antagonist also modulated postsynaptic proteins and synaptic density at early postnatal stages as revealed by the reduced immunoreactivity of postsynaptic proteins (Homer1 and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5) and colocalization of presynaptic VGlut2 and postsynaptic Homer1 puncta in the dLGN. These findings suggest that A2AR can control pruning by multiple actions involving the retinal wave, microglia engulfment, and postsynaptic stability. Thus, A2AR antagonists may represent a novel pharmacological strategy to modulate microglia-mediated synaptic pruning and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders associated with dysfunctional pruning.

16.
Oncol Rep ; 46(3)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278506

RESUMO

MicroRNAs play an important role in tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and Rab23 is a member of the Ras­related small GTPase family and plays a critical role in the progression of may types of tumors. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of microRNA (miR)­367­3p on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells. qRT­PCR was used to detect the expression of miR­367­3p in prostate cancer and adjacent tissues. Cell proliferation, scratch, and Transwell assays were performed to verify the inhibitory effect of miR­367­3p overexpression or Ras­related protein Rab 23 (Rab23) knockdown on prostate cancer. Double luciferase reporter assay was utilized to verify whether miR­367­3p could target the Rab23 3'­untranslated region (UTR). The expression levels of Rab23, Gli1, and Gli2 in prostate cancer cells transfected with the miR­367­3p mimic were detected via qRT­PCR analysis. miR­367­3p expression in the prostate cancer tissues was downregulated compared with that in the para­cancer control tissues. miR­367­3p expression in DU145 and PC3 cells was also downregulated compared with that in the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE­1. The overexpression of miR­367­3p or the knockdown of Rab23 inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells. The results of the luciferase reporter assay confirmed that Rab23 was a target gene that was regulated by miR­367­3p. miR­367­3p specifically bound to the 3'­UTR of Rab23 mRNA. The overexpression of miR­367­3p inhibited Rab23 expression and the Hedgehog pathway. Cell function experiments confirmed that the overexpression of Rab23 reversed the anticancer effect of miR­367­3p. miR­367­3p was able to inhibit the Hedgehog pathway by targeting the expression of the Rab23 gene, thus inhibiting the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells.

17.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270716

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: This review article is a result of the breast pathology lectures given at the Sixth Chinese American Pathologists Association annual diagnostic pathology course in October 2020 (held virtually due to the coronavirus disease 2019). OBJECTIVE.­: To update recent developments, in this review article, the authors wrote minireviews in the following 4 areas: lobular neoplasm, adenomyoepithelial lesions, papillary lesions, and fibroepithelial lesions. DATA SOURCES.­: The sources include extensive literature review, personal research, and experience. CONCLUSIONS.­: With the wide practice of screening mammography, these lesions are not uncommon in image-guided core biopsies and excisional specimens. Many recent developments have emerged in understanding these lesions. We aim to provide readers with concise updates for each of these lesions with a focus on recent updates in definitions, diagnostic criteria, management, and molecular profiles that are most relevant to the daily practice of pathology and patient management.

