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1.
J Psychiatr Res ; 115: 165-175, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150948

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a severe mental illness characterized by fluctuations in mood states, behaviors and energy levels. Growing evidence suggests that genes associated with specific illnesses tend to interact together and encode a tight protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, providing valuable information for understanding their pathogenesis. To gain insights into the genetic and physiological foundation of BPD, we conduct the physical PPI analysis of 184 BPD risk genes distilled from genome-wide association studies and exome sequencing studies. We have identified several hub genes (CAMK2A, HSP90AA1 and PLCG1) among those risk genes, and observed significant enrichment of the BPD risk genes in certain pathways such as calcium signaling, oxytocin signaling and circadian entrainment. Furthermore, while none of the 184 genetic risk genes are "well established" BPD drug targets, our PPI analysis showed that αCaMKII (encoded by CAMK2A) had direct physical PPIs with targets (HRH1, SCN5A and CACNA1E) of clinically used anti-manic BPD drugs, such as carbamazepine. We thus speculated that αCaMKII might be involved in the cellular pharmacological actions of those drugs. Using cultured rat primary cortical neurons, we found that carbamazepine treatment induced phosphorylation of αCaMKII in dose-dependent manners. Intriguingly, previous study showed that CAMK2A heterozygous knockout (CAMK2A+/-) mice exhibited infradian oscillation of locomotor activities that can be rescued by carbamazepine. Our data, in combination with previous studies, provide convergent evidence for the involvement of CAMK2A in the risk of BPD.

2.
Ultramicroscopy ; 200: 39-42, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822615

RESUMO

The characterization and control of atomic substitution process is crucial in fabricating high-quality two-dimensional layered compound materials and tuning their physical properties. With intensity-voltage low energy electron microscopy (IV-LEEM), we found that the concentration of copper in the topmost copper silicide monolayer on Si (111) substrates varies gradually from 1.7 to 1.0 ML while preserving it's unique '5 × 5' incommensurate phase in a transition region as large as 1000 nm. This gradual variation of the copper concentration is due to the incomplete substitution of the Si with Cu, as revealed by atomic-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy with a tip that nicely resolved the '5 × 5' periodicity. Our experiments indicate that besides the widely-accepted phase of Cu2Si with both substitutional and interstitial Cu atoms, another type of precursor copper silicide CuSi3 with only interstitial Cu atoms also plays important roles in the substitutional diffusion and reaction processes during the formation of the topmost copper silicide monolayer. This precursor phase might exist in the growth of other two-dimensional layered materials with potential applications in integrated optoelectronics, spintronics or low dissipative devices.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 270, 2018 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531795

