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1.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1947563, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367528

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 deaths elevate the prevalence of prolonged grief and post-traumatic stress symptoms among the bereaved, yet few studies have examined potential positive outcomes. Moreover, how COVID-19 bereavement affects individual-level mental health outcomes is under-researched. Objective: This is the first study to use latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify heterogeneous profiles of prolonged grief, post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth among people bereaved due to COVID-19 and to identify predictors of latent class membership. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-two Chinese participants who were bereaved due to COVID-19 completed an online survey between September and October 2020. The survey included the International (ICD-11) Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale (IPGDS), the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). LPA was run in Mplus, and the 3-step auxiliary approach was used to test the predicting effects of potential predictors of latent class membership identified with chi-square tests and ANOVAs. Results: Four latent profiles were identified: resilience (10.7%), growth (20.1%), moderate-combined (42.2%) and high-combined (27.0%). The bereaved who shared a close relationship with the deceased and identified COVID-19 as the fundamental cause of death were more likely to be in the high-combined group. A conflictful bereaved-deceased relationship reduces the chance of being in the growth group. Moreover, the death of a younger person and loss of a partner attributed to maladaptive outcomes. Conclusions: Serious attention needs to be paid to the mental health issues of people bereaved due to COVID-19 because nearly 70% of this group would have a moderate-combined or high-combined symptom profile. Special care should be given to those who lost someone younger, lost a partner or shared a close relationship with the deceased. Grief therapies that work on the conflicts between the deceased and the bereaved and unfinished business can be applied to facilitate growth.

2.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 61(6): e1-e4, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662513

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pioneering empirical studies show that people bereaved due to COVID-19 experience elevated acute grief, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptom levels, which relate to functional impairment. However, studies focused on Western samples and multivariate analyses of relations between potential risk factors and mental health in this population are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the mental health of Chinese adults bereaved due to COVID-19. To elucidate the associations of demographic and loss-related characteristics with mental health after COVID-19 bereavement. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-two Chinese adults (56% male; Mean age: 32.73 years) recently bereaved due to COVID-19 completed an online survey. Demographic and loss-related characteristics and prolonged grief, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: Clinically relevant prolonged grief (49%, n = 207), posttraumatic stress (22%, n = 92), depressive (70%; n = 294), and anxiety symptoms (65%; n = 272) were reported by a substantial group of participants. In four multiple regressions predicting each mental health indicator, Fs(15,406) = 5.08-7.74, Ps < 0.001, loss-characteristics (i.e., a shorter time since loss, ßs =  -.12-.11, loss of a first-degree relative, ßs =  .18-.37) and subjective loss experiences (i.e., feeling traumatized by the loss, ßs =  .13-.18, or a close and/or conflictual relation with the deceased, ßs =  .12-.23) related most consistently to mental health problems. CONCLUSION: Many Chinese adults bereaved due to COVID-19 experience severe mental health problems. The recent loss of first-degree relatives, feeling traumatized by the loss, and having a close and/or conflictual relationship with the deceased may elevate risk for these mental health problems, which could require indicated psychological treatment.


