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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149848, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464803

RESUMO

Vegetated coastal ecosystems (VCEs; i.e., mangroves, saltmarshes, and seagrasses) represent important sources of natural methane emission. Despite recent advances in the understanding of novel taxa and pathways associated with methanogenesis in these ecosystems, the key methanogenic players and the contribution of different substrates to methane formation remain elusive. Here, we systematically investigate the community and activity of methanogens using publicly available metatranscriptomes at a global scale together with our in-house metatranscriptomic dataset. Taxonomic profiling reveals that 13 groups of methanogenic archaea were transcribed in the investigated VCEs, and they were predominated by Methanosarcinales. Among these VCEs, methanogens exhibited all the three known methanogenic pathways in some mangrove sediments, where methylotrophic methanogens Methanosarcinales/Methanomassiliicoccales grew on diverse methyl compounds and coexisted with hydrogenotrophic (mainly Methanomicrobiales) and acetoclastic (mainly Methanothrix) methanogens. Contrastingly, the predominant methanogenic pathway in saltmarshes and seagrasses was constrained to methylotrophic methanogenesis. These findings reveal different archaeal methanogens in VCEs and suggest the potentially distinct methanogenesis contributions in these VCEs to the global warming.


Assuntos
Archaea , Ecossistema , Archaea/genética , Metano , Methanosarcinaceae , Methanosarcinales , Filogenia
2.
Food Chem ; : 131560, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848085

RESUMO

A closed system of gradient steady-state temperature field (GSTF) was constructed to ferment Pixian broad bean paste (PBP). The contents of physicochemical factors and organic acids in the fermentation under GSTF (FG) were closer to those in the traditional fermentation (TF). The taste intensities of 8 free amino acids in the FG were higher than those in the constant temperature fermentation (CTF), but 14 in the TF showed the highest among the processes of FG, CTF and TF. The FG product had the most volatiles with 87, and its flavor properties were more stable. The FG produced great effects on the microbe evolutions especially improved the fungal diversity. Bacillus were identified as the core microbes in the FG while the roles of Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus and Pantoea were strengthened. The results indicated that the fermentation characteristics in the FG had been further improved compared with the CTF.

3.
Biochemistry ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813289
4.
Inflamm Res ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the most frequent causes of severe vision loss. The pathogenesis of DME is still not fully understood; however, it is hypothesized to result from breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) due to retinal inflammation by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion under hyperglycemic conditions. In this investigation, we discovered that Prolyl-4-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), an upstream regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) modulates VEGF expression and thus preserves BRB function in the mouse retina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs) were cultured in human endothelial serum-free growth medium and exposed to hyperglycemia. Changes in cell viability were investigated by an MTT assay. BRB function in each group was revealed by a paracellular permeability assay and trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Morphological changes in the BRB were investigated by immunofluorescence staining of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). The mRNA and protein levels of the tight junction proteins, PHD2, HIF-1α, and VEGF were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and ELISA. RESULTS: Under hyperglycemic conditions, the viability of hRMECs was decreased, and PHD2 expression was downregulated, accompanied by increased paracellular permeability and decreased trans-endothelial electrical resistance. Additionally, HIF-1α and VEGF expression levels were increased, whereas the expression levels of tight junction proteins, including occludin and ZO-1, were decreased and BRB function was compromised. The PHD2 activator R59949 (diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II), altered these pathological changes, and the PHD2 inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) resulted in the opposite effects. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that PHD2 inhibited HIF-1 activity by inhibiting HIF-1α expression in hRMECs under hyperglycemic conditions, which led to the downregulation of the expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF, and thus helped to maintain the functions of hRMECs. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that PHD2 could be a potential novel target for the treatment of DME or other diseases with a similar pathogenesis.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2102053, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665530

