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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early-life gut microbiota, which is critically important for the long-term health of infants, is normally sensitive to perturbations, especially in preterm infants. However, how the gut microbiota develops and what key factors affect the preterm gut microbiota remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that preterm microbial dysbiosis exists from the beginning after birth, and microbial alteration is associated with parenteral nutrition and antibiotic therapy interventions. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from fifty-one preterm and fifty full-term vaginally delivered (FTVD) infants at 7 time points for 90 days after birth. The microbial profiles of 558 fecal DNA samples were analyzed by sequencing their 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons. A random-effects generalized least square regression was used to identify factors that influence the bacterial composition over time. RESULTS: The altered gut microbiota in preterm infants existed from the meconium, having significantly lower levels of Escherichia-Shigella than those in FTVD infants. The developmental trajectories of 7 predominant bacterial groups successfully fitted with exponential/linear function curves (R2 , 0.921-0.993) in both groups. By day 90, depleted levels of Bacteroides and Parabacteroides and an overabundance of Peptoclostridium were characteristic of the preterm group. The prolonged use of antibiotics and parenteral nutrition had significant adverse effects on the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium levels in preterm infants. Moreover, gestational age, sex, and birth weight were factors impacting specific genera in preterm infants. CONCLUSION: The early-life microbial composition and functions were markedly different in preterm infants, being associated with the prolonged use of postnatal antibiotics and parenteral nutrition.

2.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(2): 383-388, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The association between a vegetarian diet and bone mineral density (BMD) remains unclear, particularly in young adults. This study was designed to compare the bone health status of young vegetarians and omnivores in Shanghai, China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 246 vegetarians (following a vegan or lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet for at least 1 year) and 246 age- and sex-matched omnivores were recruited among young adult residents of Shanghai, China. The ultrasound bone mineral density analyser CM-200 was employed to measure calcaneus mineral densities, and blood samples were collected to determine serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D status. Intakes of protein, calcium and vitamin D were assessed by the 24-hour dietary recall method. RESULTS: The average age of the vegetarians was 32.7±6.5 years, 83.3% of whom were female; 71.3% of the participants had been vegetarians for no more than 5 years. After adjusting for some potential cofounding factors, the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of vegans (15.0±13.4 µg/L) was significantly lower than that of omnivores (17.6±8.8 µg/L, p<0.05). The protein, calcium and vitamin D intakes of vegetarians were all lower than those of omnivores (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in calcaneus mineral density between vegetarians and omnivores or between vegans and lacto-ovo vegetarians. CONCLUSIONS: Serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in vegans, but not in lacto-ovo vegetarians, were slightly lower than those in omnivores. However, short-term vegetarian diets did not result in adverse effects on bone mineral density in young Chinese adults.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 139, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear if and at which trimester gestational weight gain is related to childhood adiposity. Thus we aimed to evaluate the association between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and body-fat compositions in Chinese children. METHODS: Maternal gestational weight were measured by trained nurses every 2 to 4 weeks from the first prenatal care, and body-fat compositions of 407 children from the Shanghai Obesity Cohort at 5 years of age were measured by nutritionist through bioelectrical impedance analysis. Overweight/obesity of children was defined according to the criteria of International Obesity Task Force. Logistic and linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders were conducted to evaluate the associations of gestational weight gains with childhood obesity and body-fat compositions. Two-sided P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Greater gestational weight gain in the 1st-trimester was significantly associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight/obesity [OR: 1.40 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.86)], fat mass index [ß: 0.25 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.38)], body fat percentage [ß: 1.04 (95% CI: 0.43, 1.65)], and waist-to-height ratio [ß: 0.005 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.008)]. A positive but nonsignificant association was found between greater 3rd-trimester gestational weight gain and a higher risk of offspring overweight/obesity, and we speculated that the association between 2nd-trimester gestational weight gain and offspring overweight/obesity is the "U" type. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain in the first trimester gestation is positively correlated with the risk of childhood overweight/obesity and with body adiposity distributions of children at 5 years of age. Weight gain should be well controlled and monitored from early pregnancy.

