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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114609, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508802

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Danggui-Yimucao herb pair (DY) is a classic combination in Chinese herbal formulas, consisting of the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels and the aerial parts of Leonurus japonicus Houtt. DY first appeared in "Zhulinsi fuke mifang" in the Jin Dynasty, and it has a long history as a drug for the treatment of abortion. However, its underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms involved are still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, network pharmacology and pharmacological experiments were used to explore the role and mechanism of DY in the treatment of medical abortion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Network pharmacology was used to establish the relationship between the components of DY and abortion-related targets, and to enrich important pathways and biological process for verification. ELISA was used to assess progesterone levels. Flow cytometry was used to detect the degree of differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells. Immunohistochemical methods and qPCR were used to measure the expression levels of T-bet, GATA-3 and IL-4. RESULTS: Through the prediction analysis of network pharmacology, we found that key pathway for DY treatment of abortion, such as anemia, pelvic infection, immune disorders, and coagulation disorders, was Th1/Th2 cell differentiation pathway. The pharmacological results revealed that DY greatly corrected the imbalance of Th cell subsets in abortion mice, significantly inhibited the differentiation of Th2 cells, and resulted in an increase in the Th1/Th2 ratio. In addition, the concentration of progesterone in the serum of mice after abortion was significantly reduced. We also found that DY upregulated spleen T-bet and downregulated IL-4 gene expression in mice. Besides, immunohistochemical results showed that DYE could up-regulate T-bet but inhibit GATA-3 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that after RU486-induced abortion, progesterone and Th1/Th2 paradigm were disordered in mice, but DY could make mice recover more quickly, which indicated that DY had great development value in immunoregulation.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150545, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582875

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are the emerging pollutants in the fresh water and have been found in the drinking water. Drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) is an important barrier to ensure the safety and quality of drinking water, so their effectiveness in removing MPs needs to be evaluated and optimized. In this paper, the abundance, characteristics and removal performance of 5 µm-5 mm granular MPs and 100 µm-5 mm fibrous MPs in the effluent of each water treatment unit in a DWTP in China were analyzed. The results show that only 80.96% of MPs ≤ 20 µm, accounting for more than 98% in the raw water, could be removed in the DWTP, while over 99% of the removal efficiency could be achieved for MPs > 20 µm. Coagulation-sedimentation and micro-flocculation combined with sand filtration couldn't effectively remove the granular MPs ≤ 20 µm (42.8% and 25.8%, respectively), but biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was prone to remove this part (63.8%). Significant increases of granular MPs ≤ 20 µm were observed in the effluents of biological treatment (+149.6%) and ozonation (+13.8%). According to the variation in separate MPs' size distribution, the increases in MPs were attributed to the fragmentation of MPs, on which ozonation showed a remarkable effect. The ozonation might accelerate the aging and embrittlement of MPs, and then external stresses could further break them into smaller pieces, which eventually lead to an increase in MPs. To deal with the stubborn part and fragmentation of MPs in water, the removal ability of DWTP for MPs ≤ 20 µm needs to be improved. This study provides a detailed proof for the fate of MPs in the DWTP, and the results indicate that the fragmentation of MPs and the removal rate of MPs ≤ 20 µm should draw more attention in the DWTP.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131747, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358893

RESUMO

Pyrimidine and purine bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine) are important precursors of organic chloramines (OC) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlor(am)ination. In this study, OC and DBP formation derived from pyrimidine and purine bases during chlor(am)ination, post-chlor(am)ination after pretreated by UV alone and UV/chlorination were systematically investigated with ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs, 265 and 275 nm) and low pressure mercury lamp (LPUV, 254 nm). The results revealed that higher OC formation was observed during chlorination than that during chloramination of pyrimidine and purine bases. The degradation of pyrimidine and purine bases followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Both solution pH and UV wavelength played vital influence on the degradation of pyrimidine and purine bases. In terms of fluence-based rate constants (kobs), the degradation rates of pyrimidine and purine bases decreased in the order of 275 nm > 265 nm > 254 nm in alkaline conditions. The synergistic effects of kobs, chlorine,kobs, •OH and kobs, RCS contributed to the differences of pyrimidine and purine bases degradation at different pH values and UV wavelengths. A vital suppression of OC formation was observed during post-chlorination after pretreated by 275 nm UV-LED/chlorination. In addition, compared with LPUV (254 nm), less DBP formation was observed at UV-LED (275 nm), especially during the UV/chlorine process. The phenomena obtained in this study indicated that 275 nm UV-LED combined with chlorine could be a preferred method to promote pyrimidine and purine bases degradation and control OC and DBP formation in practical water treatment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloraminas , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Purinas , Pirimidinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Microvasc Res ; 139: 104252, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520772