RESUMO

Aqueous V2 O5 -Zn batteries, an alternative chemistry format that is inherently safer to operate than lithium-based batteries, illuminates the low-cost deployment of the stationary energy storage devices. However, the cathode structure collapse caused by H2 O co-insertion in aqueous solution dramatically deteriorates the electrochemical performance and hampers the operation reliability of V2 O5 -Zn batteries. The real-time phase tracking and the density functional theory (DFT) calculation prove the high energy barrier that inhibits the Zn2+ diffusion into the bulk V2 O5 , instead the ZnCl2 "water-in-salt electrolyte" (WiSE) can enable the dominant proton insertion with negligible lattice strain or particle fragment. Thus, ZnCl2 WiSE enables the enhanced reversibility and extended shelf life of the V2 O5 -Zn battery upon the high temperature storage. The improved electrochemical performance also benefits by the inhibition of vanadium cation dissolution, enlarged voltage window, as well as the suppression of the Zn dendrite protrusion. This study comprehensively elucidates the pivotal role of a concentrated ZnCl2 electrolyte to stabilize the aqueous batteries at both the static storage and dynamic operation scenarios.

6.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 712958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690717

RESUMO

Previous behavioral studies have found that inhibition of return decreases the audiovisual integration, while the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. The current work utilized the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how audiovisual integration would be modulated by inhibition of return. We employed the cue-target paradigm and manipulated the target type and cue validity. Participants were required to perform the task of detection of visual (V), auditory (A), or audiovisual (AV) targets shown in the identical (valid cue) or opposed (invalid cue) side to be the preceding exogenous cue. The neural activities between AV targets and the sum of the A and V targets were compared, and their differences were calculated to present the audiovisual integration effect in different cue validity conditions (valid, invalid). The ERPs results showed that a significant super-additive audiovisual integration effect was observed on the P70 (60∼90 ms, frontal-central) only under the invalid cue condition. The significant audiovisual integration effects were observed on the N1 or P2 components (N1, 120∼180 ms, frontal-central-parietal; P2, 200∼260 ms, frontal-central-parietal) in both valid cue as well as invalid cue condition. And there were no significant differences on the later components between invalid cue and valid cue. The result offers the first neural demonstration that inhibition of return modulates the early audiovisual integration process.

7.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(10): 105006, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717397

RESUMO

The flow parameter measurement of the gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is very crucial and challenging in both academia and industry. Conventional techniques based on radiations, optics, acoustics, or electrics most lose their superiorities in the scenario with small channels due to the spatial limitation and the online and contactless measurement requirements. In addition, the conductive characteristic of the two-phase flow is equivalent to an impedance rather than a resistance due to the existence of multi-phases. The equivalent impedance information of the two-phase flow, especially the imaginary part, is promising to provide more flowing details but has seldom been detected or analyzed. In this paper, a method for the void fraction measurement of bubble/slug flow in small channels is proposed. The method implements void fraction measurement in a contactless way, based on the acquisition of the total impedance information of the gas-liquid two-phase flow. First, a new contactless impedance detection sensor is designed, based on the simulated inductor technique and the analog phase sensitive demodulation technique, to obtain the complete equivalent impedance information of the two-phase fluid. Then, based on the flow pattern identification result, the void fraction measurement model is developed, which is a fusion of the relationships between the void fraction and the real part/the imaginary part of the equivalent impedance information, respectively. Experimental results on prototypes with different inner diameters (2.48, 3.64, and 4.52 mm, respectively) validate the effectiveness of the proposed void fraction method. The maximum void fraction measurement biases are within 5.0%.

8.
Mar Genomics ; 60: 100877, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627550

RESUMO

The settlement and metamorphosis of coral larvae are the bottleneck of coral recruitment. They are critical for the extension of coral population, which is the basis of the restoration of degraded coral reef ecosystem. In this study, we described the genomic characteristics of Metabacillus sp. cB07, which can efficiently induce larvae settlement and metamorphosis of coral Pocillopora damicornis. This function is first reported in the genus Metabacillus. Strain cB07 was isolated from the coral Porites pukoensis, and comprised one circular chromosome of 4,148,576 bp (44.14 mol% G + C content), containing 4148 protein coding sequences. To explore the potential mechanism of coral larvae settlement and metamorphosis induced by Metabacillus sp. cB07, we predicted that numerous genes related to the bacterial inductive ability. The genome of Metabacillus sp. cB07 will be helpful for further insights into the mechanism of bacterial induction of settlement and metamorphosis of coral larvae.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Larva/genética , Metamorfose Biológica
9.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 122, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535163

