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1.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(1): e0158722, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602318

RESUMO

The two-component system RhpRS was initially identified as a regulator of genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS) in Pseudomonas syringae. Phosphorylated RhpR (P-RhpR) negatively regulates the T3SS genes by repressing the hrpR promoter, but directly activates the expression of a small gene named here as grlp. Here, we show that grlp is expressed higher in rich medium than in minimal medium in P. s. pv. tomato DC3000 and encodes a glycine rich lipoprotein (GrlP) located in the outer membrane (OM). The grlp gene has a pleiotropic effect on bacterial behaviors such as reductions in pathogenicity, swimming motility, biofilm formation, tolerance to various stresses and antibiotics, and long-term survival when overexpressed, but induces these responses when it is deleted in P. s. pv. tomato DC3000. Overexpression of grlp increases the size of periplasm while deletion of grlp decreases the periplasmic space. Further, GrlP interacts with OprI, the ortholog of E. coli OM lipoprotein Lpp, a key player in determining the size of periplasm and mechanic stiffness of the OM by tethering the OM to peptidoglycan (PG) in periplasm. As periplasmic space and OM mechanics play central roles in regulating bacterial physiology, we speculate that GrlP probably imposes its functions on bacterial physiology by regulating the periplasmic space and OM mechanics. These findings suggest that the T3SS gene regulation is closely coordinated with bacterial cell envelope properties by RhpRS in P. syringe. IMPORTANCE The OM of Gram-negative bacteria is the most front line in contact with extracellular milieu. OM is not only a protective layer, but also a structure that determines the envelope stiffness. Recent evidence indicated that components determining the periplasmic space and cross-links of lipopolysaccharide on the OM play key roles in regulating the mechanical properties of the OM. However, whether the OM composition and mechanical properties are coordinated with the expression of the T3SS genes is unknown. Here, we found that the two-component system (TCS) regulator P-RhpR, a direct repressor of the T3SS regulator hrpRS operon, directly activates the expression of the OM lipoprotein gene grlp bearing a function in regulating the periplasmic space. This finding suggests a coordination between the OM properties and the T3SS gene regulation and reveals a new target for control of the T3SS gene expression and bacterial pathogenicity.

2.
Life (Basel) ; 12(12)2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36556326

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-related interstitial lung disease with a high incidence in the elderly. Although many reports have shown that senescence can initiate pulmonary fibrosis, the relationship between aging and pulmonary fibrosis has not been explained systematically. In our study, young and old rats were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin (1 mg/kg), and the basic pathological indexes were determined using a commercial kit, hematoxylin, and eosin (H&E) and Masson's Trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry, immunohistofluorescence, and q-PCR. Then, the lung tissues of rats were sequenced by next-generation sequencing for transcriptome analysis. Bioinformatics was performed to analyze the possible differences in the mechanism of pulmonary fibrosis between aged and young rats. Finally, the related cytokines were determined by q-PCR and ELISA. The results indicate that pulmonary fibrosis in old rats is more serious than that in young rats under the same conditions. Additionally, transcriptomic and bioinformatics analysis with experimental validation indicate that the differences in pulmonary fibrosis between old and young rats are mainly related to the differential expression of cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM), and other important signaling pathways. In conclusion, aging mainly affects pulmonary fibrosis through the ECM-receptor interaction, immune response, and chemokines.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 306: 116050, 2022 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535334

