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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159507, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257421

RESUMO

The proliferation of modern vegetable plastic greenhouses (VPGS) supplies more and more vegetables for food all over the world. The airborne bacteria and fungi induce more exposure opportunities for workers toiling in confined plastic greenhouses. Culture-independent approaches by qPCR and high-throughput sequencing technology were used to study the airborne particulates microbiota in typic VPGS in Shandong, a large base of vegetables in China. The result revealed the mean airborne bacteria concentrations reached 1.67 × 103 cells/m3 (PM2.5) and 2.38 × 103 cells/m3 (PM10), and the mean airborne fungal concentrations achieved 1.49 × 102 cells/m3 (PM2.5) and 3.19 × 102 cells/m3 (PM10) in VPGS. The predominant bacteria in VPGS included Ralstonia, Alcanivorax, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Acinetobacter. Botrytis, Alternaria, Fusarium, Sporobolomyces, and Cladosporium were frequently detected fungal genera in VPGS. A higher Chao1 of bacteria in PM10 was significantly different from PM2.5 in VPGS. The potential pathogens in VPGS include Raltonia picketti, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Bacillus anthracis, Botrytis cinerea, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The network analysis indicated that airborne microbiota was associated with soil microbiota which was affected by anthropologic activities. The predicted gene functions revealed that bacterial function mainly involved metabolism, neurodegenerative diseases, and fungal trophic mode dominated by Pathotroph-Saprotroph in VPGS. These findings unveiled airborne microbiomes in VPGS so that a strategy for improving air quality can be applied to safeguard health and vegetation.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Verduras , Humanos , Plásticos , Fungos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bactérias , Poeira
3.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441497

RESUMO

To explore the effects of CYP19A1 gene polymorphisms, plasma zinc, and urinary zinc levels and their interactions on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in residents of Gongcheng County, Guangxi, China. The case-control study was used for the investing. The MassARRAY System was applied to genotype the CYP19A1 genes rs752760, rs10046, rs10459592, and rs700518 in 540 study subjects. Plasma and urinary zinc concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Conditional logistic regression showed that rs752760 and plasma zinc were associated with T2DM risks with ORs of 0.593 (95% CI: 0.371-0.948) and 0.563 (95% CI: 0.356-0.889), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis showed an association between urinary zinc levels and the risk of T2DM as well, with an OR of 0.352 (95% CI: 0.212-0.585). The results of the multiplicative interaction model showed that the rs752760 T allele was associated with a significantly reduced risk of T2DM with moderate/low plasma zinc levels, with ORs of 0.340 (95% CI: 0.161-0.715) and 0.583 (95% CI: 0.346-0.981), respectively, and the rs752760 T allele was also associated with a significantly decreased risk of T2DM with moderate/low urinary zinc levels, with ORs of 0.358 (95% CI: 0.201-0.635) and 0.321 (95% CI: 0.183-0.562), respectively. CYP19A1 rs752760 T allele and moderate/low plasma/urinary zinc levels reduce the risk of T2DM.

4.
Mater Horiz ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416286

RESUMO

The fast monitoring of oral bacterial infection, bacterial clearance and repairing of enamel damage caused by dental caries relies on an effective way of monitoring, killing and repairing in situ, but presents a major challenge in oral healthcare. Herein, we developed a bio-inspired versatile free-standing membrane by filling TiO2 nanotube arrays with ß-sheet-rich silk fibroin and cleaving them from Ti foil, as inspired by nacre or enamel-like structures. The robust transparent membrane exhibited good mechanical properties, and could indicate acid-base microenvironment variation and the infection of S. mutans in a 5 min test by loading cyanidin cations in the membrane. Meanwhile, it can be used for photocatalysis and nanoreservoirs ascribed to TiO2 nanotubes, to kill and remove 99% of S. mutans bacteria under interval UV irradiation with low-power density, and load functional peptide to induce the remineralization on the etched-enamel for long-term treatment, tested in vitro and in vivo. The mechanical property of repaired enamel is improved in comparison. This bio-inspired constructed membrane would be applied in the prevention and treatment of oral cavity related diseases, such as enamel demineralization and dental caries, etc.