18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 121(Pt A): 108039, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School is the second most important environment for children second to the family. An increasing number of children with epilepsy (CWE) are able to go back to school to continue to study after treatment. In school, CWE can be involved in studies and activities, which is conducive to their growth. However, CWE have to face more barriers than other children in school, such as cognitive impairment, poor attendance, school absenteeism, and learning disability. What is more, even if CWE have been taking antiepileptic medicines, they still have a risk of seizure. Therefore, it is important to ensure the safety of CWE in the school. Teachers play a significant part in managing CWE in school, so we aimed to deeply explore the experiences of school teachers in managing CWE during school. METHOD: Purposive sampling was used to recruit teachers (n = 17) who cared for children with epilepsy in their class. Semi-structured interviews were used to access qualitative data. Framework analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. RESULT: Five major themes emerged after analyzing: the recognition of epilepsy, the attitude to children with epilepsy, the barriers to communicate with parents about epilepsy, the reaction to a seizure, and the need for training. CONCLUSION: The findings of this qualitative study reported teachers' knowledge of and attitude toward epilepsy, the barriers for them to communicate with parents, the reaction to seizure, and the need for training. Although teachers know little about epilepsy, they have a positive attitude toward CWE. There are many obstacles in terms of the communication between teachers and parents. Parents' cover-ups and teachers' lack of professional training will put teachers and CWE at risk. In view of the fact that teachers and parents are not professionals, it is necessary for hospitals to play a coordinating role between the two.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Criança , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos , Pais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Convulsões
19.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 120: 103973, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compassion fatigue is a consequence of chronic work-related stress exposure among healthcare providers. Nursing is a high-risk, stressful profession which increases nurses' vulnerability to compassion fatigue symptoms compared to other healthcare workers. Compassion fatigue has serious consequences for nursing staff, patients and healthcare organizations. Though several studies on the prevalence of compassion fatigue among nurses have been published, the reported data vary considerably across studies; and few meta-analysis have examined the prevalence of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue among nurses with large sample sizes. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the prevalence of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue among nurses, and to evaluate the effect of different geographical regions, years and departments on the prevalence of compassion fatigue. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsyclNFO, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), Wanfang Database, Weipu Database (VIP), and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) were searched in the systematic review. The time frame for the searches included all literature before January 31st, 2020. REVIEW METHODS: The reviewers independently completed study selection, quality assessments, data extraction and analysis of all included literature. The mean scores and standard deviations of the three subscales of the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) scale were pooled using random effects meta-analysis in Stata 16.0 software package. Finally, subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the sources of between-study heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 79 studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, consisting of 28,509 nurses worldwide from 11 countries. In our studies, the pooled mean scores of compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary traumatic stress were 33.12 (95% CI: 32.22-34.03), 26.64 (95% CI: 26.01-27.27) and 25.24 (95% CI: 24.69-25.79), respectively. In addition, the Asian region had the lowest levels of compassion satisfaction but the highest levels of compassion fatigue symptoms, while the Americas and Europe had the lowest levels of compassion fatigue but highest compassion satisfaction. Levels of compassionate fatigue in nurses increased gradually from 2010 to 2019, reaching the highest level in 2019; and nurses from ICU had the highest levels of compassion fatigue symptoms among all nurses. CONCLUSION: The levels of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue among nurses are moderate. Nurses from the Asian region and in ICUs suffer from severe compassion fatigue symptoms, and the prevalence of compassion fatigue has increased over time. These findings may provide hospital administrators with the theoretical basis for the management and treatment of compassion fatigue. REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO [CRD42020164327].


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Fadiga por Compaixão , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , China , Fadiga por Compaixão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Satisfação Pessoal , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Ear Hear ; 42(5): 1405-1411, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Children with cochlear implants (CIs) face challenges in acquiring tones, since CIs do not transmit pitch information effectively. It has been suggested that longer CI experience provides additional benefits for children implanted early, enabling them to achieve language abilities similar to that of normal-hearing (NH) children (Colletti 2009). Mandarin is a tonal language with four lexical tones and a neutral tone (T0), characterized by distinct pitch and durational patterns. It has been suggested that early implantation (i.e., before 2 years) greatly benefits the acquisition of Mandarin tones by children with CIs (Tang et al. 2019c). In this study, we extend those findings to investigate the effect of CI experience on the acquisition of Mandarin tones for children implanted early. We asked the extent to which they were able to produce distinct pitch and durational patterns of both lexical tones and T0 as a function of CI experience, and the extent to which their tonal productions were acoustically like that of NH children. DESIGN: Forty-four NH 3-year olds and 28 children implanted with CIs between 1 and 2 years, aged 3 to 7, were recruited. The children with CIs were grouped according to the length of CI experience: 3 to 6 years, 2 to 3 years, and 1 to 2 years. Lexical tone and T0 productions were elicited using a picture-naming task. Tonal productions from the children with CIs were acoustically analyzed and compared with those from the NH children. RESULTS: Children with 3 to 6 years of CI experience were able to produce distinct pitch and durational patterns for both lexical tones and T0, with NH-like acoustic realizations. Children with 2 to 3 years of CI experience were also able to produce the expected tonal patterns, although their productions were not yet NH-like. Those with only 1 to 2 years of CI experience, however, were not yet able to produce the distinct acoustic patterns for either lexical tones or T0. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide acoustic evidence demonstrating that, when Mandarin-speaking children are implanted before the age of 2, only those with 3 to 6 years of experience were able to produce NH-like tones, including both lexical tone and T0. Children with shorter CI experience (less than 3 years) were unable to produce distinct acoustic patterns for the different tones. This suggests that at least 3 years of CI experience is still needed for early implanted children to acquire tonal distinctions similar to those of NH 3-year olds.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Percepção da Fala , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Percepção da Altura Sonora
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