4.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 35(6): e3162, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between vitamin D and diabetes peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is not consistent among epidemiologic studies. Thus, we aimed to investigate this relationship in different age groups. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 1461 patients admitted to the Department of Endocrinology at Xinhua Hospital from June 2016 to September 2017 were divided into three age groups: a Youth group (24-44 years, n = 127), a Middle-age group (45-64 years, n = 779), and an Elderly group (≥65 years, n = 555). Basic information and laboratory results were collected from medical records. RESULTS: Among the patients, 32.72% had DPN, with 12.59% in the Youth group, 33.63% in the Middle-age group, and 36.04% in the Elderly group. For the total sample and the Elderly group, serum 25(OH)D concentrations in DPN patients were lower than in non-DPN patients (P < .05). The results of multivariate logistic regression indicated a low vitamin D concentration to be a risk factor for DPN in the Elderly group (P < .05), but such relationship was not found in the Youth or Middle-age groups. Moreover, according to ROC analysis, a serum 25(OH)D level < 34.87 nmol/L suggests the occurrence of DPN in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report that a low vitamin D level is associated with DPN in diabetic patients over 65 years of age and might be used as a predictor of DPN in this population. The interaction between vitamin D and age in the development of DPN and its underlying mechanisms need to be further explored.

5.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) in very low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs) and evaluate the nutrition factors in VLBWIs associated with inadequate nutrient intakes during hospitalization. METHODS: A total of 128 VLBWIs were divided into an EUGR group (n = 87) and a non-EUGR group (n = 41). Growth and parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) practices were analyzed. Actual energy and protein intakes were subtracted from recommended energy (120 kcal/kg/d) and protein (3.75 g/kg/d) intakes, and nutrition deficits were calculated. RESULTS: Growth restriction was 21.9% at birth and 68.0% at discharge. Compared with established guidelines, PN was started late, and the maximum amino acid intake was low in both groups. EN interruption rate was higher in the EUGR group. The average energy intake in the first day after PN termination was lower in the EUGR group. There were significant differences in actual energy and protein intakes in the 2 groups for several weeks during hospitalization. The cumulative energy and protein deficits were significantly higher in the first 8 weeks and during the third to seventh weeks in the EUGR group, respectively. Step regression analysis showed that there was a significant negative correlation between the cumulative deficit of energy and changes of weight z-scores (r = -0.001, P < .05): as the energy deficit loss increased by 100 kcal, the weight z-scores dropped by 0.1 SD. CONCLUSION: Inadequate nutrition intake aggravated the occurrence of EUGR in VLBWIs, especially the energy intake.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) contains various bioactive components which have been shown to maintain gut barrier integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of MFGM on intestinal barrier function and its possible mechanisms in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 8 per group), consisting of Sham group and rats submitted to massive small-bowel resection then supplemented with either water (SBS) or 1.5g/kg/d MFGM (SBS+MFGM) by daily gavage. Rats were sacrificed on day 15 postoperation. Intestinal adaptation, gut permeability, bacterial translocation (BT), expression of tight junction proteins, mucin 1 (MUC1), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) pathway in the ileum were evaluated. RESULTS: Both SBS+MFGM and SBS groups exhibited lower body weight and higher ileum villus height than Sham group, but no difference was detected between each other. SBS group had significantly higher intestinal permeability and BT rate than other groups (P < .05). Compared with SBS rats, SBS+MFGM group showed higher expression of tight junction proteins and MUC1, lower expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in the ileum, as well as lower interleukin (IL)-1ß but higher IL-18 levels in ileum tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of MFGM helps to modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and enhances gut barrier integrity in rats after massive small-bowel resection, which provides experimental support for potential applications of MGFM in intestinal barrier dysfunction, although further studies are needed.