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Baibutang (BBT) is an ancient prescription for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous experiments have shown that BBT had a good therapeutic effect on pulmonary fibrosis. However, there had been no study on the synergy between drugs composed of BBT. Due to the interaction between the constituent drugs, exploring their synergy profile is of great significance for explaining the essence of BBT's efficacy in improving pulmonary fibrosis. AIM OF THE STUDY: Based on the pharmacodynamic value, this study aimed to explore a method for the evaluation of the synergy profile between constituent drugs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine herbs of BBT were divided into Zhikeqingre (ZK), Yangyinyiqi (YY) and Lishijianpi (LS) groups. A rat model of Yin-deficiency pulmonary fibrosis induced by thyroxine-bleomycin was used to evaluate the effects of BBT and the three groups. The pathological changes of lung tissue and the changes of biomarkers associated with fibrosis, Yin-deficiency and water-fluid metabolism were detected. After standardization of pharmacodynamics value (PV), the compatibility coefficient (CC) of the three groups, the relative PV (RPV) and contribution value (CV) of each group on every index were calculated. RESULTS: The average CC on fibrosis indexes was 0.44, indicating that 44% of the efficacy of BBT came from the synergistic effect of the three groups. ZK group had the highest RPV (0.80) in improving fibrosis indexes such as histopathological changes, α-SMA, collagen-I and renin-angiotensin system. The average CC on Yin-deficiency indexes was 0.25, and YY group had the highest RPV (0.96) in improving deficiency indexes such as body temperature, cAMP/cGMP ratio, and PDEs, PGE2 and COX-2 levels. The average CC on water-fluid metabolism indexes was 0.15, and LS group had the highest RPV (1.52) in improving water-fluid metabolism indexes such as aquaporins, mucins, and surfactant proteins. The results also showed that 29% of the improvement effect of BBT on all indexes came from the synergistic effect of the three groups, and the contribution of ZK, YY and LS groups to the efficacy of BBT were 25%, 25% and 21%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The established semiquantitative method can clearly and simply evaluate the synergy of the three groups in BBT, which will help to promote the research on the synergy of TCM compounds and other multiple-components combinations.

4.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 23(11): 931-942, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Safe and effective anticoagulation is essential for hemodialysis patients who are at high risk of bleeding. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two-stage regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) combined with sequential anticoagulation and standard calcium-containing dialysate in intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) treatment. METHODS: Patients at high risk of bleeding who underwent IHD from September 2019 to May 2021 were prospectively enrolled in 13 blood purification centers of nephrology departments, and were randomly divided into RCA group and saline flushing group. In the RCA group, 0.04 g/mL sodium citrate was infused from the start of the dialysis line during blood draining and at the venous expansion chamber. The sodium citrate was stopped after 3 h of dialysis, which was changed to sequential dialysis without anticoagulant. The hazard ratios for coagulation were according to baseline. RESULTS: A total of 159 patients and 208 sessions were enrolled, including RCA group (80 patients, 110 sessions) and saline flushing group (79 patients, 98 sessions). The incidence of severe coagulation events of extracorporeal circulation in the RCA group was significantly lower than that in the saline flushing group (3.64% vs. 20.41%, P<0.001). The survival time of the filter pipeline in the RCA group was significantly longer than that in the saline flushing group ((238.34±9.33) min vs. (221.73±34.10) min, P<0.001). The urea clearance index (Kt/V) in the RCA group was similar to that in the saline flushing group with no statistically significant difference (1.12±0.34 vs. 1.08±0.34, P=0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with saline flushing, the two-stage RCA combined with a sequential anticoagulation strategy significantly reduced extracorporeal circulation clotting events and prolonged the dialysis time without serious adverse events.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico , Hemorragia , Humanos , Ácido Cítrico/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Citrato de Sódio , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Citratos/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293299

RESUMO

In plants, the accumulation of carotenoids can maintain the balance of the photosystem and improve crop nutritional quality. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms underlying carotenoid synthesis and accumulation should be further explored. In this study, carotenoid accumulation differed significantly among parental Brassica rapa. Genetic analysis was carried out using the golden inner leaf '1900264' line and the light-yellow inner leaf '1900262' line, showing that the golden inner leaf phenotype was controlled by a single dominant gene. Using bulked-segregant analysis sequencing, BraA09g007080.3C encoding the ORANGE protein was selected as a candidate gene. Sequence alignment revealed that a 4.67 kb long terminal repeat insertion in the third exon of the BrGOLDEN resulted in three alternatively spliced transcripts. The spatiotemporal expression results indicated that BrGOLDEN might regulate the expression levels of carotenoid-synthesis-related genes. After transforming BrGOLDEN into Arabidopsis thaliana, the seed-derived callus showed that BrGOLDENIns and BrGOLDENDel lines presented a yellow color and the BrGOLDENLdel line presented a transparent phenotype. In addition, using the yeast two-hybrid assay, BrGOLDENIns, BrGOLDENLdel, and Brgoldenwt exhibited strong interactions with BrPSY1, but BrGOLDENDel did not interact with BrPSY1 in the split-ubiquitin membrane system. In the secondary and 3D structure analysis, BrGOLDENDel was shown to have lost the PNFPSFIPFLPPL sequences at the 125 amino acid position, which resulted in the α-helices of BrGOLDENDel being disrupted, restricting the formation of the 3D structure and affecting the functions of the protein. These findings may provide new insights into the regulation of carotenoid synthesis in B. rapa.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica rapa , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Genes Dominantes , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Aminoácidos/genética , Ubiquitinas/genética
7.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(7): e12820, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254256

