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1.
Pharm Stat ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155417

RESUMO

The estimand framework requires a precise definition of the clinical question of interest (the estimand) as different ways of accounting for "intercurrent" events post randomization may result in different scientific questions. The initiation of subsequent therapy is common in oncology clinical trials and is considered an intercurrent event if the start of such therapy occurs prior to a recurrence or progression event. Three possible ways to account for this intercurrent event in the analysis are to censor at initiation, consider recurrence or progression events (including death) that occur before and after the initiation of subsequent therapy, or consider the start of subsequent therapy as an event in and of itself. The new estimand framework clarifies that these analyses address different questions ("does the drug delay recurrence if no patient had received subsequent therapy?" vs "does the drug delay recurrence with or without subsequent therapy?" vs "does the drug delay recurrence or start of subsequent therapy?"). The framework facilitates discussions during clinical trial planning and design to ensure alignment between the key question of interest, the analysis, and interpretation. This article is a result of a cross-industry collaboration to connect the International Council for Harmonisation E9 addendum concepts to applications. Data from previously reported randomized phase 3 studies in the renal cell carcinoma setting are used to consider common intercurrent events in solid tumor studies, and to illustrate different scientific questions and the consequences of the estimand choice for study design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 320(Pt A): 124356, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186838

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of ultrasound (US), ozone and US combined with ozone (US/ozone) pretreatments on the fate of enteric indicator bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy wastewater was investigated. The pretreatment conditions included US power 200 W, ozone concentration 4.2 mg O3/L, and pretreatment time 0-30 min. The results showed that US/ozone pretreatment was effective in the inactivation of enteric indicator bacteria. Total coliforms and enterococci were reduced by 99% and 92% after 30 min US/ozone pretreatment. Pretreatments could not decrease ARGs in absolute concentration, but could decrease ARGs in relative abundance. In the subsequent AD process, methane production increased more than 10% with 20 min ozone or 20 min US/ozone pretreatments. Pretreatment-AD together obviously inhibited the enrichment of ARGs in relative abundance. This study provided a pretreatment way to enhance methane production and to prevent the enrichment of ARGs.

3.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(6): 5105-5112, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174030

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common types of arrhythmia worldwide; although a number of theories have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of AF, the treatment of AF is far from satisfactory. Energy metabolism is associated with the development of AF. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) serves a role in the maintenance and transcription of mitochondrial DNA. The present study aimed to investigate the association between TFAM and AF and the effect of TFAM on ATP content in cardiomyocytes. Left atrial appendage tissues were collected from 20 patients with normal sinus rhythm (SR) and 20 patients with AF, and the expression levels of TFAM in SR and AF tissues were evaluated. In addition, a tachypacing model of primary cultured cardiomyocytes was constructed to assess ATP content, cell viability and expression levels of TFAM, mitochondrially encoded (MT)­NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1), MT­cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1), NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1 (NDUFS1) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C (COX6C). Finally, the effects of overexpression and inhibition of TFAM on ATP content, cell viability and the expression levels of MT­ND1 and MT­CO1 were investigated. The expression levels of TFAM were decreased in AF tissues compared with SR tissues (P<0.05). The ATP content, cell viability and expression levels of TFAM, MT­ND1 and MT­CO1 were decreased in tachypacing cardiomyocytes compared with non­pacing cardiomyocytes (P<0.05), whereas the expression levels of NDUFS1 and COX6C were not changed (P>0.05). Overexpression of TFAM increased ATP content, cell viability and expression levels of MT­ND1 and MT­CO1 (P<0.05). The inhibition of TFAM decreased ATP content, cell viability and expression levels of MT­ND1 and MT­CO1 (P<0.05). In summary, the results of the present study demonstrated that the expression levels of TFAM were decreased in AF tissues and tachypacing cardiomyocytes and that the restoration of TFAM increased the ATP content by upregulating the expression levels of MT­ND1 and MT­CO1 in tachypacing cardiomyocytes. Thus, TFAM may be a novel beneficial target for treatment of patients with AF.