RESUMO

Genetic analyses of psychiatric illnesses, such as bipolar disorder (BPD), have revealed essential information regarding the underlying pathological mechanisms. While such studies in populations of European ancestry have achieved prominent success, understanding the genetic risk factors of these illnesses (especially BPD) in Chinese population remains an urgent task. Given the lack of genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BPD in Chinese population from Mainland China, replicating the previously reported GWAS hits in distinct populations will provide valuable information for future GWAS analysis in Han Chinese. In the present study, we have recruited 1146 BPD cases and 1956 controls from Mainland China for genetic analyses, as well as 65 Han Chinese brain amygdala tissues for mRNA expression analyses. Using this clinical sample, one of the largest Han Chinese BPD samples till now, we have conducted replication analyses of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) extracted from previous GWAS of distinct populations. Among the 21 tested SNPs, 16 showed the same direction of allelic effects in our samples compared with previous studies; 6 SNPs achieved nominal significance (p < 0.05) at one-tailed test, and 2 additional SNPs showed marginal significance (p < 0.10). Aside from replicating previously reported BPD risk SNPs, we herein also report several intriguing findings: (1) the SNP rs174576 was associated with BPD in our Chinese sample and in the overall global meta-analysis, and was significantly correlated with FADS1 mRNA in diverse public RNA-seq datasets as well as our in house collected Chinese amygdala samples; (2) two (partially) independent SNPs in MAD1L1 were both significantly associated with BPD in our Chinese sample, which was also supported by haplotype analysis; (3) a rare SNP rs78089757 in 10q26.13 region was a genome-wide significant variant for BPD in East Asians, and this SNP was near monomorphic in Europeans. In sum, these results confirmed several significant BPD risk genes. We hope this Chinese BPD case-control sample and the current brain amygdala tissues (with continuous increasing sample size in the near future) will provide helpful resources in elucidating the genetic and molecular basis of BPD in this major world population.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(36): e12061, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric chronic pain is relatively common in the world. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be efficacious in children and adolescents, it is generally recognized that availability and accessibility of CBT are limited. While Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) performs better in these areas. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to evaluate the clinical effects of ICBT for chronic pain in youth when compared with the control treatments. METHODS: We searched electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials that compared ICBT with the control therapy for pediatric chronic pain. The primary outcomes were 95% confidence intervals and mean difference or standardized mean difference in change of pain intensity and activity limitations. RESULTS: Four trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 404 participants of whom 208 received ICBT. Compared with pretreatment, children reported significant, medium to large benefits on pain intensity, activity limitations, and parental protective behaviors after receiving ICBT immediately. Significant small to medium effects were found for outcomes of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and sleep quality from baseline to post-treatment in the ICBT group. But most measures of ICBT did not show statistically significant superiority to those of the control conditions, except parental protective behaviors. Generally children and their parents were highly acceptable and satisfied with ICBT. CONCLUSION: ICBT for physical and psychological conditions in youth with chronic pain is a full potential therapy; it can be successful on clinically effects and socioeconomic benefits. However, only limited data supported the conclusion, we require further methodologically robust trials. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017069811.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Internet , Manejo da Dor , Terapia Assistida por Computador , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Sci Adv ; 4(7): eaar7720, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027116

RESUMO

Van der Waals (vdW) assembly of layered materials is a promising paradigm for creating electronic and optoelectronic devices with novel properties. Ferroelectricity in vdW layered materials could enable nonvolatile memory and low-power electronic and optoelectronic switches, but to date, few vdW ferroelectrics have been reported, and few in-plane vdW ferroelectrics are known. We report the discovery of in-plane ferroelectricity in a widely investigated vdW layered material, ß'-In2Se3. The in-plane ferroelectricity is strongly tied to the formation of one-dimensional superstructures aligning along one of the threefold rotational symmetric directions of the hexagonal lattice in the c plane. Surprisingly, the superstructures and ferroelectricity are stable to 200°C in both bulk and thin exfoliated layers of In2Se3. Because of the in-plane nature of ferroelectricity, the domains exhibit a strong linear dichroism, enabling novel polarization-dependent optical properties.

7.
Ultramicroscopy ; 183: 30-37, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28712555

RESUMO

The effects of space charge, aberrations and relativity on temporal compression are investigated for a compact spherical electrostatic capacitor (α-SDA). By employing the three-dimensional (3D) field simulation and the 3D space charge model based on numerical General Particle Tracer and SIMION, we map the compression efficiency for a wide range of initial beam size and single-pulse electron number and determine the optimum conditions of electron pulses for the most effective compression. The results demonstrate that both space charge effects and aberrations prevent the compression of electron pulses into the sub-ps region if the electron number and the beam size are not properly optimized. Our results suggest that α-SDA is an effective compression approach for electron pulses under the optimum conditions. It may serve as a potential key component in designing future time-resolved electron sources for electron diffraction and spectroscopy experiments.

8.
Ultramicroscopy ; 174: 89-96, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063340

RESUMO

We describe the design and commissioning of a novel aberration-corrected low energy electron microscope (AC-LEEM). A third magnetic prism array (MPA) is added to the standard AC-LEEM with two prism arrays, allowing the incorporation of an ultrafast spin-polarized electron source alongside the standard cold field emission electron source, without degrading spatial resolution. The high degree of symmetries of the AC-LEEM are utilized while we design the electron optics of the ultrafast spin-polarized electron source, so as to minimize the deleterious effect of time broadening, while maintaining full control of electron spin. A spatial resolution of 2nm and temporal resolution of 10ps (ps) are expected in the future time resolved aberration-corrected spin-polarized LEEM (TR-AC-SPLEEM). The commissioning of the three-prism AC-LEEM has been successfully finished with the cold field emission source, with a spatial resolution below 2nm.