RESUMO

Background: Neonatal-onset hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (hTTP) is often misdiagnosed due to its rarity. It begins with jaundice, similar to infants with ABO incompatibility. Objective: To explore early indicators of neonatal-onset hTTP. Methods: This study was a retrospective case series of newborns with hTTP and ABO incompatibility. We compared the clinical characteristics and laboratory test results in these two groups. Results: This study included four hTTP patients and 20 ABO-incompatible newborns. All patients manifested disease during the neonatal period. There were equal numbers of males and females in each group. hTTP newborns showed earlier (median difference, 57.0 h; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.0-65.0) and more severe hyperbilirubinemia (mean difference, 8.0 mg/dl; 95% CI, 3.8-12.1) than ABO-incompatible newborns. In hTTP newborns, anemia was more common within 7 days after birth than in ABO-incompatible newborns (odds ratio, 25.4; 95% CI, 1.2-551.6), and platelet counts were lower than in ABO-incompatible newborns (17 ± 12 × 109/L vs. 291 ± 76 × 109/L). The levels of serum creatinine (median difference, 51.8 µmol/L; 95% CI, 16.0-109.4) and blood urea nitrogen (median difference, 5.7 mmol/L; 95% CI, 2.8-38.7) were higher in hTTP newborns than in ABO-incompatible newborns. There were no significant differences in white blood cell counts, C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, or albumin levels. Conclusions: Severe jaundice soon after birth, early anemia, and severe thrombocytopenia were more common in newborns with hTTP than ABO incompatibility. These are distinguishing early features of hTTP.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(43): 20016-20024, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256876

RESUMO

Naturally produced, biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) promise more sustainable alternatives to nonrenewable/degradable plastics, but biological PHA's stereomicrostructures are strictly confined to isotactic (R)-polymers or copolymers of random sequences. Chemical synthesis via catalyzed ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic (di)esters offers expedient access to diverse PHA microstructures, including those with defined comonomer sequences and tacticities. However, the synthesis of alternating isotactic PHAs has not been achieved by the existing methodologies. Here, we report the design of unsymmetrically disubstituted eight-membered diolides (rac-8DLR1-R2) and their site- and stereoselective ROP with discrete chiral catalysts, enabling the synthesis of alternating isotactic PHAs, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-alt-3-hydroxyvalerate) (alt-P3HBV) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-alt-3-hydroxyheptanoate) (alt-P3HBHp), with high to quantitative (>99%) alternation and isotacticity and Mn up to 113 kDa and D = 1.01. Physical properties of such PHAs are substantially determined by the degree of backbone sequence alternation and tacticity, ranging from amorphous to semi-crystalline materials. The alt-P3HBV shows significantly improved mechanical performance relative to the constituent homopolymers. Intriguingly, enantiomeric (R)-alt-P3HBV and (S)-alt-P3HBV, synthesized by kinetically resolved ROP of rac-8DLMe-Et, form a stereocomplex with a significantly enhanced Tm (by 53 °C), while the enantiomeric homopolymers do not form a stereocomplex.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Polimerização , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Ácidos Pentanoicos
9.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 949897, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36212366

RESUMO

Plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) are necessary components for plastid ribosome biogenesis, playing essential roles in plastid development. The ribosomal protein L18 involved in the assemble of 5S rRNA and 23S rRNA, is vital for E. coli viability, but the functions of its homologs in plant plastid remain elusive. Here, we characterized the functions of the plant plastid ribosomal protein L18s (PRPL18s) in Arabidopsis and rice. AtPRPL18 was ubiquitously expressed in most of the plant tissues, but with higher expression levels in seedling shoots, leaves, and flowers. AtPRPL18 was localized in chloroplast. Genetic and cytological analyses revealed that a loss of function of AtPRPL18 resulted in embryo development arrest at globular stage. However, overexpression of AtPRPL18 did not show any visible phenotypical changes in Arabidopsis. The rice OsPRPL18 was localized in chloroplast. In contrast to AtPRPL18, knockout of OsPRPL18 did not affect embryo development, but led to an albino lethal phenotype at the seedling stage. Cytological analyses showed that chloroplast development was impaired in the osprpl18-1 mutant. Moreover, a loss-function of OsPRPL18 led to defects in plastid ribosome biogenesis and a serious reduction in the efficiency of plastid intron splicing. In all, these results suggested that PRPL18s play critical roles in plastid ribosome biogenesis, plastid intron splicing, and chloroplast development, and are essential for plant survival.