Assuntos
Luto , COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
3.
Global Health ; 17(1): 19, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deaths by COVID-19 have left behind nearly 12 million recent bereaved individuals worldwide and researchers have raised concerns that the circumstances of COVID-19 related deaths will lead to a rise prevalence of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) cases. However, to date, no studies have examined the prevalence of PGD among people bereaved due to COVID-19. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of PGD and investigated demographic and loss-related factors associated with prolonged grief symptoms among Chinese individuals bereaved due to COVID-19. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional online survey conducted between September 1 and October 3, 2020. A total of 422 Chinese participants (55.5% males; 32.73 [9.31] years old) who lost a close person due to COVID-19 participated in the study. Demographic and loss-related information was collected, and self-reported prolonged grief symptoms were measured by a 13-item International Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale (IPGDS: 1-65) and a 17-item Traumatic Grief Inventory Self Report (TGI-SR: 1-85). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the associated factors of levels of grief symptoms. RESULTS: Prevalence of PGD was 37.8% screened by IPGDS and 29.3% by TGI-SR. No difference was found in levels of grief symptoms between participants whose close one died more than 6 months ago and those who experienced the loss less than 6 months ago. More severe prolonged grief symptoms assessed by IPGDS was associated with losing a close person by COVID-19 rather than complications (B: 5.35; 95% CI: 0.54-10.05), losing a partner (B: 7.80; 95% CI: 3.24-12.37), child (B: 8.15; 95% CI: 1.03-15.26), and parent (B: 5.49; 95% CI: 1.49-9.48) rather than losing a relative or a person with other relationship, feeling more traumatic about the loss (B: 1.71; 95% CI: 0.52-2.90), being closer with the deceased (B: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.34-2.86). Moreover, Losing a grandparent (B: 6.62; 95% CI: 0.53-12.71) and having more conflicts with the deceased (B: 1.05; 95% CI: - 0.008-2.11) were related to higher levels of grief symptoms assessed by TGI-SR. CONCLUSIONS: Echoing researchers' concerns, the prevalence of PGD is high among people bereaved due to COVID-19. Individuals with a higher risk of developing PGD should be identified and bereavement support should be offered as early as possible.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Adaptação/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Pesar , Adulto , Luto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 353-360, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School closures due to the COVID-19 outbreak have affected 87% of the world's students physically, socially, and psychologically, yet rigorous investigation into their mental health during this period is still lacking. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of 4-342 primary and secondary school students from Shanghai, China was conducted during March 13-23, 2020. Besides demographic information, psychological distress (including depression, anxiety, and stress), life satisfaction, perceived impact of home quarantine, and parent-child discussions on COVID-19 were assessed. RESULTS: The three most prevalent symptoms were: anxiety (24.9%), depression (19.7%), and stress (15.2%). Participants were generally satisfied with life and 21.4% became more satisfied with life during school closures. Senior grades were positively correlated with psychopathological symptoms and negatively associated with life satisfaction, whereas the perceived benefit from home quarantine and parent-child discussions on COVID-19 were negatively correlated with psychopathological symptoms and positively correlated with life satisfaction. Among participants who perceived no benefit from home quarantine, those who had discussions with their parents about COVID-19 experienced less depression, anxiety, and stress. LIMITATIONS: Limitations included the inability to infer the casual relationship, no parental report for mental health of children aged 6 to 9, and the inadequate measurement of parent-child discussion. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems and resilience co-existed in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak. Given the important role of parent-child discussions, open communication between parents and children about the pandemic should be encouraged to help children and adolescents cope with mental health problems in public health crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 27(3): 267-277, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944474

RESUMO

This study aimed to delineate changes in the patterns of prolonged grief severity in widowed adults following group bereavement interventions and to identify the predictive factors impacting these patterns. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial of 125 Chinese widowed older adults who participated in either LOGBI or DPGBI. Self-ratings of prolonged grief symptoms via Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) were subjected to latent class growth analysis to identify subgroups according to symptomatic changes among baseline, post-treatment, and 8-week follow-up. Multinomial regression analysis examined whether participant classification could be predicted by demographics, loss-related characteristics, and the relationship with the deceased and baseline symptom severity. In the results, intervention sample comprised 96 completers with an attendance greater than 60%. A three-class categorization yielded the best model fit for changes in prolonged grief severity for both randomized and intervention samples: improved class (41.6% in the randomized sample, 42.8% in the intervention sample), partial responded class (48.1%/45.5%), and relapse class (10.3%/11.8%). Older widowed adults experiencing a high level of grief at baseline and bereavement following chronic illness had an elevated risk of symptomatic relapse after the completion of intervention. These findings indicated that Chinese widowed adults experienced different changing patterns of prolonged grief severity following group bereavement interventions. Practically, widowed adults with a higher risk of symptomatic relapse might need more intensive or longer term intervention or follow-up support.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Pesar , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Viuvez/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Previsões , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Viuvez/etnologia
6.
Aging Ment Health ; 24(8): 1254-1262, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983380