RESUMO

Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), a circulating antiangiogenic protein, is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS), and the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here, we attempted to investigate the mechanism of action of sFlt-1 in AS. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) to induce cell injury. ox-LDL treatment increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin-1 expression and GFP-LC3 puncta in HUVECs, suggesting that ox-LDL may induce autophagic flux impairment in HUVECs. ox-LDL-treated HUVECs displayed a decrease of sFlt-1 levels. Moreover, ox-LDL treatment reduced cell proliferation and elevated apoptosis in HUVECs, which was abrogated by sFlt-1 overexpression. Up-regulation of sFlt-1 repressed the activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and enhanced autophagy in HUVECs following ox-LDL treatment. Additionally, sFlt-1 overexpression-mediated increase of autophagy in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs was abolished by 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor). 3-methyladenine abrogated the impact of sFlt-1 overexpression on proliferation and apoptosis in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. This work confirmed that overexpression of sFlt-1 activated autophagy by repressing PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, and thus alleviated ox-LDL-induced injury of HUVECs. Therefore, this study suggests that sFlt-1 may be a potential target for AS treatment.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118241, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582918

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) pollution remains a major threat to the quality of global soils and drinking water. The health effects of As pollution are often severe and have been largely reported across Asia and South America. This study investigated the possibility of using unmodified biochar derived from rice husk (RB) and aspen wood (WB) at 400 °C and 700 °C to enhance the precipitation of calcium/arsenic compounds for the removal of As(III) from solution. The approach was based on utilizing calcium to precipitate arsenic in solution and adding unmodified biochar to enhance the process. Using this approach, As(III) concentration in aqueous solution decreased by 58.1% when biochar was added, compared to 25.4% in the absence of biochar. Varying the pH from acidic to alkaline enabled an investigation into the pH dependent dynamics of the approach. Results indicated that significant precipitation was only possible at near neutral pH (i.e. pH = 6.5) where calcium arsenites (i.e. Ca(AsO2)2, and CaAsO2OH•½H2O) and arsenates (i.e. Ca5(AsO4)3OH) were precipitated and deposited as aggregates in the pores of biochars. Arsenite was only slightly precipitated under acidic conditions (pH = 4.5) while no arsenite was precipitated under alkaline conditions (pH = 9.5). Arsenite desorption from wood biochar was lowest at pH 6.5 indicating that wood biochar was able to retain a large quantity of the precipitates formed at pH 6.5 compared to pH 4.5 and pH 9.5. Given that the removal of As(III) from solution is often challenging and that biochar modification invites additional cost, the study demonstrated that low cost unmodified biochar can be effective in enhancing the removal of As(III) from the environment through Ca-As precipitation.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Adsorção , Arseniatos , Cálcio , Carvão Vegetal
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127213, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844347

RESUMO

Biodegradation of plastic polymers by plastic-eating insects such as the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) might be promising for reducing plastic pollution, but direct in vivo evidence along with the related metabolic pathways and role of gut microbiota require further investigation. In this study, we investigated the in vivo degradation process, underlying potential metabolic pathways, and involvement of the gut microbiota in polystyrene (PS) biodegradation via enforcing injection of G. mellonella larvae (Tianjin, China) with PS microbeads (0.5 mg/larva; Mn: 540 and Mw: 550) and general-purpose PS powders (2.5 mg/larva; Mn: 95,600 and Mw: 217,000). The results indicated that the PS microplastics were depolymerized and completely digested independent of gut microbiota in G. mellonella although the metabolism could be enhanced by gut microbiota. Based on comparative metabolomic and liquid chromatography analyses, we proposed two potential metabolic pathways of PS in the intestine of G. mellonella larvae: the styrene oxide-phenylacetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde-4-hydroxybenzoate pathways. These results suggest that the enzymes of G. mellonella are responsible for the efficient biodegradation of PS. Further study is needed to identify these enzymes and investigate the underlying catalytic mechanisms.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 155(20): 204202, 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852492

RESUMO

Silicon nanophotonics has attracted significant attention because of its unique optical properties such as efficient light confinement and low non-radiative loss. For practical applications such as all-optical switch, optical nonlinearity is a prerequisite, but the nonlinearity of silicon is intrinsically weak. Recently, we discovered a giant nonlinearity of scattering from a single silicon nanostructure by combining Mie resonance enhanced photo-thermal and thermo-optic effects. Since scattering and absorption are closely linked in Mie theory, we expect that absorption, as well as heating, of the silicon nanostructure shall exhibit similar nonlinear behaviors. In this work, we experimentally measure the temperature rise of a silicon nanoblock by in situ Raman spectroscopy, explicitly demonstrating the connection between nonlinear scattering and nonlinear heating. The results agree well with finite-element simulation based on the photo-thermo-optic effect, manifesting that the nonlinear effect is the coupled consequence of the red shift between scattering and absorption spectra. Our work not only unravels the nonlinear absorption in a silicon Mie-resonator but also offers a quantitative analytic model to better understand the complete photo-thermo-optic properties of silicon nanostructures, providing a new perspective toward practical silicon photonics applications.