10.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 598, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978316

RESUMO

Dehydration responsive element binding protein (DREB) is a significant transcription factor class known to be implicated in abiotic stresses. In this study, we systematically conducted a genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the DREB gene family, including gene structures, evolutionary relationships, chromosome distribution, conserved domains, and expression patterns. A total of 65 DREB family gene members were identified in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) and were classified into five subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. Through analysis of the conserved domains of BrDREB family genes, only one exon existed in the gene structure. Through the analysis of cis-acting elements, these genes were mainly involved in hormone regulation and adversity stress. In order to identify the function of BrDREB2B, overexpressed transgenic Arabidopsis was constructed. After different stress treatments, the germination rate, root growth, survival rate, and various plant physiological indicators were measured. The results showed that transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing BrDREB2B exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, heat and drought stresses. Taken together, our results are the first to report the BrDREB2B gene response to drought and heat stresses in Chinese cabbage and provide a basis for further studies to determine the function of BrDREBs in response to abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
11.
Biomacromolecules ; 23(9): 3847-3859, 2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929661

RESUMO

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is naturally accumulated by bacteria but can also be synthesized chemically. Its processability is limited, as it tends to degrade at temperatures above its melting temperature; hence, investigation into crystallization kinetics and morphology of PHB materials of both natural and synthetic origins is of great need and interest to get a better understanding of structure-property relationship. Accordingly, this contribution reports a first study of the crystallization and morphology of synthetic PHB materials of different molecular weights. These synthetic PHBs are racemic mixtures (50/50 mol %) of R and S chain configurations and are compared with an enantiopure bacterial R-PHB. Nonisothermal and isothermal crystallization studies show that R and S chains of PHB can cocrystallize in the same unit cell as the R-PHB. Most significantly, the results show that the presence of S chains decreases the overall crystallization rate, which could enhance the processability and industrialization of PHB-based materials.


Assuntos
Hidroxibutiratos , Poliésteres , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Cristalização , Hidroxibutiratos/química , Cinética , Poliésteres/química
12.
Int J Womens Health ; 14: 821-830, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789921

RESUMO

Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and can be regulated by estrogen. This study aimed to investigate the role of estrogen in regulating the expression and function of lncRNA-H19 in endometriosis. Methods: Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) were isolated from ectopic, eutopic endometrium with endometriosis and control endometrium without endometriosis, and lncRNA-H19 expression was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ecESCs) were treated with 17ß-estradiol at 10-8mol/L for 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours, and lncRNA-H19 expressions of cells were evaluated using RT-PCR. After ecESCs were treated with 17ß-estradiol for 48 hours, lncRNA-H19 expression was knocked down and cell proliferative and invasive abilities were compared. Results: The expression of lncRNA-H19 in ecESCs was significantly higher than that in eutopic endometrial stromal cells (euESCs) and control ESCs. After treated with 17ß-estradiol, ecESCshadupregulatedlncRNA-H19 expression with time-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and invasion increased when estrogen upregulated lncRNA-H19 expression in ecESCs, however, cell proliferation restored and cell invasion did not change when lncRNA-H19 was knocked down in ecESCs. Conclusion: The expression and function of lncRNA-H19 was regulated by estrogen in ecESCs, which probably contributed to the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

13.
Foods ; 11(14)2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35885346

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with high carcinogenicity and mutagenicity may be generated in roast duck during high-temperature roasting. Natural extracts with antioxidant effects may inhibit the formation of PAHs. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of green tea extract (GTE); extract of bamboo leaves (EBL); grape seed extract (GSE) and rosemary extract (RE) on PAHs in roast duck to obtain the optimum extract and present a guidance for reducing PAHs in roast duck. The total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of the four extracts were measured, and the PAH changes in the roast duck caused by the four extracts were detected. The total phenol content of GTE was the highest, 277 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, while RE was the lowest at 85 mg GAE/g. The antioxidant capacity of RE was 1.9 mmol Trolox/g, which was significantly lower than that of the other three. The four extracts inhibited PAHs formation in roast duck to varying degrees: When the concentration was 25 g/kg, the best inhibitory effects on Benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (BaP, BaA, BbF and CHR) were obtained from GTE, with inhibition rates of 75.8% and 79.7%, respectively, while the weakest inhibition rates, 32.7% and 43.6%, respectively, were from RE.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761900