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aims to identify heterogeneous depressive symptom trajectories among the widowed elderly in China, to explore predictive variables of latent class membership, and to detect between-classes differences in life satisfaction across time.Method: Data of 198 individuals widowed between 2011 and 2013 were drawn from The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a nationally representative survey. Latent class growth analysis was employed to identify depressive symptom trajectories across 2011, 2013, and 2015, and a three-step auxiliary approach was applied to detect predictive variables of latent class membership. Mixed Analysis of Variances was followed to make between-class comparisons on life satisfaction across time.Results: Four grieving trajectories were identified: resilient (54.6%), chronic grief (23.7%), depressed-improved (11.6%), and chronic depression (10.1%). Older age, living exclusively with spouse before widowhood, and agricultural Hukou were significant predictors of depressed-improved, chronic grief, and chronic depression patterns, respectively. Life satisfaction in all groups except for the resilient one remained stable across time, and that of the chronic depression group was significantly lower than those of all the remaining groups.Conclusion: Consistent depressive symptom trajectories during late-life widowhood exist across nations while the specific culture, values, and resources in the Chinese context may have contributed to a particularly high proportion of the chronic grief trajectory. More efforts should be made to identify patterns with predictors before support are provided, and interventions need to be tailored to target specific needs in each subgroup of the elderly during their transitions to widowhood.


Assuntos
Viuvez , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
7.
Death Stud ; 44(3): 152-159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653390

RESUMO

This study investigates Chinese people's opinions about the diagnosis of grief and the factors associated with their opinions. Among 1041 participants who completed the online survey, over half (56.5%) agreed that grief could be a mental disorder under certain circumstances, such as harm to self or others, functional impairment, and persistent grief. Primary reasons against the diagnosis were that grief is normal and its intensity decreases over time. A small proportion of opponents also expressed concerns about stigmatization resulting from labeling grief as being pathological. Younger, male, and full-time employed adults tended to support diagnosing grief as a mental disorder.


Assuntos
Pesar , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Affect Disord ; 263: 155-165, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study is to systematically estimate the effect size of psychosocial risk factors for depressive symptoms among adolescents in secondary schools in mainland China. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in both English and Chinese databases. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model to estimate the effect size. RESULTS: Fifteen psychosocial risk factors were identified in a total of 164 articles. The results revealed the absolute value of effect size ranging from 0.16 to 0.43. Among them, poor parent-child communication (r = 0.43), negative life events (r = 0.40), academic pressure (r = 0.40), abuse (r = 0.33), poor family functioning (r = 0.33), bullying (r = 0.32), and poor family cohesion (r = 0.32) were associated with depression with a medium to large effect. Moderator analysis shows that grade, study quality, mean age, and gender were significant moderators of at least one factor for depression. LIMITATIONS: Limitations included the heterogeneity which is largely unexplained, and the inability to investigate the interactions of different factors and to determine the direction of causal relationships between psychosocial factors and depression in the present meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that family-related factors and school-related factors may be significantly associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese secondary school students. Further research is needed to develop effective strategies to modify these factors in depression prevention programmes.


Assuntos
Bullying , Depressão , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Death Stud ; 43(8): 500-508, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265838