RESUMO

Serous ovarian cancer (SOC) is the most common women cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among the gynaecological malignancies. Although effective chemotherapeutics combined with surgery are developed for the treatment, the five-year survival rate is unsatisfactory due to chemoresistance. To overcome this shortcoming of chemotherapy, we established taxol and carboplatin resistant SOC cell lines for the understandings of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of chemoresistance. Here, we found that these chemoresistant cell lines showed less viability and proliferation, due to more cells arrested at G0/G1 phase. Glutathione-S-transferases-theta1 (GSTT1) was significantly upregulated in these chemoresistant cells, along with other chemoresistant genes. Meanwhile, GSTT1 expression was also significantly upregulated in the SOC patient tissues after taxol treatment, indicating this upregulation was physiologically relevant to chemotherapy. Further, suppression of GSTT1 expression by shRNA in SOC cell lines led to more sensitivity to drug treatment, through increasing divided cells and promoting cell death. Moreover, the expression of DNA topoisomerase 1 (Topo I) was in synergy with that of GSTT1 in the chemoresistant cells, and GSTT1 can bind to Topo I in vitro, which suggested GSTT1 could function through DNA repair mechanism during chemoresistance. In summary, our data imply that GSTT1 may be a potential biomarker or indicator of drug resistance in serous ovarian cancer.

10.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of CD146 and its role in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was performed to analyse the expression and relationship of sCD146, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2 in vitreous specimens from PDR and idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IERM) or idiopathic macular hole patients. The location of CD146 in ERMs was detected by immunofluorescence. The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice model was established and the adeno-associated virus expressing a shRNA of CD146 (AAV1-shCD146-GFP) was administered via intravitreal injection. The effect of AAV1-shCD146-GFP was explored by immunofluorescence, Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: The levels of sCD146 in vitreous specimens from PDR patients and CD146 in retinas from OIR mice were significantly increased. Immunofluorescence showed that CD146 was co-located with CD31, VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, respectively. Intravitreal injection of AAV1-shCD146-GFP could dramatically reduce the formation of neovascularization and non-perfusion area by inhibiting VEGFR2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that CD146 was involved in the development of retinal neovascularization via VEGFR2 pathway. Anti-CD146 may be an innovative or adjuvant therapy, which provides a new direction for the treatment of PDR and other ocular neovascular diseases.

11.
Life Sci ; 285: 119954, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520770

RESUMO

HER2-positive breast cancer (HER2-BC) shows the over-expression of tyrosine kinase receptor EphB4 associated with poor disease prognosis. E-cadherin is found as a survival factor in multiple models of breast cancer by suppressing reactive oxygen-mediated apoptosis. This study confirmed that both HER2 and EphB4 are positively correlated with E-cadherin in HER2-BC. Inhibition of HER2 or EphB4 is discovered to induce ROS-dependent apoptosis by decreasing E-cadherin expression in SKBR3 and MDA-MB-453 cells. TAD1822-7 (TAD), a novel biphenyl urea taspine derivative, exhibits good growth inhibition, apoptosis induction and ROS accumulation effects on SKBR3 and MDA-MB-453 cells. Mechanistic investigation revealed that TAD blockades both EphB4 positive signal transduction and activation of HER2 signal transduction, thereby suppressing E-cadherin/TGF-ß/p-Smad2/3 signaling axis to elicit ROS-dependent endogenous mitochondrial apoptosis. Together, these findings not only provide a new approach for HER2-BC therapy but also increase our understanding of the regulating effect of E-cadherin by HER2 and EphB4 in ROS-mediated apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Caderinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Receptor EphB4/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Antígenos CD , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Fenilureia/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Receptor EphB4/genética , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 713605, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354997

RESUMO

In recent years, research on wound healing has become increasingly in-depth, but therapeutic effects are still not satisfactory. Occasionally, pathological tissue repair occurs. Influencing factors have been proposed, but finding the turning point between normal and pathological tissue repair is difficult. Therefore, we focused our attention on the most basic level of tissue repair: fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were once considered terminally differentiated cells that represent a single cell type, and their heterogeneity was not studied until recently. We believe that subpopulations of fibroblasts play different roles in tissue repair, resulting in different repair results, such as the formation of normal scars in physiological tissue repair and fibrosis or ulcers in pathological tissue repair. It is also proposed that scarless healing can be achieved by regulating fibroblast subpopulations.