5.
Clin Exp Med ; 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217054

RESUMO

Omega-3 has been proposed as an antitumor substance that suppresses the growth and metastasis of multiple types of tumor cells, including lung cancer, but the specific mechanisms involved remain obscure. Our previous studies showed that the expression of chemokine ligand 18 was related to the migration and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer. Here, we aim to explore whether omega-3 inhibits invasion and metastasis of NSCLC by regulating the expression of CCL18. The expression of CCL18, metastasis- and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes at mRNA and protein levels in NSCLC cell lines were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The metastatic and invasive capability of NSCLC cells were evaluated by scratch wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. Our results showed that the level of CCL18 is positively associated with metastatic ability of NSCLC cells. Docosahexaenoic acid, an important long-chain, polyunsaturated omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid, significantly inhibited invasion and metastasis of NSCLC cells, and concomitantly downregulated the expression of metastasis- and EMT-related genes and p-STAT3 signaling pathway. Additionally, we found that DHA inhibited CCL18 expression in lung cancer cells, while overexpression of CCL18 effectively reversed DHA-mediated downregulation in the expression of metastasis- and EMT-related genes and p-STAT3 signaling as well as DHA-mediated inhibitory effect on metastasis and invasion of NSCLC cells. DHA inhibits NSCLC cell invasion and metastasis possibly through targeted inhibition of CCL18/ STAT3 signaling pathway and EMT process.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36225193

RESUMO

Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder associated with immune dysregulation and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. Through traditional medicine, the active ingredient of Paeoniae Radix called paeoniflorin (PF) was previously found to prevent the symptoms of PI-IBS. However, there is limited information on the effects of PF on intestinal function and depression- and anxiety-like symptoms in PI-IBS animal models. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of PF treatment on the symptoms of PI-IBS in a rat model. The PI-IBS rat model was established via early postnatal sibling deprivation (EPSD), trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) stimulation and then treated with different dosages of PF (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) and leptin (1 and 10 mg/kg). The fecal water content and body weight were measured to evaluate the intestinal function, while the two-bottle test for sucrose intake, open field test (OFT), and elevated plus maze test (EMT) were performed to assess behavioral changes. The serum leptin levels were also measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, the expressions of leptin and its receptor, LepRb, were detected in colonic mucosal tissues through an immunohistochemical assay. The activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were also detected via western blotting. After the experimental period, the PI-IBS rats presented decreased body weight and increased fecal water content, which coincided with elevated leptin levels and heightened depression- and anxiety-like behaviors (e.g., low sucrose intake, less frequency in the center areas during OFT, and fewer activities in the open arms during EMT). However, the PF treatment ameliorated these observed symptoms. Furthermore, PF not only inhibited leptin/LepRb expression but also reduced the PI3K/AKT phosphorylation and BDNF expression in PI-IBS rats. Notably, cotreatment with leptin (10 mg/kg) reduced the effects of PF (20 mg/kg) on colonic fibrosis, leptin/LepRb expression, and PI3K/AKT activation. Therefore, our findings suggest that leptin is targeted by PF via the leptin/LepRb pathway, consequently ameliorating the symptoms of PI-IBS. Our study also contributes novel insights for elucidating the pharmacological action of PF on gastrointestinal disorders and may be used for the clinical treatment of PI-IBS in the future.