RESUMO

We conducted a scoping review of quantitative studies on professional caregivers' bereavement after patients' deaths following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We found 12 studies involving 1317 professional caregivers that met inclusion criteria. Professional caregivers commonly had moderate, and sometimes long-term, bereavement reactions after patients' death. The evidence of factors affecting profession grief is inconclusive. Previous researchers extensively used the framework of understanding familial bereavement for analyzing the professional caregivers' bereavement, which we found to be inadequate. We call for a clear definition of professional bereavement and the development of a specific measurement tool.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Luto , Cuidadores , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Pacientes
10.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 498-507, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study reported here is to systematically estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in secondary schools in mainland China. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted in both English and Chinese databases from database inception to January 2018. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Fifty-one eligible studies (n = 144,060) using probability sampling were identified. The results revealed a pooled prevalence of depressive symptoms of 24.3% (95% CI, 21.3%-27.6%), with high between-studies heterogeneity (Q = 9909, I²â€¯= 99.5%, p < 0.001). The prevalence estimates reported by the individual studies ranged from 6.2% to 64.8%. There was an increased prevalence with increasing grades from year 1 in junior secondary school (24.5%; 95% CI, 17.8%-32.8%) to year 3 in senior secondary school (40.1%; 95% CI, 29.4%-51.9%) (Q = 7.1, p < 0.01). Potential sources of high heterogeneity of prevalence among studies can be accounted for by screening instruments with different cutoffs. Further analysis stratified by gender, grade, household registration (hukou) and number of children in the household were performed. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the high level of heterogeneity between studies (mainly from the heterogeneity of measurement tools) and stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that depressive symptoms are common among Chinese secondary school students. Further research is needed to identify the risk factors and effective strategies for preventing and treating depression among adolescents in secondary schools.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Amostragem
11.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 26(2): 262-272, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549158

RESUMO

Given the severe mental health consequences that may ensue after bereavement, it is crucial to better understand malleable cognitive factors that are associated with poorer bereavement outcomes. Grief rumination (i.e., repetitive thinking about the causes and consequences of a loss) is a malleable cognitive process that is concurrently and longitudinally associated with postloss mental health problems. To assess grief rumination, the English and Dutch Utrecht Grief Rumination Scale (UGRS) were recently developed. The current study examined the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the UGRS. Three hundred and ninety-three Chinese adults (56% women) bereaved on average 16.88 months ago filled out online questionnaires assessing demographic and loss-related characteristics, grief rumination (UGRS), trait rumination, trait mindfulness, and anxiety, depressive, and prolonged grief symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a second-order five-factor hierarchical model provided the most optimal factor structure for the Chinese UGRS. UGRS total scale and subscale scores demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Grief rumination had a moderate positive association with trait rumination and a low negative association with trait mindfulness, providing convergent and discriminant validity evidence. Test-criterion validity evidence was also provided. UGRS scores could distinguish bereaved groups with different relationships with the deceased. Moreover, grief rumination was associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and prolonged grief even after controlling for demographic and loss-related variables, trait rumination, and trait mindfulness. The Chinese UGRS appears a valid and reliable instrument to assess grief rumination in Chinese bereaved individuals.


Assuntos
Pesar , Ruminação Cognitiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , China , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tradução
12.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 88: 104-113, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional caregivers bereave after patients' deaths. Such bereavement can exert considerable influences on huge numbers of professional caregivers and their clients. No study, however, has synthesized scattered evidence on the core process of such bereavement, and no corresponding model exists. AIM: To systematically review and synthesize the experience of bereavement after patients' deaths, and in particular, its core process, in professional caregivers' own descriptions in existing literature, and to propose an integrated model on that basis. DESIGN: A review was conducted following Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research Statement (ENTREQ). DATA SOURCE: CINAHL Plus, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science were searched in April 2018 with keywords as combinations of "professional caregiver" and "bereavement". References of eligible studies from pre-planned searches were manually screened. REVIEW METHODS: Full-text and English-written qualitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals in or after 1980 were included. Their qualities were assessed by two of the authors independently. Meta-ethnography was employed to synthesize findings from previous studies. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria, the majority conducted in Western and developed regions of the world. Three core concepts were identified in the core professional bereavement process: (1) perceived nature of patients' deaths; (2) bereavement reactions; (3) accumulated changes. Each concept consists of both a personal dimension and a professional dimension. Risk and protective factors and coping methods were unveiled to influence the core process. An integrated, process-oriented and multi-dimensional model was proposed on the basis of these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Patients' deaths are significant events for professional caregivers, and they bring both personal and professional, both temporal and long-lasting impacts. Professional bereavement is distinctive from familial bereavement and deserves serious attention for its own sake. Attention, acknowledgment, and in-time support must be given to professional caregivers when they encounter patients' deaths.