4.
Anal Chem ; 92(22): 15236-15243, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140958

RESUMO

Lipid transferase-catalyzed protein lipidation plays critical roles in many physiological processes and it has been an increasingly attractive therapeutic target from cancer to neurodegeneration, while sensitive detection of lipid transferase activity in biological samples remains challenging. Here, we presented an AuNP-based colorimetric method with dual-product synergistically enhanced sensitivity for convenient detection of lipid transferase activity. Homo sapiens N-myristoyltransferase 1 (HsNMT1), a key lipid transferase, was selected as the model. Accordingly, positively charged substrate peptides (Pep) of HsNMT1 can induce the aggregation of AuNPs through disrupting their electrostatic repulsion, while the HsNMT1-catalyzed lipid modification generates aggregated lipidated peptides (C14-Pep) and negatively charged HS-CoA, which will eliminate the disruption and stabilize the AuNPs by the formation of Au-S bonds, respectively. Consequently, charge reversal of the biomolecules and the formation of Au-S bonds synergistically contribute to the stability of AuNPs in the presence of HsNMT1. Therefore, the HsNMT1 activity can be visually detected by the naked eye through the color change of the AuNPs originated from the change in their distance-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorptions. Here, the A520/A610 ratio can sensitively reflect the activity of HsNMT1 in the linear range of 2-75 nM with a low detection limit of 0.56 nM. Moreover, the method was successfully applied for probing the HsNMT1 activities in different cell lysates and inhibitor screening. Furthermore, given the replaceability of the substrate peptide, the proposed assay is promising for universal application to other lipid transferases and exhibits great potential in lipid transferase-targeted drug development.

5.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the NAPOLI-1 phase 3 trial, liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) +5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) significantly increased mPFS versus 5-FU/LV (3.1 vs. 1.5 months [unstratified HR = 0.56, p = 0.0001]) in patients with mPAC that progressed on prior gemcitabine-based therapy. This randomized phase 2 trial evaluated nal-IRI+5-FU/LV tolerability (Part 1), safety, and efficacy (Part 2; outcomes reported here) in Japanese patients with mPAC that progressed on gemcitabine-based therapy. METHODS: Patients were randomized 1:1 and stratified by KPS (70 and 80 vs. ≥90) and baseline albumin (≥4.0 g/dl vs. <4.0 g/dl). Primary endpoint was PFS; secondary endpoints were ORR, DCR, OS, TTF, CA19-9 response, and QoL. The ITT population comprised all randomized patients. RESULTS: Patient characteristics differed between nal-IRI+5-FU/LV (n = 40) and 5-FU/LV (n = 39) arms, including baseline hepatic lesions (63% vs. 51%), stage IV disease at diagnosis (78% vs. 51%), and post-study anticancer therapy (55% vs. 72%). Investigator-assessed mPFS increase with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV was clinically meaningful and statistically significant versus 5-FU/LV (2.7 vs. 1.5 months, HR = 0.60). Independently assessed mPFS showed similar trends (1.7 vs. 1.6 months, HR = 0.79). mOS was 6.3 months with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV and not reached with 5-FU/LV. ORR increased significantly with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV (18% vs. 0, rate difference 17.5). Commonly reported grade ≥3 treatment-emergent AEs were decreased neutrophil count (37% vs. 3%), decreased white blood cell count (20% vs. 0), and diarrhea (17% vs. 3%). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, clinically meaningful and statistically significant gains in investigator-assessed PFS and ORR were observed with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV in Japanese patients, with no new or unexpected safety signals. (Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02697058).