7.
Photoacoustics ; 28: 100411, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254241

RESUMO

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy offers high-resolution, label-free hemodynamic and functional imaging to many biomedical applications. However, long-standing technical barriers, such as limited field of view, bulky scanning probes, and slow imaging speed, have limited the application of optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy. Here, we present freehand scanning photoacoustic microscopy (FS-PAM) that can flexibly image various anatomical sites. We develop a compact handheld photoacoustic probe to acquire 3D images with high speed, and great flexibility. The high scanning speed not only enables video camera mode imaging but also allows for the first implementation of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in photoacoustic microscopy. We demonstrate fast in vivo imaging of some mouse organs, and human oral mucosa. The high imaging speed greatly reduces motion artifacts and distortions from tissue moving, breathing, and unintended handshaking. We demonstrate small-lesion localization in a large region of the brain. FS-PAM offers a flexible high-speed imaging tool with an extendable field of view, enabling more biomedical imaging applications.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269924

RESUMO

In recent years, convolutional neural networks (CNNs)-based methods achieve cracking performance on hyperspectral image (HSI) classification tasks, due to its hierarchical structure and strong nonlinear fitting capacity. Most of them, however, are supervised approaches that need a large number of labeled data to train them. Conventional convolution kernels are fixed shape of rectangular with fixed sizes, which are good at capturing short-range relations between pixels within HSIs but ignore the long-range context within HSIs, limiting their performance. To overcome the limitations mentioned above, we present a dynamic multiscale graph convolutional network (GCN) classifier (DMSGer). DMSGer first constructs a relatively small graph at region-level based on a superpixel segmentation algorithm and metric-learning. A dynamic pixel-level feature update strategy is then applied to the region-level adjacency matrix, which can help DMSGer learn the pixel representation dynamically. Finally, to deeply understand the complex contents within HSIs, our model is expanded into a multiscale version. On the one hand, by introducing graph learning theory, DMSGer accomplishes HSI classification tasks in a semi-supervised manner, relieving the pressure of collecting abundant labeled samples. Superpixels are generally in irregular shapes and sizes which can group only similar pixels in a neighborhood. On the other hand, based on the proposed dynamic-GCN, the pixel-level and region-level information can be captured simultaneously in one graph convolution layer such that the classification results can be improved. Also, due to the proper multiscale expansion, more helpful information can be captured from HSIs. Extensive experiments were conducted on four public HSIs, and the promising results illustrate that our DMSGer is robust in classifying HSIs. Our source codes are available at https://github.com/TangXu-Group/DMSGer.

9.
Microsc Res Tech ; 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36278407

RESUMO

The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen with thickness in nanometer scale is susceptible to hydrocarbon contamination and oxidation, and the specimen holder is also susceptible to contaminants, which would deteriorate the quality of TEM imaging and degrade the efficiency of TEM experiments. Conventional pretreatment devices often have limited functions and low practicability, which may cause problems for TEM specimens and holders. In this work, a multifunctional apparatus for plasma cleaning and storage of TEM specimens and specimen holders is developed based on the specific design of the vacuum joints. The apparatus includes a plasma cleaning system, holder storage station, and specimen storage station, which share the same vacuum system. The cleaning of hydrocarbon contaminants on the specimen and storage of the specimens and holders can be achieved simultaneously in this apparatus. TEM imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of two treated specimens using the apparatus demonstrated that it could effectively remove hydrocarbon contaminants on the specimen. The holder storage station, used to preserve TEM holders in vacuum conditions, can also be modified as a specimen storage station by an appropriate design of the specimen storage platform, in which specimens are protected from water and contaminations. The designed apparatus not only robustly avoids damage to the ultrathin specimen and holders but also improves the working efficiency and reduces costs. These advantages could make our apparatus more appealing for the complement to the present commercial plasma cleaning and storage devices. HIGHLIGHTS: An apparatus for the pretreatment of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens and specimen holders with three functions-plasma cleaning, holder storage, and specimen storage-was designed and fabricated. Using this single apparatus, the cleaning of hydrocarbon contaminants on the specimen and storage of the specimens and holders can be achieved simultaneously. The designed apparatus can not only robustly avoid damage to the ultrathin specimen and holders but also improve the working efficiency and reduce costs by adopting a single vacuum system. These advantages could make our apparatus more appealing for the complement to the present commercial plasma cleaning and storage devices.