7.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 42(6): 1026-1034, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier plays an essential role in maintaining gastrointestinal health. This study aimed to explore the effects of a soluble mediator preparation derived from Lactobacillus rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin (LGG) on intestinal barrier function in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS). METHODS: Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 80% small-bowel resection (SBR) and then were supplemented with water (SBS), 5 × 108 colony-forming unit viable LGG (SBS+LGG), or the LGG soluble mediators (SBS+LSM) in an equivalent dose to LGG by intragastric gavage daily from day 2 throughout day 14 after operation. Rats that underwent bowel transection and reanastomosis were used as the sham group. Body weight, ileum histology, intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation, inflammatory cytokines, and tight junction protein expressions of ileum were evaluated. RESULTS: Animals undergoing SBR showed higher intestinal permeability and decreased expression of tight junction proteins in the ileum than sham group. Both SBS+LGG and SBS+LSM groups had reduced bacterial translocation and intestinal permeability as compared with the SBS group, with lower levels of serum endotoxin and tumor necrotizing factor alpha in ileum tissues. Moreover, the SBS+LSM group showed better body weight gain, lower endotoxin and FD-40 levels, and higher expressions of claudin-1 and claudin-4 in ileum than the SBS+LGG group. CONCLUSION: Enteral supplementation of LSMs or viable LGG can ameliorate intestinal barrier disruption in a rat model of SBS. The LSM preparation not only mimicked biological effects of viable LGG but also was revealed to be more effective in reducing inflammation and supporting intestinal barrier function.

8.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 27(1): 65-71, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is no evidence on the most effective nutritional screening tool for hospitalized children. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a pediatric nutritional screening tool to assess undernutrition risk upon hospital admission. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The study had a two-phase prospective observational design. A novel pediatric nutritional screening score (PNSS) was developed and sensitivity, specificity, and reliability were evaluated by comparing with a complete dietetic assessment. Length of hospital stay, weight loss, disease complications, and nutritional support were recorded. RESULTS: PNSS consisted of three elements: disease with malnutrition risks, changes in food intake, and anthropometric measurements, with a score of 0-2 for each element. The optimal cut-off score to identify patients (n=96) at risk of undernutrition was two. The agreement between PNSS and the complete dietetic assessment was moderate (κ=0.435, 95% CI=0.373-0.498). Sensitivity and specificity values of PNSS were 82% (95% CI=76%-87%) and 71% (95% CI=67%-74%), respectively. Inter-rater agreement had a κ value of 0.596 (95% CI=0.529-0.664, p<0.001). The percentage of children with undernutrition risk was 44.9%. Children with oncologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac diseases were most likely to be at risk of undernutrition. The at-risk group was associated significantly with longer length of hospital stay and higher percentage of weight loss compared with the not-at-risk group. CONCLUSION: PNSS is the first nutritional screening tool developed for hospitalized children and validated in a large population of patients in China.

9.
Nutr J ; 16(1): 60, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the associations between circulating magnesium (Mg) levels and incidence of coronary heart diseases (CHD), hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are inconsistent and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine circulating Mg levels in relation to incidence of CHD, hypertension, and T2DM. METHODS: Prospective cohort studies published before May 2017 were searched through PubMed, EmBase, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. A total of 11 studies that reported multivariable-adjusted associations of interest were identified. Information on the characteristics of study and participants, exposure, main outcomes, risk estimates, and cofounders was extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 11 included studies, 5 reported results on CHD (38,808 individuals [4437 cases] with an average 10.5-year follow-up), 3 on hypertension (14,876 participants [3149 cases] with a 6.7-year follow-up), and 4 on T2DM (31,284 participants [2680 cases] with an 8.8-year follow-up). Comparing the highest to the lowest category of circulating Mg concentration, the pooled relative risks [RRs] (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were 0.86 (0.74, 0.996), 0.91 (0.80, 1.02), and 0.64 (0.50, 0.81) for incidence of CHD, hypertension, and T2DM, respectively. Every 0.1 mmol/L increment in circulating Mg levels was associated with 4% (RR, 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94, 0.99) reduction in hypertension incidence. No significant linear association was found between circulating Mg levels and incidence of CHD (RR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.03) and T2DM (RR, 0.90; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.002). The observed associations of interest were sensitive to exclusion of individual studies. CONCLUSIONS: Findings in this meta-analysis suggest that circulating Mg levels are inversely associated with incidence of CHD, hypertension, and T2DM. Additional studies are needed to provide more solid evidence and identify the optimal range of circulating Mg concentration with respect to primary prevention of CHD, hypertension, and T2DM.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Magnésio/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Incidência
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(9): e5795, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28248850