13.
Sci Adv ; 7(33)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389540

RESUMO

The delivery of small particles into porous environments remains highly challenging because of the low permeability to the fluids that carry these colloids. Even more challenging is that the specific location of targets in the porous environment usually is not known and cannot be determined from the outside. Here, we demonstrate a two-step strategy to deliver suspended colloids to targets that are "hidden" within closed porous media. The first step serves to automatically convert any hidden targets into soluto-inertial "beacons," capable of sustaining long-lived solute outfluxes. The second step introduces the deliverable objects, which are designed to autonomously migrate against the solute fluxes emitted by the targets, thereby following chemical trails that lead to the target. Experimental and theoretical demonstrations of the strategy lay out the design elements required for the solute and the deliverable objects, suggesting routes to delivering colloidal objects to hidden targets in various environments and technologies.

14.
Hum Pathol ; 117: 108-114, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461131

RESUMO

Bone is the most common site of metastasis in breast carcinoma (BC). Treatments for metastatic BC depend on various factors, including the tumor's estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 status. Bone biopsies require decalcification which may affect the accuracy of ER and PR immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HER2 situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) decalcifying solutions have been theorized to have no significant impact on ER and PR IHC or HER2 FISH analyses. We completed a prospective study of the effect of EDTA decalcification on ER and PR IHC and HER2 FISH in 29 cases of BC. Samples from 29 BC resections were collected and formalin fixed between 12 and 24 h. Control samples were routinely processed, whereas test samples were placed in EDTA for 48 h. ER and PR slides were blinded, randomized, and evaluated. Blinded samples underwent HER2 FISH assays where an average HER2 copy number and HER2/CEP17 ratio were calculated. Paired differences between EDTA and control samples were compared for ER and PR positivity, average HER2 copy number, and HER2/CEP17 ratios using paired-samples t-tests (PST) and Wilcoxon signed-rank test (WSR). PST and WSR tests yielded no significant difference between EDTA and control tissue for ER% (PST: P = 1; WSR: P = 0.916), PR% (PST: P = 0.973; WSR: P = 0.984), HER2 copy number (PST: P = 0.124; WSR: P = 0.103), and HER2/CEP17 ratio (PST: P = 0.25; WSR: P = 0.105). The use of EDTA in bony tissue is therefore a valid decalcification method to ensure accurate assessment of ER and PR IHC and HER2 FISH in metastatic BC.

15.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(19): e2100626, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342385

RESUMO

SCOPE: The consumption of green tea is considered to be associated with a lower incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, it is investigated the role of amyloid precursor protein cleavage, glial cell activation, neuroinflammation, and synaptic alterations in the protective effects of green tea against the amyloid ß (Aß) accumulation and cognitive impairment. METHODS AND RESULTS: 5XFAD mice are treated with green tea extract (GTE) for 8 or 16 weeks. Barnes maze and Y maze testing demonstrated that spatial learning and memory ability are markedly improved by GTE treatment. Immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and western blot showed GTE significantly alleviate the formation of Aß and reduce the levels of sAPPß and C99, as well as sAPPα and C83. Meanwhile, GTE suppressed GFAP and Iba1 levels in the glial cells, increased PSD95 and synaptophysin levels in synaptic cells. Further, the IL-1ß level is decreased, RNA sequencing reveals the genes annotated in response to stimulus and immune response are regulated. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate GTE suppresses Aß levels and alleviate cognitive impairment in 5XFAD mice. These beneficial effects are accompanied by inhibition of APP cleavage pathways, suppression of glial cell activation and pro-inflammatory responses, and a reduction of synapse loss.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 574: 78-84, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438350