RESUMO

Background: Depression is a major cause of disability and most antidepressant medicines are ineffective owing to their high toxicity and numerous adverse effects. As a result, there is an urgent need to find new effective treatment methods. This paper aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of total saikosaponins (TSS) on depression-like behaviors induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in rats. Methods: Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, CUMS group, TSS group, and fluoxetine (Flu) group. Then, the following tests were conducted: sucrose preference test, open field test, and elevated plus maze test. Additionally, ELISA was used to detect the levels of corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the serum of the rats as well as the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α in the hippocampus, and Western blot was used for measuring the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and related proteins of the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway in the hippocampus. Results: TSS could significantly improve rat behaviors, specifically indicated by increases in sucrose preference, total movement distance, stay time in the central area, number of entries into open arms, time spent in open arms, and a decrease in stay time in the peripheral area. TSS acted to significantly reduce BDNF protein expression and increase the contents of ACTH and CORT in serum as well as the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α in the hippocampal tissue in rats. In addition, it was able to raise the ratios of p-PI3K/PI3K and p-AKT/AKT and decrease the ratio of p-p65/p65 in tissues, which in turn regulated the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusions: TSS, through regulating PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling axis, can alleviate depression-like behaviors and elevate neuroendocrine hormone levels and inflammatory factor levels.

15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 214, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NLRP3-associated autoinflammatory disease (NLRP3-AID), caused by mutations of NLRP3, is one of the autoinflammatory diseases affecting inflammasomes. Since there are little cases of Chinese NLRP3-AID, we reported 14 Chinese NLRP3-AID patients in our center and summarized the clinical features of all Chinese patients by reviewing the literature. RESULTS: Fourteen patients had been diagnosed as NLRP3-AID in our center. 12 different NLRP3 variants were identified, among which one is novel: p.Leu361Trp. Rash, recurrent fever, arthritis/arthralgia, uveitis, sensorineural deafness, symptoms of central neural systems (CNS), and increased inflammatory markers (including CRP, ESR, except Ferritin) were the common findings in Chinese patients. The frequencies of fever, neurological symptoms, musculoskeletal manifestations and ocular manifestations in Chinese patients might differ from that of patients from other regions. Besides, we also found clubbing fingers and optic neuritis in some NLRP3-AID patients, which were not commonly mentioned in previous reports. CONCLUSION: In our study, we expanded the clinical spectrum as well as the genetic pathogenic variants of NLRP3-AID. We also found that there were some differences between Chinese patients and patients from other regions, and that Chinese patients were more likely to develop severe symptoms.


Assuntos
Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , /genética , Febre , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética
16.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111449, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761689

RESUMO

Myosin filament plays a critical role in water-trapping and thermodynamic regulation during processing of brined muscle foods. The redox state and availability of proteolytic/antioxidant enzymes affected by salt may change the ion-binding capacity of myosin consequently contributing to swelling and rehydration. Thus, this study investigated the impact of different salt content (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% NaCl) and oxidation in vitro (10 mM H2O2/ascorbate-based hydroxyl radical (OH)-generating system) on the oxidative stability, solubility/dispersion capacity, chymotrypsin digestibility, aggregation site and the microrheological properties of isolated porcine myosin. The result showed that, brining at 2% salt exposed more sulfhydryl groups and inhibited the formation of disulfide bond, whereby smaller dispersed structure (diameter within 10-50 nm) and higher Ca2+-ATPase activity of the denatured myosin were observed. Accordingly, gel electrophoresis showed that myosin S1 and HMM subunits were highly oxidized and susceptible to reversible assembles. Despite enhanced hydrophobic interactions between swelled myosin at 3% salt content, ≥4% salt greatly promoted the exposure/polarization of tryptophan and cross-linking structures, mainly occurring at myosin S2 portion. The results of micro-rheology proved that oxidized myosin formed a tighter heat-set network following rehydration at high ion strength (≥4% salt), suggesting an increased inter-droplet resistance and macroscopic viscosity. This work is expected to give some useful insights into improved texture and functionality of engineered muscle foods.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Cloreto de Sódio , Animais , Miosinas/química , Oxirredução , Isoformas de Proteínas , Suínos
17.
Cells ; 11(10)2022 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35626739