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of early parenteral iron supplementation combined erythropoietin for prevention of anemia in preterm infants. METHODS: In total, 96 preterm infants were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group receiving standard parenteral nutrition (group 1: n = 31), an iron-supplemented group (group 2: IS, n = 33), and an iron-supplemented combined erythropoietin group (group 3: IS+EPO, n = 32). The primary objective was to assess hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The secondary objectives included assessment of red blood cell counts (RBC), mean cell volume (MCV), serum iron, ferritin, percentages of reticulocyte (RET), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and oxidative stress, which was assessed by measuring plasma levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase at baseline and at 2 weeks. The blood routine indices including Hb, RBC, MCV, and percentages of RET were measured at corrected age of 1 and 3 months. RESULTS: At 2 weeks of life, the percentages of reticulocyte in group 2 and group 3 were significantly higher than those in group 1 (2.1±0.4, 2.5±0.3, and 1.7±0.3, respectively, P < 0.001, P<0.001), whereas TIBC were significantly lower than those in group 1 (36.7±4.6, 36.0±4.7, and 41.6 ±â€Š5.2 respectively, P = 0.011, P = 0.006). There were no significant differences in RBC counts, the levels of hemoglobin, ferritin, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase among the 3 groups at 2weeks of life. RBC, Hb, MCV, body weight, body length, and head circumference at a corrected age of 1 month did not differ among 3 groups. At corrected age of 3months, more infants in the control group had abnormal Hb and MCV levels (Hb levels: 114.3 ±â€Š21.3, 123.7 ±â€Š31.6, and 125.1 ±â€Š21.2, P = 0.021, P = 0.034, respectively; MCV: 74.1 ±â€Š3.5, 78.3 ±â€Š4.7 and 79.1 ±â€Š5.2, P = 0.017, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas cases of oral iron, cases of breastfeeding, RBC, body weight, body length, and head circumference were not different among 3 groups. CONCLUSION: Early parenteral iron supplementation combined erythropoietin in preterm infants improved the percentages of reticulocyte, decreased total iron binding capacity, and improved the Hb and MCV levels at 3 months of age. Early parenteral iron supplementations with EPO were beneficial for the preterm infants.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Eritropoetina/administração & dosagem , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino
11.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 32(3): 407-413, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28135431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to explore the incidence of PNAC in premature infants without surgery and to identify associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Premature neonates who received parenteral nutrition (PN) at least 14 days were included in a retrospective, dual-center study. Cholestasis was diagnosed as conjugated bilirubin ≥2 mg/dL. Infants with metabolic liver disease, cyanotic congenital heart disease, congenital syphilis, hepadnaviridae infection, and those who underwent surgery were excluded. Infants were divided into 3 groups chronologically: group A (2000-2004, n = 50), group B (2005-2009, n = 283), and group C (2010-2014, n = 741). A case-controlled study was conducted by comparing infants with PNAC to those without PNAC. RESULTS: Of 1074 premature neonates, PNAC was confirmed in 53 infants (4.93%). There were 6.8% very low birth weight (BW) infants and 20.0% extremely low BW infants who developed PNAC. The incidence of PNAC decreased slightly during 2000-2014 (8.0%, 6.4%, and 4.2% in groups A, B, and C, respectively). Compared with those without PNAC, infants with PNAC (n = 53) had significantly younger gestational age, lower BW, longer PN duration, and higher rate of sepsis. Logistic regression showed male sex, PN duration ≥43 days, and sepsis were statistically correlated with PNAC. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged duration (≥43 days), male sex, and sepsis are probably independent risk factors for developing PNAC in premature neonates.