Assuntos
Luto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Morte , Modelos de Enfermagem , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 267: 221-227, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935481

RESUMO

Bereavement may trigger different psychological outcomes, such as prolonged grief disorder or post-traumatic growth. The relationship between these two outcomes and potential precipitators remain unknown. The current study aimed to identify classes of Chinese bereaved individuals based on prolonged grief symptoms and post-traumatic growth and to examine predictors for these classes. We used data from 273 Chinese individuals who lost a relative due to disease (92.3%), accident (4.4%) and other reasons (1.8%). Latent class analysis revealed three classes: a resilient class, a growth class, and a combined grief/growth class. A higher level of functional impairment was found for the combined grief/growth class than for the other two classes. Membership in the combined grief/growth class was significantly predicted by the younger age of the deceased and the death of a parent, child or spouse. Subjective closeness with the deceased and gender were marginally significant predictors. When the four variables were included in the multinomial regression analysis, death of a parent, child or spouse significantly predicted the membership to the combined grief/growth class. These findings provide valuable information for the development of tailored interventions that may build on the bereaved individuals' personal strengths.


Assuntos
Luto , Pesar , Análise de Classes Latentes , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1201, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769844

RESUMO

Background: Attentional bias refers to a preference for (e.g., vigilance) or a shifting away (e.g., avoidance) of one's focus with respect to specific stimuli. Accumulating evidence suggests that an attentional bias toward death/threat-related stimuli exists in bereaved individuals experiencing prolonged grief (PG). Measuring for different processing may reflect different cognitive characteristics. Therefore, this study sought to compare information-processing biases in Chinese individuals with high versus low levels of PG symptomatology at supraliminal and subliminal levels, respectively. Method: A 2 (grief level) × 2 (consciousness level) × 2 (word type) three-factor mixed design with supraliminal and subliminal tasks was utilized in the current study. Based on their Prolonged Grief Questionnaire-13 (PG-13) scores, 38 participants were included in the low-PG group, and 34 individuals were included in the high-PG group. All the participants completed a dot-probe task in which they were primed with death-related and life-related words paired with neutral stimuli. Results: High-PG individuals were slower in reacting to the death-related information in both supraliminal and subliminal tasks. After controlling for other symptoms in the backward deletion regression, PG-13 scores significantly predicted the avoidance tendency to death-related words in the supraliminal task, while anxiety was the best predictor of turning one's vision away from death-related stimuli in the subliminal trials. Conclusion: The results suggested that high PG is associated with a tendency to avoid death-related words. Future research is needed to explore interventions that address the avoidance of death-related stimuli among individuals with elevated, or diagnosable, levels of PG.

15.
Psychiatry Res ; 255: 297-303, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28600999

RESUMO

This study is an exploratory study that aims to examine the mediating role of dual process coping in the relationship between risk factors and bereavement outcomes. A total of 178 Hong Kong Chinese bereaved older adults reported their bereavement-related information, dual process coping (Dual Coping Inventory, DCI), complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief; ICG), depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) and loneliness (De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, DJG) in face-to-face structured interviews. Results suggested that subjective traumatic death predicted complicated grief, depression, and loneliness via loss-orientated (LO) coping, whereas having lost a spouse rather than having lost a parent predicted loneliness via restoration-orientated (RO) coping. Future interventions may reconsider the use of LO coping and explore alternatives for traumatized bereaved older adults, and encourage RO coping for those experiencing spousal loss.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude Frente a Morte , Luto , Solidão , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Cônjuges/psicologia
16.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 29(3): 409-417, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27852340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of complicated grief are associated with a traumatic death. However, the subjective experience of whether or not the death was considered traumatic has not been substantially explored. This study first examined the difference between objective and subjective traumatic death, and then investigated their respective impacts on complicated grief and depressive symptoms following bereavement among older adults in Hong Kong. METHODS: Participants were 187 Hong Kong adults aged 65 years or above who had lost a family member within the past five years. Demographic information, the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were utilized. RESULTS: The subjective traumatic level of the death did not differ between the objective traumatic and non-traumatic death as defined by nature of death (t = -1.554, p = 0.122). Higher subjective traumatic levels and younger age of the deceased, were positively related to complicated grief symptoms, F (10, 161) = 14.222, p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.469. Higher subjective traumatic levels and older age of the bereaved were positively associated with symptoms of depression, F (10, 160) = 2.855, p = 0.003, R 2 = 0.151. However, objective traumatic death was found to have no relation to either complicated grief or depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Subjective and objective traumatic death may be two distinct concepts, and the subjective experience of the death as a trauma may be a more important factor that contributes to complicated grief and depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Morte Súbita , Depressão/psicologia , Família , Pesar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 219(2): 347-52, 2014 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24924526