10.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 323, 2022 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney stones have become a worldwide public health problem. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between plasma cadmium level and the prevalence of kidney stones in an adult population. METHODS: The data of this study were based on a current survey conducted from December 2018 to November 2019 in Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi, China. A total of 940 study subjects of the same sex and age (within 2 years of each other) according to 1:1 matching were selected for a case-control study. The diagnosis of kidney stones was based on the presence of strong light spots, patches, clusters, or bands within the renal sinus region, followed by an echo-free bundle of acoustic images. Plasma metal elements were determined by the metal plasma method. The relationship between plasma cadmium concentration and the prevalence of kidney stones was assessed using logistic regression and restricted cubic spline regression. RESULTS: The crude ratio for kidney stones in the highest quartile of plasma cadmium was 1.164 (95% CI, 1.121 to 2.324) compared with the lowest quartile. A positive correlation was found between the two (P for trend = 0.039). After adjusting for potential confounders, the ratio of plasma cadmium to kidney stones in the highest quartile was 1.606 (95% CI, 1.100 to 2.344) compared with the lowest quartile, and the findings remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: The odds of kidney stones in adults increased with increasing plasma cadmium exposure, and high plasma cadmium may be a risk factor for kidney stones.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Cálculos Renais , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166115

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), a common heavy metal in the environment, is associated with cognitive impairment. In the present study, we carried out a preliminary inquiry to explore whether Cd causes neurotoxicity by regulating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and affecting the expression of klotho genes in vivo and in vitro, providing clues for the mechanism of Cd-induced cognitive dysfunction. The rat samples were injected with Cd chloride solution for 14 weeks, and the memory function of the rats was detected. Different concentrations of Cd and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway inhibitors were used to treat PC12 cells and thus detect the apoptosis rate. The protein expression levels of JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT3, p-STAT3, and klotho in rat and PC12 cell were detected by ELISA and Western blot, respectively. With the increase in exposure dose, the memory function of rats was severely impaired. The expression of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 proteins was significantly up-regulated, whereas that of klotho was significantly down-regulated both in vivo and in vitro (p < 0.05). In comparison with the high-dose Cd exposure group, after adding tyrphostin AG490 (AG490), the apoptosis rate of PC12 cells increased, whereas the phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and STAT3 in the cells decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Cd exposure may cause neurotoxicity by regulating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and down-regulating klotho protein expression, leading to cognitive dysfunction.

12.
Nature ; 609(7926): 299-306, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071193

RESUMO

The potential of mitigation actions to limit global warming within 2 °C (ref. 1) might rely on the abundant supply of biomass for large-scale bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) that is assumed to scale up markedly in the future2-5. However, the detrimental effects of climate change on crop yields may reduce the capacity of BECCS and threaten food security6-8, thus creating an unrecognized positive feedback loop on global warming. We quantified the strength of this feedback by implementing the responses of crop yields to increases in growing-season temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration and intensity of nitrogen (N) fertilization in a compact Earth system model9. Exceeding a threshold of climate change would cause transformative changes in social-ecological systems by jeopardizing climate stability and threatening food security. If global mitigation alongside large-scale BECCS is delayed to 2060 when global warming exceeds about 2.5 °C, then the yields of agricultural residues for BECCS would be too low to meet the Paris goal of 2 °C by 2200. This risk of failure is amplified by the sustained demand for food, leading to an expansion of cropland or intensification of N fertilization to compensate for climate-induced yield losses. Our findings thereby reinforce the urgency of early mitigation, preferably by 2040, to avoid irreversible climate change and serious food crises unless other negative-emission technologies become available in the near future to compensate for the reduced capacity of BECCS.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Segurança Alimentar , Aquecimento Global , Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/tendências , Atmosfera/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Retroalimentação , Segurança Alimentar/métodos , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Objetivos , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(12): 5302-5312, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), one of the baculoviruses, is a promising biopesticide for pest control. Lepidopteran account for 70% of pests, therefore investigation on highly conserved genes associated with viral infections in the lepidopteran model, the silkworm, will serve as a valuable reference for improving the effectiveness of pest management. BmE74A is a member of the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) family of transcription factors in Bombyx mori, which we previously found to be highly conserved and closely associated with BmNPV. This study aimed to elucidate the role of BmE74A in viral infection. RESULTS: A significantly high expression of BmE74A in eggs indicated its important role in embryonic development, as did relatively high expressions in the hemolymph and midgut. Significant differences in BmE74A expression in different resistant strains after BmNPV infection suggested its involvement as a response to viral infection. Moreover, RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression experiments confirmed the important role of BmE74A in promoting viral infection. BmNPV infection was significantly suppressed and enhanced by BmE74A knockdown and overexpression, respectively. Besides, BmE74A was found to regulate the expression of BmMdm2 and Bmp53. Furthermore, the binding of ETS, the functional domain of BmE74A, to occlusion-derived virus proteins was confirmed by far-western blotting, and four viral proteins that may interact with ETS proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Similarly, a homolog of BmE74A in Spodoptera litura was also found to be involved in larval susceptibility to BmNPV. CONCLUSION: BmE74A promotes BmNPV proliferation by directly interacting with the virus, which may be related to the suppression of the p53 pathway. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Nucleopoliedrovírus , Animais , Bombyx/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Nucleopoliedrovírus/fisiologia , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética
15.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; : e9379, 2022 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986906