RESUMO

The growth of T cells ex vivo for the purpose of T cell therapies is a rate-limiting step in the overall process for cancer patients to achieve remission. Growing T cells is a fiscally-, time-, and resource-intensive process. Cytokines have been shown to accelerate the growth of T cells, specifically IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15. Here a design of experiments was conducted to optimize the growth rate of different naïve and memory T cell subsets using combinations of cytokines. Mathematical models were developed to study the impact of IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 on the growth of T cells. The results show that CD4+ and CD8+ naïve T cells grew effectively using moderate IL-2 and IL-7 in combination, and IL-7, respectively. CD4+ and CD8+ memory cells favored moderate IL-2 and IL-15 in combination and moderate IL-7 and IL-15 in combination, respectively. A statistically significant interaction was observed between IL-2 and IL-7 in the growth data of CD4+ naïve T cells, while the interaction between IL-7 and IL-15 was found for CD8+ naïve T cells. The important genes and related signaling pathways and metabolic reactions were identified from the RNA sequencing data for each of the four subsets stimulated by each of the three cytokines. This systematic investigation lays the groundwork for studying other T cell subsets.


Assuntos
Interleucina-15 , Interleucina-7 , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Interleucina-15/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Interleucina-7/farmacologia , Células T de Memória , Transcriptoma
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 168, 2022 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35610212

RESUMO

Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) miniature structures cultured in vitro produced from either human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) or adult stem cells (AdSCs) derived from healthy individuals or patients that recapitulate the cellular heterogeneity, structure, and functions of human organs. The advent of human 3D organoid systems is now possible to allow remarkably detailed observation of stem cell morphogens, maintenance and differentiation resemble primary tissues, enhancing the potential to study both human physiology and developmental stage. As they are similar to their original organs and carry human genetic information, organoids derived from patient hold great promise for biomedical research and preclinical drug testing and is currently used for personalized, regenerative medicine, gene repair and transplantation therapy. In recent decades, researchers have succeeded in generating various types of organoids mimicking in vivo organs. Herein, we provide an update on current in vitro differentiation technologies of brain, retinal, kidney, liver, lung, gastrointestinal, cardiac, vascularized and multi-lineage organoids, discuss the differences between PSC- and AdSC-derived organoids, summarize the potential applications of stem cell-derived organoids systems in the laboratory and clinic, and outline the current challenges for the application of organoids, which would deepen the understanding of mechanisms of human development and enhance further utility of organoids in basic research and clinical studies.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Adultas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Adulto , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Humanos , Organoides/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos
19.
PeerJ ; 10: e13427, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35637719

RESUMO

High temperatures have a serious impact on the quality and yield of cold-loving Chinese cabbage, which has evolved to have a unique set of stress mechanisms. To explore the relationship between these mechanisms and the heat-tolerance of Chinese cabbage, the physiological indicators of the heat-tolerant '268' line and heat-sensitive '334' line were measured. Under heat stress, the proline (Pro), soluble sugar (SS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) indexes of the '268' line increased significantly. When additionally using transcriptome analysis, we found that the identified 3,360 DEGs were abundantly enriched in many metabolic pathways including 'plant hormone signal transduction', 'carbon metabolism', and 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis'. Dynamic gene expression patterns showed that HKL1 in Cluster 15 may be a key factor in the regulation of sugar homeostasis. The interaction network screened four ABA-related genes in Cluster 15, suggesting that high temperatures lead to changes in hormonal signaling, especially an increase in ABA signaling. Compared with the '334' line, the expressions of Prx50, Prx52, Prx54, SOD1, and SOD2 in the '268' line were significantly upregulated, and these genes were actively involved in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging process. In summary, our results revealed the relationship between plant heat tolerance, physiology, and biochemistry and may also provide ideas for the future development of high-quality and heat-tolerant Chinese cabbage germplasm resources.

20.
Microb Pathog ; 165: 105486, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400546

RESUMO

This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. After a thorough investigation, the Editor has concluded that the acceptance of this article was based upon the positive advice of two illegitimate reviewer reports. The reports were submitted from email accounts which were provided to the journal as suggested reviewers during the submission of the article. Although purportedly real reviewer accounts, the Editor has concluded that these were not of appropriate, independent reviewers. This manipulation of the peer-review process represents a clear violation of the fundamentals of peer review, our publishing policies, and publishing ethics standards. Apologies are offered to the reviewers whose identity was assumed and to the readers of the journal that this deception was not detected during the submission process.

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