Assuntos
Colestase/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Bilirrubina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colestase/diagnóstico , Colestase/etiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/etiologia
12.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; : 148607116677048, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiency of choline, a required nutrient, is related to intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on IFALD and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were fed AIN-93G chow and administered intravenous 0.9% saline (control), parenteral nutrition (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) for 7 days. We evaluated body weight, hepatic histology, biochemical indicators, triglycerides, oxidative status, methylation levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene promoter, expression of PPARα and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), and levels of choline metabolites. RESULTS: The PN + choline group exhibited improved body weight compared with the PN group. PN impaired hepatic function, increased hepatic triglycerides, induced dyslipidemia, enhanced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and reduced total antioxidant capacity. The PN group had higher pathologic scores than the control group. These results were prevented by choline administration. Compared with the control group, PN increased PPARα promoter methylation and hepatic betaine concentration, reduced hepatic choline and phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels, decreased plasma choline and betaine concentrations, and downregulated PPARα and CPT1 mRNA and protein expression. Choline supplementation elevated hepatic choline and PC levels and enhanced plasma choline, betaine, and PC concentrations but reduced hepatic betaine level, reversed PPARα promoter hypermethylation, and upregulated PPARα and CPT1 mRNA and protein expression in PN-fed rats, compared with rats receiving PN alone. CONCLUSION: Choline addition to PN may prevent IFALD by reducing oxidative stress, enhancing hepatic fat export, and promoting fatty acid catabolism in immature rats receiving PN.

13.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 25(3): 631-5, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27440699

RESUMO

Congenital chylous ascites in the neonatal period is a rare entity. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), medium chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet, octreotide and repeated paracentesis are regarded as appropriate medical treatment for congenital chylous ascites, and surgery is recommended when conservative therapy has failed. We present two cases in which ascites were confirmed via an abdominal sonogram and diagnostic paracentesis. In our clinical experience, rice soup combined with PN can be a safe and effective intervention.


Assuntos
Ascite Quilosa/congênito , Oryza , Nutrição Parenteral , China , Ascite Quilosa/diagnóstico , Ascite Quilosa/terapia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Paracentese , Nutrição Parenteral Total , Soluções , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
14.
Clin Nutr ; 35(5): 1023-31, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Olive oil (OO), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)/long-chain triglycerides (LCT) mixture and soybean oil (SO) lipid emulsions are currently used for preterm infants in China. The aim of our study was to compare the lipid profile, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant capacity of preterm infants administered OO, MCT/LCT, or SO lipid emulsions. METHODS: In this study, 156 preterm infants (birth weight < 2000 g and gestational age < 37 weeks) received parenteral nutrition (PN) containing OO, MCT/LCT, or SO lipid emulsions for a minimum of 14 d. On days 0, 7, and 14, the lipid profile, fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. RESULTS: On day 7, HDL levels in the MCT/LCT group were significantly lower than in the OO (1.06 ± 0.40 mmol/L) or SO groups. LDL levels were higher in the OO group than in the MCT/LCT or SO groups on day 7. A-I/B was higher in MCT/LCT than in OO or SO groups. Myristic acid (C14:0) levels on days 7 and 14 increased in MCT/LCT compared to the OO and SO groups. The OO group had higher oleic acid (C18:1n9) levels than the two other groups. Linoleic acid (C18:2n6), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3) were significantly lower in the OO group than in MCT/LCT or SO groups. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels decreased, and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acids levels increased in MCT/LCT and SO groups. No significant differences were obtained in SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, and T-AOC among the groups. CONCLUSION: The three lipid emulsions were safe and well tolerated in preterm infants. Oleic acid (C18:1n9) levels increased and LA (C18:2n6), ALA (C18:3n3), and EPA (C20:5n23) levels decreased in OO compared to MCT/LCT or SO. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01683162, https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/.