9.
ACS Nano ; 11(1): 961-967, 2017 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27992717

RESUMO

Composition-controlled growth of two-dimensional layered semiconductor heterostructures is crucially important for their applications in multifunctional integrated photonics and optoelectronics devices. Here, we report the realization of composition completely modulated layered semiconductor MoS2-MoS2(1-x)Se2x (0 < x < 1) lateral heterostructures via the controlled layer-selected atomic substitution of pregrown stacking MoS2, with a bilayer located at the center of a monolayer. Through controlling the reaction time, S at the monolayer MoS2 at the peripheral area can be selectively substituted by Se atoms at different levels, while the bilayer region at the center retains the original composition. Microstructure characterizations demonstrated the formation of lateral heterostructures with a sharp interface, with the composition at the monolayer area gradually modulated from MoS2 to MoSe2 and having high-quality crystallization at both the monolayer and the bilayer areas. Photoluminescence and Raman mapping studies exhibit the tunable optical properties only at the monolayer region of the as-grown heterostructures, which further demonstrates the realization of high-quality composition/bandgap modulated lateral heterostructures. This work offers an interesting and easy route for the development of high-quality layered semiconductor heterostructures for potential broad applications in integrated nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices.

10.
Behav Brain Res ; 313: 17-22, 2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27388149

RESUMO

The primary aim of this study was to identify structural and functional abnormalities in the brains of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Another aim was to assess the effect of serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on brain structure of OCD patients. All subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting functional MRI (fMRI). High-resolution three-dimensional images were processed using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The final analysis included 18 OCD patients and 16 healthy controls. In the OCD patients there was a decrease in gray matter volume in the bilateral cingulate cortex and bilateral striatum. In some cortical structures including the cerebellar anterior lobe, left orbital frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus, there was an increase in gray matter volume. On fMRI the OCD patients had overactivation of the right cerebellum and right parietal lobe and reduced activation of the left cingulate gyrus, putamen, and caudate nucleus. Eleven OCD patients who improved during 12 weeks of drug treatment with sertraline hydrochloride had a significant increase in gray matter volume in several brain structures but no significant differences were found on resting fMRI. The results indicated a consistent trend between structural and functional images. Higher cortical structures showed increased gray matter volume and increased activation as did the cerebellum whereas subcortical structures showed decreased gray matter volume and decreased activation. And brain structure improvement consisted with symptom improvement after SSRIs treatment in OCD patients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/patologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/patologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Neurais/patologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Tálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tálamo/patologia , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Exp Bot ; 67(11): 3289-301, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091877

RESUMO

High-quality cotton fibre equates to a more comfortable textile. Fibre length is an important index of fibre quality. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acts as a signalling molecule in the regulation of fibre elongation. Results from in vitro ovule culture suggest that the alteration of fibre cell H2O2 levels affects fibre development. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzyme, and we found that GhAPX1AT/DT encoded one member of the previously unrealized group of cytosolic APXs (cAPXs) that were preferentially expressed during the fibre elongation stage. Transgenic cottons with up- and down-regulation of GhAPX1AT/DT were generated to control fibre endogenous levels of H2O2 Suppression of all cAPX (IAO) resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in H2O2 level in fibres and oxidative stress, which significantly suppressed fibre elongation. The fibre length of transgenic lines with over-expression or specific down-regulation of GhAPX1AT/DT did not show any obvious change. However, the fibres in the over-expression lines exhibited higher tolerance to oxidative stress. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in fibres at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) of IAO lines identified by RNA-seq were related to redox homeostasis, signalling pathways, stress responses and cell wall synthesis, and the DEGs that were up-regulated in IAO lines were also up-regulated in the 10 DPA and 20 DPA fibres of wild cotton compared with domesticated cotton. These results suggest that optimal H2O2 levels and redox state regulated by cytosolic APX are key mechanisms regulating fibre elongation, and dysregulation of the increase in H2O2 induces oxidative stress and results in shorter fibres by initiating secondary cell wall-related gene expression.