6.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 233, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For ventral hernia, endoscopic sublay repair (ESR) may overcome the disadvantages of open sublay and laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh repair. This retrospective study presents the preliminary multicenter results of ESR from China. The feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of ESR were evaluated; its surgical points and indications were summarized. METHODS: The study reviewed 156 ventral hernia patients planned to perform with ESR in ten hospitals between March 2016 and July 2019. Patient demographics, hernia characteristics, operative variables, and surgical results were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: ESR was performed successfully in 153 patients, 135 with totally extraperitoneal sublay (TES) and 18 with transabdominal sublay (TAS). In 19 patients, TES was performed with the total visceral sac separation (TVS) technique, in which the space separation is carried out along the peritoneum, avoiding damage to the aponeurotic structure. Endoscopic transversus abdominis release (eTAR) was required in 17.0% of patients, and only 18.3% of patients required permanent mesh fixation. The median operative time was 135 min. Most patients had mild pain and resume eating soon after operation. No severe intraoperative complications occurred. Bleeding in the extraperitoneal space occurred in two patients and was stopped by nonsurgical treatment. Seroma and chronic pain were observed in 5.23 and 3.07% of patients. One recurrence occurred after TAS repair for an umbilical hernia. CONCLUSION: ESR is feasible, safe, and effective for treating ventral hernias when surgeons get the relevant surgical skills, such as the technique of "partition breaking," TVS, and eTAR. Small-to-medium ventral hernias are the major indications.

7.
Elife ; 92020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025906

RESUMO

Cell-cell interactions influence all aspects of development, homeostasis, and disease. In cancer, interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells play a major role in nearly every step of carcinogenesis. Thus, the ability to record cell-cell interactions would facilitate mechanistic delineation of the role of the cancer microenvironment. Here, we describe GFP-based Touching Nexus (G-baToN) which relies upon nanobody-directed fluorescent protein transfer to enable sensitive and specific labeling of cells after cell-cell interactions. G-baToN is a generalizable system that enables physical contact-based labeling between various human and mouse cell types, including endothelial cell-pericyte, neuron-astrocyte, and diverse cancer-stromal cell pairs. A suite of orthogonal baToN tools enables reciprocal cell-cell labeling, interaction-dependent cargo transfer, and the identification of higher order cell-cell interactions across a wide range of cell types. The ability to track physically interacting cells with these simple and sensitive systems will greatly accelerate our understanding of the outputs of cell-cell interactions in cancer as well as across many biological processes.

9.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 24(10): 685-688, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991209

RESUMO

Aim: To derive a more precise association between the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) gene polymorphism rs1143623 and cancer risk. Methods: Published case-control studies up to November 5, 2019, that met all inclusion criteria were identified using PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate the strength of associations using multiple genetic models. Sensitivity analyses and publication biases were also performed. Results: Nine articles covering 11 case-control studies, with 4801 cases and 6116 controls, were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association between the IL-1B rs1143623 polymorphism and cancer risk was observed under the homozygous, heterozygous, dominant, recessive, or allelic genetic models (all p > 0.05). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the IL-1B rs1143623 polymorphism may decrease the risk of cancer in Asians under the heterozygous and dominant genetic models (both p < 0.05). Sensitivity analyses showed that none of the individual studies significantly affected the overall results. No significant publication biases were detected in this meta-analysis. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there is no significant association between the IL-1B rs1143623 polymorphism and cancer risk in the overall human population, but that it may provide a protective affect among Asians.

10.
ACS Synth Biol ; 9(10): 2714-2722, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886884

RESUMO

Genetically encoded biosensors are extensively utilized in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. However, reported xylose biosensors are far too sensitive with a limited operating range to be useful for most sensing applications. In this study, we describe directed evolution of Escherichia coli XylR, and construction of biosensors based on XylR and the corresponding operator xylO. The operating range of biosensors containing the mutant XylR was increased by nearly 10-fold comparing with the control. Two individual amino acid mutations (either L73P or N220T) in XylR were sufficient to extend the linear response range to upward of 10 g/L xylose. The evolved biosensors described here are well suited for developing whole-cell biosensors for detecting varying xylose concentrations across an expanded range. As an alternative use of this system, we also demonstrate the utility of XylR and xylO as a xylose inducible system to enable graded gene expression through testing with ß-galactosidase gene and the lycopene synthetic pathway. This evolution strategy identified a less-sensitive biosensor for real applications, thus providing new insights into strategies for expanding operating ranges of other biosensors for synthetic biology applications.