Assuntos
Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/química , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrição Parenteral , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/análise , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ácido Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Masculino , Ácido Oleico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Oleico/análise , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Azeite de Oliva/química , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Soja/química , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise
15.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 40(6): 842-50, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25560678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated liver dysfunction is multifactorial. Lipid emulsions may be one of the putative mechanisms. Our aim was to comparatively assess the effect of parenteral olive oil- and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions on liver chemistry and bile acid composition in preterm infants. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, randomized clinical study in which 103 preterm infants were randomly assigned to PN using either soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (SO; n = 51) or olive oil (OO)-based lipid emulsion (OO; n = 52). The primary end point was liver chemistry. The secondary end point was the plasma bile acid composition. RESULTS: One hundred infants completed this study. In the SO group, the serum direct bilirubin was significantly higher after PN for 7 days compared with the OO group. Bile acids increased over time in both treatment groups. However, specific differences in the change in bile acid composition over time were noted between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in direct bilirubin and bile acid composition were observed over time between the 2 groups. Considering the long-term use of lipid emulsions in higher risk babies, these findings might be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of PN-associated liver dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Azeite de Oliva , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Óleo de Soja , Colestase/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos
16.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 40(7): 995-1005, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25904588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been found to influence duodenal motility in animals. Choline is an essential nutrient, and its deficiency is related to PN-associated organ diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the role of choline supplementation in an infant rat model of PN-associated duodenal motility disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed chow and water (controls), PN solution (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) (PN + choline). Rats underwent jugular vein cannulation for infusion of PN solution or 0.9% saline (controls) for 7 days. Duodenal oxidative stress status, concentrations of plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assayed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of c-Kit proto-oncogene protein (c-Kit) and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) together with the electrophysiological features of slow waves in the duodenum were also evaluated. RESULTS: Rats on PN showed increased reactive oxygen species; decreased total antioxidant capacity in the duodenum; reduced plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine; and enhanced serum TNF-α concentrations, which were reversed by choline intervention. In addition, PN reduced mRNA and protein expression of mSCF and c-Kit, which were inversed under choline administration. Moreover, choline attenuated depolarized resting membrane potential and declined the frequency and amplitude of slow waves in duodenal smooth muscles of infant rats induced by PN, respectively. CONCLUSION: The addition of choline to PN may alleviate the progression of duodenal motor disorder through protecting smooth muscle cells from injury, promoting mSCF/c-Kit signaling, and attenuating impairment of interstitial cells of Cajal in the duodenum during PN feeding.


Assuntos
Colina/farmacologia , Duodeno/fisiopatologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Enteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nutrição Parenteral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Betaína/sangue , Colina/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilcolina/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
17.
Sci Rep ; 5: 16160, 2015 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26537869