Assuntos
Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Fibra de Algodão , Citosol/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Gossypium/enzimologia , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Homeostase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
12.
Br J Psychiatry ; 208(5): 446-52, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26941266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that altered immunity contributes to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). AIMS: To examine whether complement factor H (CFH), a regulator of activation of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade, confers susceptibility to MDD. METHOD: Expression analyses were tested in 53 unmedicated people with MDD and 55 healthy controls. A two-stage genetic association analysis was performed in 3323 Han Chinese with or without MDD. Potential associations between CFH single nucleotide polymorphisms and age at MDD onset were evaluated. RESULTS: CFH levels were significantly lower in the MDD group at both protein and mRNA levels (P = 0.009 and P = 0.014 respectively). A regulatory variant in the CFH gene, rs1061170, showed statistically significant genotypic and allelic differences between the MDD and control groups (genotypic P = 0.0005, allelic P = 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that age at onset of MDD was significantly associated with the C allele of rs1061170 (log rank statistic χ(2) = 6.82, P = 0.009). The C-allele carriers had a younger age at onset of MDD (22.2 years, s.d. = 4.0) than those without the C allele (23.6 years, s.d. = 4.3). CONCLUSIONS: CFH is likely to play an important role in the development of MDD. rs1061170 has an important effect on age at onset of MDD in Han Chinese and may therefore be related to early pathogenesis of MDD, although further study is needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , China , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
J Affect Disord ; 190: 329-332, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26544616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence supporting the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction and altered expression of complex I subunits play important roles in the pathophysiology of mental disorders. Early literature reports have implicated NDUFV2, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial complex I subunit gene, in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. There has been no genetic study to investigate whether there is an association between NDUFV2 and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: This study recruited 744 patients with MDD and 767 well-matched healthy controls in a Chinese Han population, and genotyped 9 SNPs within NDUFV2. RESULTS: Initial analysis showed statistically significant differences for 2 SNPs (rs4798765 and rs12964485) in the genotypic distribution and for 1 SNP (rs4797356) in the allelic distribution between the case and control groups. Nevertheless, no significance was demonstrated following multiple testing corrections. Haplotype analysis showed that the T-C haplotype, consisting of rs12457810 and rs12964485, was significantly associated with MDD (P=0.005, corrected P=0.04 after a 10,000 permutation test). We performed an eQTL analysis and found that rs12964485 was significantly associated with NDUFV2 expression in the occipital cortex (P=0.036), albeit this significance did not survive after Bonferroni correction. LIMITATION: This is a preliminary investigation with a relatively modest sample size. CONCLUSION: Our findings provided preliminary evidence that a haplotype T-C consisting of rs12457810 and rs12964485 in the 5'-upstream region of NDUFV2 may be a protective factor for the development of MDD in Han Chinese.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0136372, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26305563

RESUMO

Complement pathway activation was found to occur frequently in schizophrenia, and complement 3 (C3) plays a major role in this process. Previous studies have provided evidence for the possible role of C3 in the development of schizophrenia. In this study, we hypothesized that the gene encoding C3 (C3) may confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese. We analyzed 7 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C3 in 647 schizophrenia patients and 687 healthy controls. Peripheral C3 mRNA expression level was measured in 23 drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 24 controls. Two SNPs (rs1047286 and rs2250656) that deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were excluded for further analysis. Among the remaining 5 SNPs, there was no significant difference in allele and genotype frequencies between the patient and control groups. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant SNP-gender interaction in either dominant model or recessive model. There was no significant difference in the level of peripheral C3 expression between the drug-naïve schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, the results of this study do not support C3 as a major genetic susceptibility factor in schizophrenia. Other factors in AP may have critical roles in schizophrenia and be worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Complemento C3/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
15.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 11(8): 1401-17, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26295141