RESUMO

Functional blood vessels are crucial to wound healing, and faster vascularization means faster tissue repair to some extent. Increasing numbers of pro-vascularization wound coverings are being developed and studied. Moreover, mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix can guide the behaviour of related cells to some degree. Studies have shown that the mechanical range of 1-7 kPa contributes to the differentiation of stem cells into endothelial cells and thus to the process of wound vascularization. Unfortunately, the regulatory mechanics of vascularizing wound coverings have been poorly studied. Silk fibroin (SF) has attracted much attention because of its good biocompatibility, degradability and adjustable mechanical properties. In this paper, silk scaffolds with mechanical properties of 2 kPa and 5.9 kPa were prepared by adjusting the mechanics of silk scaffolds in terms of freezing temperature and aligned structure. The mechanical properties of the 5.9 kPa aligned silk scaffold (ASS) showed good vascularization ability. By adjusting the intermediate conformation and physical structure of Silk fibroin (SF), the mechanical strength of the silk scaffold could be increased, enabling us to better understand the mechanical regulation mode. At the same time, the aligned structure of the aligned silk scaffold (ASS) promoted the migration and proliferation of cells related to wound repair to a certain extent. By adjusting the mechanical properties and physical structure of the material, an aligned silk scaffold with vascularization function was constructed, providing more possibilities for faster wound repair.


Assuntos
Fibroínas/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Seda/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(7): 818-822, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308587

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of limited open reduction via "door-shaft method" and internal fixation with locking plate for two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Methods: The clinical data of 64 patients with proximal humeral fractures who were admitted between January 2013 and December 2016 and met the selection criteria were retrospectively analyzed. There were 23 males and 41 females, with an average age of 68.0 years (range, 50-89 years). The injuries were caused by falling in 57 cases, traffic accident in 5 cases, and falling from height in 2 cases. The interval between injury and operation was 1-7 days (mean, 2.1 days). According to Neer classification, there were 28 cases of two-part fractures and 36 cases of three-part fractures. According to the angulation direction of the proximal humeral neck shaft angle, there were 21 cases of adduction fractures and 43 cases of abduction fractures. The fractures were treated with limited open reduction via "door-shaft method" and proximal humerus internal locking systems for internal fixation. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, number of fluoroscopy, hospital stay, and complications were recorded. The fracture healing was reviewed by X-ray film and the healing time was recorded. The shoulder joint function was evaluated by Neer score standard. Results: The operation time was 45-127 minutes, with an average of 82.3 minutes. The intraoperative blood loss was 30-125 mL, with an average of 62.7 mL. Intraoperative fluoroscopy was performed 30-69 times, with an average of 37.0 times. The hospital stay was 6-23 days, with an average of 10.3 days. All incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 12-37 months, with an average of 18.3 months. X-ray film re-examination showed that all fractures healed, the healing time was 12-21 weeks, with an average of 14.3 weeks. After operation, 3 cases had shoulder stiffness and 1 case had fracture malunion. At last follow-up, the Neer score of shoulder joint function was 49-97, with an average of 83.1. Among them, 38 cases were excellent, 13 cases were good, 10 cases were fair, and 3 cases were poor. The excellent and good rate was 79.7%. The excellent and good rate of patients with two-part fractures was 82.1% (23/28), and the excellent and good rate of patients with three-part fractures was 77.8% (28/36). Conclusion: The "door-shaft method" not only reduces the difficulty of the Joystick technique in the reduction of proximal humerus fractures, but also provides auxiliary stability. It is used for limited open reduction and internal fixation with locking plate to treat the two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus, which can achieve good effectiveness.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Ombro , Ombro , Idoso , Placas Ósseas , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Úmero , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Ombro/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Iperception ; 12(4): 20416695211027186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290850