RESUMO

A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies found that shorter-time sleep was correlated with increased risk of obesity in children. However, findings from prospective cohort studies were inconsistent. PubMed and other data resources were searched through May 2015. Twenty-five eligible studies were identified including 56,584 children and adolescents with an average 3.4-year follow-up. Compared with children having the longest sleep duration (~12.2 hours), kids with the shortest sleep duration (~10.0 hours) were 76% more likely to be overweight/obese (pooled odds ratio [OR]: 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39, 2.23); and had relatively larger annual BMI gain (pooled ß coefficient: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.25 kg/m(2)). With every 1 hour/day increment in sleep duration, the risk of overweight/obesity was reduced by 21% (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.89); and the annual BMI gain declined by 0.05 kg/m(2) (ß = -0.05; 95% CI: -0.09, -0.01). The observed associations were not appreciably modified by region, baseline age or the length of follow-up. Accumulated literature indicates a modest inverse association between sleep duration and the risk of childhood overweight/obesity. Further research is needed to determine the age and gender specified optimal hours of sleep and ideal sleep pattern with respect to obesity prevention in children.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/complicações , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 44(2): 237-41, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25997226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of vegetarians in the whole Shanghai population, and to know the vegetarians' brief and behavior on diet, nutrition and health. METHODS: First, a multi-staged, stratified, clustered random sampling design was used. A total representative sample of 4 004 Shanghai resident subjects were asked if they were vegetarians and what type of vegetarian they were by a well-designed questionnaire. Second, from ten vegetarian restaurants located in Shanghai. 473 adult vegetarians completed a questionnaire about vegetarian status, among whom 274 vegetarians completed a detailed questionnaire about their brief and behaviors on diet, nutrition and health status. RESULTS: Of 4 004 subjects, 0.77% were vegetarians (0.45% were lacto-vegetarians and 0. 12% were vegans). The average age was 65. 0 years. 74. 2% of the vegetarians were female. Of 473 vegetarians, 70. 2% of the vegetarians had college or higher education. Compared to vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians were significantly younger and had higher educational level. The main reasons for choosing a vegetarian lifestyle were religion (49. 3%) and health (31. 3%). Furthermore, more vegan tend to be Buddhist. Vegetarians were more concerned about their health (209/274, 76. 5%) , the consumption of balance diets (183/274, 66. 8%). Comparing with lacto-ovo-vegetarians (58. 3%) more vegans (70. 4%) believed in that vegetarian diet is a kind of healthy dietary pattern and will not have any nutrients deficiency (P = 0. 037). Vegetarians consumed more healthy foods (e. g.,whole grains, vegetables, soy products, and nuts) than the general population (P < 0. 01). Only 5. 8% of the vegetarians took dietary supplements. CONCLUSION: 0. 77% of population in Shanghai was vegetarian. The two main reasons for adopting a vegetarian lifestyle were religion and health. The vegetarians tend to have more nutrition knowledge, better attitude and behavior on health. However, most of the vegetarians had not realized the nutrient deficiency risk of vegetarian diets.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , China , Dieta , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
19.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 23(3): 459-64, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25164458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a combined intervention of diet and physical activity on body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE) and metabolic factors in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Twenty obese children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years completed a 4-week summer camp program which focussed on personal behaviour, including energy-restricted diets and supervised physical activity. Anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography (US) for subcutaneous and hepatic fat, and abdominal Magnetic Resonance Imaging assessments were made and blood pressure (BP) recorded before and after the 4-week intervention. RESULTS: 1) Weight loss was 7.2 ± 2.2 kg, with losses of 5.5 ± 2.2 kg and 1.7 ± 1.2 kg in fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM), respectively, with associated reductions in abdominal and hip fat and in the waist/hip circumference ratio and in BP. 2) There were no significant changes in REE or in its ratio with weight. 3) Reductions in uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HbA1C, insulin, C-Peptide and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the ratio of fatty liver were observed, but not in the inflammatory marker hsCRP. CONCLUSIONS: With behavioural intervention during a summer camp, body fat and its distribution were favourably changed, but with some loss of lean mass. However, there were no detectable reductions in REE. Weight management programs which achieve fat loss with maintenance of REE ought to be more sustainable.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Gordura Abdominal/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , China , Dieta Redutora/estatística & dados numéricos , Impedância Elétrica , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
20.
Nutrients ; 6(7): 2552-71, 2014 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25010553

RESUMO

Choline plays a lipotropic role in lipid metabolism as an essential nutrient. In this study, we investigated the effects of choline (5, 35 and 70 µM) on DNA methylation modifications, mRNA expression of the critical genes and their enzyme activities involved in hepatic lipid metabolism, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in C3A cells exposed to excessive energy substrates (lactate, 10 mM; octanoate, 2 mM and pyruvate, 1 mM; lactate, octanoate and pyruvate-supplemented medium (LOP)). Thirty five micromole or 70 µM choline alone, instead of a low dose (5 µM), reduced hepatocellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation, protected Δψm from decrement and increased GSH-Px activity in C3A cells. The increment of TG accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Δψm disruption were observed under LOP treatment in C3A cells after 72 h of culture, which were counteracted by concomitant treatment of choline (35 µM or 70 µM) partially via reversing the methylation status of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene promoter, upregulating PPARα, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and downregulating fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression, as well as decreasing FAS activity and increasing CPT-I and GSH-Px activities. These findings provided a novel insight into the lipotropic role of choline as a vital methyl-donor in the intervention of chronic metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Colina/administração & dosagem , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Caprilatos/metabolismo , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos , Regulação para Cima
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