RESUMO

In this study, a dual-ligand polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticle drug delivery vehicle comprised of an anti-HER2/neu peptide (AHNP) mimic with a modified HIV-1 Tat (mTAT) was established for the targeted treatment of Her2/neu-overexpressing cells. The resultant dual-ligand hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) consisted of a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) core, a near 90% surface coverage of the lipid monolayer, and a 5.7 nm hydrated polyethylene glycol shell. Ligand density optimization study revealed that cellular uptake efficiency of the hybrid NPs could be manipulated by controlling the surface-ligand densities. Furthermore, the cell uptake kinetics and mechanism studies showed that the dual-ligand modifications of hybrid NPs altered the cellular uptake pathway from caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CvME) to the multiple endocytic pathways, which would significantly enhance the NP internalization. Upon the systemic investigation of the cellular uptake behavior of dual-ligand hybrid NPs, docetaxel (DTX), a hydrophobic anticancer drug, was successfully encapsulated into dual-ligand hybrid NPs with high drug loading for Her2/neu-overexpressing SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell treatment. The DTX-loaded dual-ligand hybrid NPs showed a decreased burst release and a more gradual sustained drug release property. Because of the synergistic effect of dual-ligand modification, DTX-loaded dual-ligand hybrid NPs exerted substantially better therapeutic potency against SK-BR-3 cancer cells than other NP formulations and free DTX drugs. These results demonstrate that the dual-ligand hybrid NPs could be a promising vehicle for targeted drug delivery to treat breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Nanocápsulas/química , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Difusão , Docetaxel , Humanos , Ligantes , Lipídeos/química , Nanocápsulas/ultraestrutura , Polímeros/química , Taxoides/química , Resultado do Tratamento , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química
16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 48: 186-94, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25882912

RESUMO

Studies using animal models have shown that depression affects the stability of the microbiota, but the actual structure and composition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are not well understood. Here, we analyzed fecal samples from 46 patients with depression (29 active-MDD and 17 responded-MDD) and 30 healthy controls (HCs). High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that, according to the Shannon index, increased fecal bacterial α-diversity was found in the active-MDD (A-MDD) vs. the HC group but not in the responded-MDD (R-MDD) vs. the HC group. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria strongly increased in level, whereas that of Firmicutes was significantly reduced in the A-MDD and R-MDD groups compared with the HC group. Despite profound interindividual variability, levels of several predominant genera were significantly different between the MDD and HC groups. Most notably, the MDD groups had increased levels of Enterobacteriaceae and Alistipes but reduced levels of Faecalibacterium. A negative correlation was observed between Faecalibacterium and the severity of depressive symptoms. These findings enable a better understanding of changes in the fecal microbiota composition in such patients, showing either a predominance of some potentially harmful bacterial groups or a reduction in beneficial bacterial genera. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the temporal and causal relationships between gut microbiota and depression and to evaluate the suitability of the microbiome as a biomarker.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 590: 189-92, 2015 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25660618

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have indicated that both maternal bacterial and viral infections during pregnancy increase the risk of schizophrenia among offspring, but to date there is not clear explanation for this increased risk. Previously, the decreased C4b-binding protein (C4BP), a potent circulating soluble inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, was reported to be associated with risk of schizophrenia. Here, we analyzed 4 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C4BPB and 5 SNPs of C4BPA in a group of 556 schizophrenia patients and a matched group of 610 healthy controls to see if the genes C4BPB and C4BPA, which encode C4BP, may confer a susceptibility to schizophrenia. Comparing the genotype and allele frequencies of those SNPs between cases and controls, we found no association between the C4BPB/C4BPA variants and schizophrenia. Our results provided preliminary evidence that C4BPB/C4BPA may not confer susceptibility to schizophrenia among Han Chinese. Further genetic studies from large-scale population are required to obtain more conclusive results.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Complemento C4b/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Plant J ; 80(2): 331-44, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25131375