11.
Pharmacol Res ; 160: 105180, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877693

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a highly conserved transcription factor that can be activated by small molecules provided by dietary, plant, or microbial metabolites, and environmental pollutants. AhR is expressed in many cell types and engages in crosstalk with other signaling pathways, and therefore provides a molecular pathway that integrates environmental cues and metabolic processes. Fibrosis, which is defined as an aberrant extracellular matrix formation, is a reparative process in the terminal stage of chronic diseases. Both environmental and internal factors have been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of fibrosis; however, the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. In this review, the potential role of AhR in the process of fibrosis, as well as potential opportunities and challenges in the development of AhR targeting therapeutics, are summarized.

12.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 1859260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802892

RESUMO

Chemokine receptor CXCR5-mediated control of B cell trafficking in the lymphoid tissues plays a central role in orchestrating the B cell function, which not only guides the colocalization of B cells with follicular helper T cells in the follicular mantle zone but also determines the position of germinal center dark and light zones. However, the mechanisms that regulate the expression of CXCR5 in B cells remain unclear. Here, we show that the expression level of CXCR5 in B cells was substantially reduced in vitro culture conditions, while being maintained in the presence of CD40 signals. Furthermore, CD40 signaling promotes CXCR5 expression in B cells at least partially through noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway activation. However, other non-B cells also contributed to the optimal expression of CXCR5 in B cells through cell-cell contact and cytokine secretion. Our findings suggest that CD40 signaling-mediated activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway promotes the expression of CXCR5 in a B cell-intrinsic way to orchestrate the trafficking of B cells.

13.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842010
14.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 363, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common arrhythmia, which brings huge burden to the individual and the society. However, the mechanism of AF is not clear. This paper aims at screening the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of atrial fibrillation and to construct enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis for these DEGs. METHODS: The datasets were collected from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to extract data of left atrial appendage (LAA) RNA of patients with or without AF in GSE79768, GSE31821, GSE115574, GSE14975 and GSE41177. Batch normalization, screening of the differential genes and gene ontology analysis were finished by R software. Reactome analysis was used for pathway analysis. STRING platform was utilized for PPI network analysis. At last, we performed reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to validate the expression of key genes in 20 sinus rhythm (SR) LAA tissues and 20 AF LAA tissues. RESULTS: A total of 106 DEGs were screened in the merged dataset. Among these DEGs, 74 genes were up-regulated and 32 genes down-regulated. DEGs were mostly enriched in extracellular matrix organization, protein activation cascade and extracellular structure organization. In PPI network, we identified SPP1, COL5A1 and VCAN as key genes which were associated with extracellular matrix. RT-qPCR showed the same expression trend of the three key genes as in our bioinformatics analysis. The expression levels of SPP1, COL5A1 and VCAN were increased in AF tissues compared to SR tissues (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to the analyses which were conducted by bioinformatics tools, genes related to extracellular matrix were involved in pathology of AF and may become the possible targets for the diagnosis and treatment of AF.