RESUMO

Rationale Because of its powerful analytical ability, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) plays an important role in the field of mass spectrometry. However, one of the main defects of IMS is the low structural resolution, which leads to the phenomenon of peak overlap in the analysis of compounds with similar mass charge ratio. METHODS: A multi-objective dynamic teaching-learning-based optimization (MDTLBO) method is proposed to separate IMS overlapping peaks. This method prevents local optimization and identifies peak model coefficients efficiently. In addition, the position information of particles largely reflects the half-peak width of IMS, which makes single peak difficult to appear and coefficient identification easier. RESULTS: The performance comparison of MDTLBO with other deconvolution methods (genetic algorithm (GA), improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) and dynamic inertia weight particle swarm optimization algorithm (DIWPSO)) shows that the maximum deconvolution error of MDTLBO is only 0.7%, which is much lower than for the other three methods. In addition, robustness is a performance index that reflects the advantages and disadvantages of the algorithm. CONCLUSION: MBTLBO is more robust than other algorithms for separating overlapping peaks. The algorithm can separate the heavily overlapped mobility peaks, get better analysis results, and improve the resolution of IMS.

16.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 31: 5427-5441, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947570

RESUMO

Temporal action detection (TAD) aims to determine the semantic label and the temporal interval of every action instance in an untrimmed video. It is a fundamental and challenging task in video understanding. Previous methods tackle this task with complicated pipelines. They often need to train multiple networks and involve hand-designed operations, such as non-maximal suppression and anchor generation, which limit the flexibility and prevent end-to-end learning. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end Transformer-based method for TAD, termed TadTR. Given a small set of learnable embeddings called action queries, TadTR adaptively extracts temporal context information from the video for each query and directly predicts action instances with the context. To adapt Transformer to TAD, we propose three improvements to enhance its locality awareness. The core is a temporal deformable attention module that selectively attends to a sparse set of key snippets in a video. A segment refinement mechanism and an actionness regression head are designed to refine the boundaries and confidence of the predicted instances, respectively. With such a simple pipeline, TadTR requires lower computation cost than previous detectors, while preserving remarkable performance. As a self-contained detector, it achieves state-of-the-art performance on THUMOS14 (56.7% mAP) and HACS Segments (32.09% mAP). Combined with an extra action classifier, it obtains 36.75% mAP on ActivityNet-1.3. Code is available at https://github.com/xlliu7/TadTR.