RESUMO

microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-24 nucleotide non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in plant development. The stages of cotton fiber development include initiation, elongation, secondary wall thickening (SWT) and maturation. We constructed seven fiber RNA libraries representing the initiation, elongation and SWT stages. In total, 47 conserved miRNA families and seven candidate miRNAs were profiled using small RNA sequencing. Northern blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed the dynamic expression of miRNAs during fiber development. In addition, 140 targets of 30 conserved miRNAs and 38 targets of five candidate miRNAs were identified through degradome sequencing. Analysis of correlated expression between miRNAs and their targets demonstrated that specific miRNAs suppressed the expression of transcription factors, SBP and MYB, a leucine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, a pectate lyase, α-tubulin, a UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 to affect fiber development. Histochemical analyses detected the biological activity of miRNA156/157 in ovule and fiber development. Suppressing miRNA156/157 function resulted in the reduction of mature fiber length, illustrating that miRNA156/157 plays an essential role in fiber elongation.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Northern Blotting , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 85(6): 613-25, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24890373

RESUMO

Cotton fiber is a single cell that differentiates from the ovule epidermis and undergoes synchronous elongation with high secretion and growth rate. Apart from economic importance, cotton fiber provides an excellent single-celled model for studying mechanisms of cell-growth. Annexins are Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding proteins that have been reported to be localized in multiple cellular compartments and involved in control of vesicle secretions. Although several annexins have been found to be highly expressed in elongating cotton fibers, their functional roles in fiber development remain unknown. Here, 14 annexin family members were identified from the fully sequenced diploid G. raimondii (D5 genome), half of which were expressed in fibers of the cultivated tetraploid species G. hirsutum (cv. YZ1). Among them, GhAnn2 from the D genome of the tetraploid species displayed high expression level in elongating fiber. The expression of GhAnn2 could be induced by some phytohormones that play important roles in fiber elongation, such as IAA and GA3. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of GhAnn2 inhibited fiber elongation and secondary cell wall synthesis, resulting in shorter and thinner mature fibers in the transgenic plants. Measurement with non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode revealed that the rate of Ca(2+) influx from extracellular to intracellular was decreased at the fiber cell apex of GhAnn2 silencing lines, in comparison to that in the wild type. These results indicate that GhAnn2 may regulate fiber development through modulating Ca(2+) fluxes and signaling.


Assuntos
Anexinas/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fibra de Algodão , Gossypium/citologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Anexinas/genética , Anexinas/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Crescimento Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Gossypium/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Interferência de RNA , Análise de Sequência
20.
New Phytol ; 202(2): 509-20, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24443839

RESUMO

Fiber elongation is the key determinant of fiber quality and output in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Although expression profiling and functional genomics provide some data, the mechanism of fiber development is still not well understood. Here, a gene encoding a calcium sensor, GhCaM7, was isolated based on its high expression level relative to other GhCaMs in fiber cells at the fast elongation stage. The level of expression of GhCaM7 in the wild-type and the fuzzless/lintless mutant correspond to the presence and absence, respectively, of fiber initials. Overexpressing GhCaM7 promotes early fiber elongation, whereas GhCaM7 suppression by RNAi delays fiber initiation and inhibits fiber elongation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in early fiber development. ROS induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and Ca(2+) starvation promotes early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 overexpression fiber cells show increased ROS concentrations compared with the wild-type, while GhCaM7 RNAi fiber cells have reduced concentrations. Furthermore, we show that H2 O2 enhances Ca(2+) influx into the fiber and feedback-regulates the expression of GhCaM7. We conclude that GhCaM7, Ca(2+) and ROS are three important regulators involved in early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 might modulate ROS production and act as a molecular link between Ca(2+) and ROS signal pathways in early fiber development.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Gossypium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Calmodulina/genética , Fibra de Algodão , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais
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