15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4991-5004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764931

RESUMO

Introduction: Various materials and approaches have been used to reduce the mesh-induced inflammatory response and modify the mesh with tissue-matched mechanical properties, aiming to improve the repair of abdominal wall defects. Materials and Methods: In this study, we fabricated a polycaprolactone (PCL)/silk fibroin (SF) mesh integrated with amoxicillin (AMX)-incorporating multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via electrospinning, grafting and crosslinking, developing a sustainable antibiotic and flexible mesh. AMX was loaded into the hollow tubular MWCNTs by physical adsorption, and a nanofibrous structure was constructed by electrospinning PCL and SF (40:60 w/w). The AMX@MWCNTs were then chemically grafted onto the surfaces of the PCL/SF nanofibers by treating with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) solution for simultaneous crosslinking and coating. The incorporation of AMX into the MWCNTs (AMX@MWCNTs) and the integration of the AMX@MWCNTs with the PCL/SF nanofibers were characterized. Then, the functional mesh was fabricated and fully evaluated in terms of antibacterial activity, mechanical properties and host response. Results: Our results demonstrated that the PCL/SF nanofibrous structure was fabricated successfully by electrospinning. After integrating with AMX@MWCNT by grafting and crosslinking, the functional mesh showed undeformed structure, modified surface hydrophilicity and biocompatible interfaces, abdominal wall-matched mechanical properties, and a sustained-release antibiotic profile in E. coli growth inhibition compared to those of PCL/SF mesh in vitro. In a rat model with subcutaneous implantation, the functional mesh incited less mesh-induced inflammatory and foreign body responses than PCL/SF mesh within 14 days. The histological analysis revealed less infiltration of granulocytes and macrophages during this period, resulting in the loosely packed collagen deposition on the functional mesh and prominent collagen incorporation. Discussion: Therefore, this designed PCL/SF-AMX@MWCNT nanofibrous mesh, functionalized with antibacterial and tissue-matched mechanical properties, provides a promising alternative for the repair of abdominal wall defects.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/química , Antibacterianos/química , Nanofibras/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Telas Cirúrgicas , Amoxicilina/farmacocinética , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colágeno/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibroínas/química , Inflamação/etiologia , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Poliésteres/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Telas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106886, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799115

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease that often leads to fibrosis of multiple organs, and there are no effective treatments. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a highly evolutionarily conserved transcription factor activated by endogenous and exogenous ligands and that regulate cell proliferation, tumorigenesis and immune balance. Recently, it have reported AhR signaling may participate in fibrosis process, usually consider as a negative regulator of TGF-ß. However, the detailed relationship between AhR and SSc has not been reported yet. Here we firstly found that AhR and CYP1A1 downregulated in SSc fibroblast(n = 6). The AhR ligand-Ficz negatively regulates TGF-ß1, COL1A1 and α-SMA expression, also enhances the MMP-1 expression via the AhR signaling activation. Conversely the AhR antagonist CH223191 could inhibit this effect. Furthermore, the antifibrosis effect of AhR signaling activation was also confirmed in bleomycin induced scleroderma mouse model. In conclusion, AhR signaling activation balances the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and deposition, which may provide a new sight to the pathogenesis of SSc and AhR signaling activation may be a potential therapy for SSc.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using self-gripping mesh eliminates the need for additional mechanical fixation in laparoscopic groin hernia repair when surgeons plan to fix it. However, the mesh's 'self-gripping' characteristic makes it much more difficult to unfold and place. Here, the novel "Swiss-roll" placement method of folding self-gripping mesh is introduced and compared to the common folding placement method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cohort of this prospective randomized controlled study included 100 patients who underwent transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) groin hernia repair in the Department of Hernia and Abdominal Wall Surgery of Shanghai East Hospital between January and December 2018. The patients were randomly assigned to the "Swiss-roll" folding group or the common folding group. The time required for mesh placement, total surgical duration, and the incidences of postoperative pain and complications were compared. RESULTS: The times required for mesh placement in the "Swiss-roll" and common folding groups were 155.10 ± 48.66 and 202.80 ± 61.05 sec, respectively. The "Swiss-roll" folding method significantly shortened the time required for mesh placement (p = 0.000). There were no significant differences in total surgical duration and the incidences of postoperative pain and complications between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The "Swiss-roll" folding method facilitates self-gripping mesh placement without increasing the incidence of complications and recurrences in TAPP.