RESUMO

Few epidemiological studies have investigated prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the general population of Asian countries, including China. The aim of this study was to explore the rates and risks of PGD, and the association between PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety in bereaved Chinese adults. The PG-13, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to 445 subjects. Prevalence within the general population of China was 1.8% (i.e., 8/445). Among the eight subjects who met the PGD diagnosis, 75%, 87.5% and 75% scored above the cut-off point on the PCL-C, SDS and SAS, respectively, although a portion remained free from comorbidity. ANOVA, correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that kinship to deceased, age of the deceased, religion belief and cause of death were predictive of prolonged grief. A small proportion of bereaved persons may exhibit PGD. There is a substantial but far from complete overlap between PGD and the other three diagnoses. Bereaved parents and the widowed have high risk of PGD. These findings highlight the need for prevention, diagnosis and treatment for PGD patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pesar , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Luto , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 41(2): 249-54, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22672898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been an increased effort to understand the nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in non-Western cultures. In particular, growing research has examined OCD in China, but there are no comprehensive instruments that measure both OCD severity and heterogeneity for characterizing samples. AIMS: A validated, comprehensive measure that could be used in China would provide researchers with a useful instrument for evaluating severity and heterogeneity of OCD in a non-Western culture, allowing researchers to better understand the universal and cultural components that play a role in the nature of OCD. METHOD: The current investigation presents data on the reliability and validity of a Mandarin translation of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (CH-OCI) using both a student (n = 1950) and clinical sample (n = 50 patients with OCD; n = 50 patients with anxiety as a comparison group). RESULTS: Results support the factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion-related validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency of the CH-OCI. CONCLUSIONS: Validation of the instrument permits researchers and clinicians to measure OCD presentation in Mandarin-speaking samples.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Electron Healthc ; 7(1): 19-35, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22931795

RESUMO

This study examines internet-based interventions as a solution to improve mental health services for traumatised individuals in People's Republic of China (PR China). By reviewing the literature, the authors first summarise primary barriers to Chinese people's mental health help-seeking. Next, based on a research model, the authors discuss how the internet has been used to overcome these barriers and then introduce the current state of internet-based interventions. Finally, the authors conclude the necessity and feasibility of internet-based intervention applications in PR China, give implications for mental health services and discuss some limitations.


Assuntos
Internet , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Telemedicina/organização & administração , China , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Percepção , Estigma Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/tendências
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 31(2): 541-6, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20391730

RESUMO

Leachates from 7 landfill of Wuhan, China were selected to determine the toxicity of leachates of different landfill age and different seasons, and relationships between physical-chemical parameters and toxicity of leachates were also study. Bioassays were conducted recording toxicity against Tetrahymena thermophila as median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) after 24h exposure and growth inhibition. The results show that LC50 values of leachates of different landfill age oscillate between 0.84% and 12.15%, and LC50 values increase and growth inhibitions do not decrease with increase of landfill age. No clear regularity is observed from LC50 values of leachates of different seasons, and LC50 values of leachates of summer are comparatively lower. Growth inhibitions of leachates of spring are the lowest. Physical-chemical parameters of leachates do not correlated with LC50 values, whereas growth inhibitions are dependent on COD, BOD5, NH4+ -N and concentrations of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP).


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , China , Cidades , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/análise , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
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