RESUMO

The Colavita effect refers to the phenomenon wherein people tend to not respond to an auditory stimulus when a visual stimulus is simultaneously presented. Although previous studies have shown that endogenous modality attention influences the Colavita effect, whether the Colavita effect is influenced by endogenous spatial attention remains unknown. In the present study, we established endogenous spatial cues to investigate whether the size of the Colavita effect changes under visual or auditory cues. We measured three indexes to investigate the effect of endogenous spatial attention on the size of the Colavita effect. These three indexes were developed based on the following observations in bimodal trials: (a) The proportion of the "only vision" response was significantly higher than that of the "only audition" response; (b) the proportion of the "vision precedes audition" response was significantly higher than that of the "audition precedes vision" response; and (c) the reaction time difference of the "vision precedes audition" response was significantly higher than that of the "audition precedes vision" response. Our results showed that the Colavita effect was always influenced by endogenous spatial attention and that its size was larger at the cued location than at the uncued location; the cue modality (visual vs. auditory) had no effect on the size of the Colavita effect. Taken together, the present results shed light on how endogenous spatial attention affects the Colavita effect.

19.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(6): 1275-1296, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263721

RESUMO

Cross-sectional studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM-CSs) have become the most published type of TCM observational study; however, the research scope of current TCM-CSs is unknown. A scoping review of the literature was performed. A descriptive approach to summarize the core study characteristics was prepared, along with structured tables and figures to identify salient points of similarities and differences noted across studies. The reporting quality of TCM-CSs was assessed according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) cross-sectional checklist. Eight databases (Embase, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, AMED, CBM, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP) were systematically searched for TCM-CSs published up until 20 January 2020. The literature screening and evaluating were independently conducted by two researchers. When there was disagreement, a third-party senior researcher made the judgment. A total of 198 TCM-CSs published between 1997 and 2019 were included, 160 English studies and 38 Chinese studies, respectively. More TCM-CSs were published in each successive year. The journal Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine published more TCM-CSs (24) than any other journal. Most TCM-CSs were conducted in mainland China (81, 40.9%), followed by Taiwan, China (44, 22.2%) and HKSAR, China (19, 9.6%). The most commonly used sampling method was purposive sampling (94, 47.5%), following by convenience sampling (60, 30.3%). The research topics can be summarized in four major categories as follows: constitution-related research (11.1%), TCM pattern-related research (18.7%), TCM intervention-related research (55.1%), and others (15.6%). The average sufficient reporting rate of included TCM-CSs according to the STROBE cross-sectional checklist was 45.6%. Papers written in English reported 9 items (items 2, 4, 14a, 16a, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22) more frequently than papers written in Chinese. The number of TCM-CSs is increasing. Research topics are diverse; however, the reporting quality is unsatisfactory. In particular, TCM-CSs need greater transparency and standardization.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Humanos
20.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 47(5): 689-703, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264727

RESUMO

In a dynamic search task, participants were instructed to search for a visual target among various distractors. An auditory stimulus presented in synchrony with a color change of the visual target can improve the efficiency of the search, which is known as the pip-and-pop effect. Some researchers have suggested that the underlying mechanism of this effect is multisensory integration, while others have thought it is due to an oddball stimulation that attracts attention. Utilizing the eye movement technique, we conducted 3 experiments to investigate the pip-and-pop effect and its causes. In Experiment 1, we used a static search paradigm and controlled for the presence or absence of sound cues when the visual target was presented. It turned out that sound had no effect on a static search; that is, no pip-and-pop effect was found. In Experiment 2, we used a dynamic search paradigm in which the participants were instructed to search for vertical or horizontal line segments among various directional distractor segments and as the color of individual segments changed randomly during the stimulus presentation, with and without the sound cue. We found that the pip-and-pop effect was present. The irrelevant sound reduced the mean fixation number and expanded the mean saccade amplitude. In Experiment 3, we also used a dynamic search paradigm and controlled the frequency of synchronization between the sound and the target color change. There were 3 types of sound conditions: No-sound, 1-sound, and 2-sound. The results suggest that as the frequency of synchronization between the sound and the target color change increases (2-sound condition), the pip-and-pop effect also increases. Therefore, we propose that the pip-and-pop effect is more likely to result from the attention attracted by oddball stimuli than from the multisensory integration of synchronized auditory-visual stimuli. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Movimentos Sacádicos
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