18.
J Org Chem ; 85(15): 9944-9954, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646216

RESUMO

A photoredox decarboxylative coupling of N-hydroxyphthalimide esters with aldimines is reported for synthesizing α-amino esters. A broad scope of alkyl radicals generated under visible light irradiation adds to glyoxylate aldimines in reliably good to excellent yields. Adding inorganic bases such as potassium carbonate significantly enhanced the yields by suppressing the umpolung side reaction. The computation study suggests that the base facilitates hydrogen atom transfer from the radical cation of Hantzsch ester to the N-centered radical intermediates. Introducing amino acid side chains into natural products and drug molecules by this method is demonstrated.

19.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 125: 103439, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712075

RESUMO

Moths often use multi-component pheromones with fixed ratios to keep intraspecific communication and interspecific isolation. Unusually, the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata in North China use only Z11-16:Ald as the essential component of its sex pheromone to find mates. To understand how this species keeps behavioral isolation from other species sharing Z11-16:Ald as a major pheromone component, we study the olfactory coding of intra- and interspecific pheromonal messages in the males of M. separata. Firstly, we functionally characterized the long trichoid sensilla in male antennae by single sensillum recording. Two types of sensilla were classified: the A type sensilla responded to Z11-16:Ald and Z9-14:Ald, and the B type sensilla mainly to Z9-14:Ald, and also to Z11-16:Ac, Z11-16:OH, and Z9-16:Ald. Next, we examined the glomerulus responses in the antennal lobes to these compounds by using in vivo optical imaging. The results showed that among the three subunits of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), Z11-16:Ald activated the cumulus, Z9-14:Ald activated the dorso-anterior and the cumulus, Z11-16:OH and Z11-16:Ac activated the dorso-anterior and dorso-posterior, respectively. However, Z9-16:Ald activated an ordinary glomerulus. Thirdly, we tested the behavioral responses of the males to these compounds in the wind tunnel. Addition of Z9-14:Ald at the ratio of 1:10 greatly reduced the attractiveness of Z11-16:Ald, addition of Z9-16:Ald or Z11-16:OH at the ratio of 1:1 also had behavioral antagonistic effects, while addition of Z11-16:Ac had no effect on the attractiveness of Z11-16:Ald. Finally, we used antennal transcriptome data and the Xenopus expression system to identify the receptor of Z9-14:Ald in M. separata. The Xenopus oocytes co-expressing MsepOR2 and MsepORco showed a strong response to Z9-14:Ald. Two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization validated that the cells expressing MsepOR2 and MsepOR3, tuned to Z9-14:Ald and Z11-16:Ald respectively, were localized in the different sensilla of male antennae. Comparing the sex pheromone communication channel of the related species, our results suggest that the conserved olfactory pathways for behavioral antagonists play a crucial role in behavioral isolation of noctuid species.

20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 480-488, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687900

RESUMO

Novel ternary deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were designed to efficiently dissolve the lignin for synthesizing the lignin-containing rigid polyurethane foam (LRPUF). These ternary DESs were constituted by choline chloride (ChCl), two hydrogen bond donors - glycerol (Gly) and polyethylene glycol (PEG-400). The maximum solubility of lignin in the sample DES-2 (ChCl:Gly:PEG-400 = 1:2:2) could up to 66.70 g/100 g solvent at 60 °C due to the hydrogen bonds are the main driving force, which was confirmed by the largest hydrogen bond basicity parameter ß value and disappearance of crystalline peak. The main structure of the lignin did not change after dissolution in DES-2. The content of phenolic and total hydroxyl groups of the regenerated lignin increased, with reduction in their average molecular weights and polydispersity, indicating that the dissolution and regeneration of lignin in these ternary DESs can make it more homogeneous. The regenerated lignin was partially replacing for polyols in the LRPUF synthesis, the lignin replacement rate could up to 58.6% with good mechanical properties. The findings add to our understanding for efficient dissolution of lignin in DESs and for synthesizing the highly LRPUF.

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