17.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 47(8): 690-5, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36036102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of acupuncture on phosphorylated P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-P38MAPK), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interferon γ (IFN-γ), and eosinophilic granulocytes (EOS) in lung tissue of asthmatic rats, and to explore the mechanism of acupuncture in regulating the apoptosis of EOS. METHODS: Clean-grade male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal, model, dexamethasone and acupuncture groups, 8 rats in each group. The asthmatic model was established by intraperitoneal injection of mixture suspension (1 mL) of 10% ovalbumin and 10% Al(OH)_3+ normal saline, followed by inhalation of atomized 1% ovalbumin solution for 30 min, once daily for 2 weeks to trigger occurrence of asthmatic symptoms. The rats in dexamethasone group were intraperitoneally injected with 0.9 mg/kg dexamethasone since day 15 once a day for two consecutive weeks. In the acupuncture group, bilateral "Feishu" (BL13), "Pishu" (BL20), "Shenshu" (BL23), "Dingchuan" (EX-B1), and "Danzhong" (CV17) were selected for acupuncture treatment once every other day since day 15 for two consecutive weeks. Uniform reinforcing and reducing manipulation was carried out, and the needles were retained for 30 min. The pathological changes of the lung tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The apoptosis of EOS in the lung tissue of rats was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression of p-P38MAPK in the lung tissue was detected by Western blot. The protein and mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and IFN-γ in the lung tissue were determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, respectively. RESULTS: The results of HE staining showed that the pulmonary alveoli and surrounding tissues were intact with no inflammatory cell infiltration in the normal group. The model group showed massive exudation of inflammatory materials and thickened pulmonary interstitium. The dexamethasone group and acupuncture group showed less damage of the alveolar structure and only a small number of inflammatory cells around the airway. Compared with the normal group, the apoptosis rate of EOS in lung tissue was decreased (P<0.01), the expression levels of p-P38MAPK and ICAM-1 proteins and mRNAs in the lung tissue were up-regulated (P<0.01), while the expression levels of IFN-γ protein and mRNA in the lung tissue were down-regulated (P<0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the apoptosis rate of EOS in the lung tissue was increased (P<0.05), the expression levels of p-P38MAPK and ICAM-1 proteins and mRNAs in the lung tissue were down-regulated (P<0.01, P<0.05), while the expression levels of IFN-γ protein and mRNA were up-regulated (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the dexamethasone and acupuncture groups. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture may inhibit the P38MAPK signaling pathway, down-regulate ICAM-1 expression, and up-regulate IFN-γ expression to promote the apoptosis of EOS and reduce EOS aggregation, thus alleviating the inflammatory response of airway in asthma.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Asma , Animais , Apoptose , Dexametasona , Granulócitos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular , Pulmão , Masculino , Ovalbumina , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(12): 3144-3154, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851105

RESUMO

This study evaluated the safety, efficacy, and cost effectiveness of Biantong Capsules(Tablets), Maren Runchang Pills, Qirong Runchang Oral Liquid, and Qihuang Tongmi Soft Capsules in the treatment of constipation by the rapid health technology assessment(RHTA) to provide evidence for clinical decision and references for rapid evaluation of Chinese patent medicine(CPM). CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched for research articles from database inception to February 2022. Two reviewers conducted literature screening, data extraction, and quality evaluation according to the predetermined standards. Descriptive analysis of the results combined with visual charts was performed. Sixty research articles were included, involving 44 randomized controlled trials(RCTs), 7 clinical controlled trials(CCTs), 4 systematic reviews/Meta-analyses, and 5 economic analysis studies. As revealed by the results, Biantong Capsules(Tablets) could be used for postoperative and senile constipation, in which some studies reported Biantong Capsules(Tablets) were superior to Maren Runchang Pills and Qirong Runchang Oral Liquid. Maren Runchang Pills were mainly used for senile constipation, and the efficacy was similar to that of conventional wes-tern medicine, but the cost was low and the compliance of patients was good. Qirong Runchang Oral Liquid was indicated for disease-derived or drug-induced constipation, chronic constipation, and senile constipation with fewer adverse reactions. Qihuang Tongmi Soft Capsules had good efficacy and safety in the treatment of functional constipation. Overall, compared with western medicine glycerine enema and lactulose, the number of clinical studies of the four CMPs was small, but they targeted constipation patients with different subtypes. In conclusion, the four CMPs have their advantages and characteristics in the treatment of constipation, but they are restric-ted by sparse existing evidence, low quality of evidence, and insufficient economic research. In the future, more high-quality and long-term follow-up studies should be carried out to obtain reliable evidence. Meanwhile, it is called for strengthening the economic evaluation of CMPs to provide evidence for decision-making.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Cápsulas , China , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(16): 11199-11211, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881565

RESUMO

Quantifying the threat that climate change poses to fine particle (PM2.5) pollution is hampered by large uncertainties in the relationship between PM2.5 and meteorology. To constrain the impact of climate change on PM2.5, statistical models are often employed in a different manner than physical-chemical models to reduce the requirement of input data. A majority of statistical models predict PM2.5 concentration (often log-transformed) as a simple function of meteorology, which could be biased due to the conversion of precursor gases to PM2.5. We reduced this bias by developing a unique statistic model where the sum of PM2.5 and the weighted precursor gases, rather than the PM2.5 alone, was predicted as a function of meteorology and a proxy of primary emissions, where the input data of PM10, CO, O3, NOx, and SO2 were obtained from routine measurements. This modification, without losing the simplicity of statistical models, reduced the mean-square error from 27 to 17% and increased the coefficient of determination from 47 to 67% in the model cross-validation using daily PM2.5 observations during 2013-2018 for 74 cities over China. We found a previously unrecognized mechanism that synoptic climate change in the past half-century might have increased low quantiles of PM2.5 more strenuously than the upper quantiles in large cities over China. Climate change during 1971-2018 was projected to increase the annual mean concentration of PM2.5 at a degree that could be comparable with the toughest-ever clean air policy during 2013-2018 had counteracted it, as inferred from the decline in the daily concentration of carbon monoxide as an inert gas. Our estimate of the impact of climate change on PM2.5 is higher than previous statistical models, suggesting that aerosol chemistry might play a more important role than previously thought in the interaction between climate change and air pollution. Our result indicated that air quality might degrade if the future synoptic climate change could continue interacting with aerosol chemistry as it had occurred in the past half-century.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases , Material Particulado/análise
20.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(11): e5469, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904380

RESUMO

Silybin, an active component in the plant Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., is commonly used to protect against liver disease. We investigated silybin's protective potential in rat liver against emodin-induced liver injury 4 weeks. It was found that aspartate aminotransferase and direct bilirubin serum biomarkers for liver toxicity significantly increased, and liver histopathology revealed cholestasis and necrosis in rats administered emodin alone, whereas aspartate aminotransferase and total bile acid levels in rats administered emodin and silybin simultaneously were changed compared to rats administered emodin alone. Liver mRNA and protein levels of Cyp7a1-which plays roles in cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis-and Abcb11 (Bsep)-which facilitates bile salt secretion in hepatocyte canaliculi-were significantly altered with emodin, whereas cotreatment with silybin attenuated emodin's adverse effect. Metabolomic analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry determined eight potential metabolite biomarkers in serum, urine, and liver tissue. Network analysis was conducted to conceptualize the interplay of genes, metabolites, and metabolic pathways for cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis for liver injury. Overall, rats administered only emodin were shown to be a sound model to investigate fat-associated drug-induced hepatoxicity or liver injury and cotreatment of emodin with silybin prevents fatty liver injury. This metabolomic study revealed that emodin-induced fatty liver injury disrupted bile acid synthesis, vitamin B6 , and glycerophospholipid metabolism pathways and that silybin ameliorates liver injury on these compromised pathways.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Emodina , Fígado Gorduroso , Membro 11 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Colesterol , Cromatografia Líquida , Emodina/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Glicerofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/farmacologia , Ratos , Silibina/metabolismo , Silibina/farmacologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia
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