8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 771638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858936

RESUMO

Background: Public health measures (such as wearing masks, physical distancing, and isolation) have significantly reduced the spread of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), but the impact of public health measures on other respiratory infectious diseases is unclear. Objective: To assess the correlation between public health measures and the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We collected the data from the National Health and Construction Commission in China on the number of patients with six respiratory infectious diseases (measles, tuberculosis, pertussis, scarlet fever, influenza, and mumps) from 2017 to 2020 and assessed the correlation between public health measures and the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases. Finally, we used the data of the six respiratory infectious diseases in 2021 to verify our results. Results: We found public health measures significantly reduced the incidence of measles (p = 0.002), tuberculosis (p = 0.002), pertussis (p = 0.004), scarlet fever (p = 0.002), influenza (p = 0.034), and mumps (p = 0.002) in 2020, and prevented seasonal peaks. Moreover, the effects of public health measures were most marked during the peak seasons for these infections. Of the six respiratory infectious diseases considered, tuberculosis was least affected by public health measures. Conclusion: Public health measures were very effective in reducing the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases, especially when the respiratory infectious diseases would normally have been at their peak.

9.
Chemistry ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859514

RESUMO

Conventional syntheses of the 1,2-trans-ß-D- or α-L-glycosidic linkages rely mainly on the neighboring group participation in the glycosylation reactions. The requirement of a neighboring participation group (NPG) excludes direct glycosylation with (1→2)-linked glycan donors, thus only allowing stepwise assembly of glycans and glycoconjugates containing this type of common motif. Here we disclose a robust glycosylation protocol for the synthesis of 1,2-trans-ß-D- or α-L-glycosidic linkages without resorting to NPG, which employs an optimal combination of glycosyl N-phenyltrifluroacetimidates as donors, FeCl3 as promoter, and CH2Cl2/nitrile as solvent. A broad substrate scope has been demonstrated by glycosylations with twelve (1→2)-linked di- and trisaccharide donors and thirteen alcoholic acceptors including eight complex triterpene derivatives. Most of the glycosylation reactions are high yielding and exclusively 1,2-trans selective. Ten representative naturally occurring triterpene saponins are thus synthesized in a convergent manner after deprotection of the coupled glycosides. Intensive mechanistic studies indicate that the present glycosylation proceeds via a SN2-type substitution of the glycosyl α-nitrilium intermediates. Importantly, FeCl3 dissociates and coordinates with nitrile into [Fe(RCN)nCl2]+ and [FeCl4]-, and the ferric cationic species coordinates with the alcoholic acceptor to provide a protic species which activates the imidate, meanwhile the poor nucleophilicity of [FeCl4]- ensures a non-interruptive role for the glycosidation.

10.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1993768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763607

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G-based monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become a dominant class of biotherapeutics in recent decades. Approved antibodies are mainly of the subclasses IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4, as well as their derivatives. Over the decades, the selection of IgG subclass has frequently been based on the needs of Fc gamma receptor engagement and effector functions for the desired mechanism of action, while the effect on drug product developability has been less thoroughly characterized. One of the major reasons is the lack of systematic understanding of the impact of IgG subclass on the molecular properties. Several efforts have been made recently to compare molecular property differences among these IgG subclasses, but the conclusions from these studies are sometimes obscured by the interference from variable regions. To further establish mechanistic understandings, we conducted a systematic study by grafting three independent variable regions onto human IgG1, an IgG1 variant, IgG2, and an IgG4 variant constant domains and evaluating the impact of subclass and variable regions on their molecular properties. Structural and computational analysis revealed specific molecular features that potentially account for the differential behavior of the IgG subclasses observed experimentally. Our data indicate that IgG subclass plays a significant role on molecular properties, either through direct effects or via the interplay with the variable region, the IgG1 mAbs tend to have higher solubility than either IgG2 or IgG4 mAbs in a common pH 6 buffer matrix, and solution behavior relies heavily on the charge status of the antibody at the desirable pH.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1185, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various randomized trials have demonstrated that postmastectomy radiotherapy (RT) to the chest wall and comprehensive regional nodal areas improves survival in patients with axillary node-positive breast cancer. Controversy exists as to whether the internal mammary node (IMN) region is an essential component of regional nodal irradiation. Available data on the survival benefit of IMN irradiation (IMNI) are conflicting. The patient populations enrolled in previous studies were heterogeneous and most studies were conducted before modern systemic treatment and three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy (RT) techniques were introduced. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of IMNI in the context of modern systemic treatment and computed tomography (CT)-based RT planning techniques. METHODS: POTENTIAL is a prospective, multicenter, open-label, parallel, phase III, randomized controlled trial investigating whether IMNI improves disease-free survival (DFS) in high-risk breast cancer with positive axillary nodes (pN+) after mastectomy. A total of 1800 patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive IMNI or not. All patients are required to receive ≥ six cycles of anthracycline and/or taxane-based chemotherapy. Randomization will be stratified by institution, tumor location (medial/central vs. other quadrants), the number of positive axillary nodes (1-3 vs. 4-9 vs. ≥10), and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (yes vs. no). Treatment will be delivered with CT-based 3D RT techniques, including 3D conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, or volumetric modulated arc therapy. The prescribed dose is 50 Gy in 25 fractions or 43.5 Gy in 15 fractions. Tiered RT quality assurance is required. After RT, patients will be followed up at regular intervals. Oncological and toxilogical outcomes, especially cardiac toxicities, will be assessed. DISCUSSION: This trial design is intended to overcome the limitations of previous prospective studies by recruiting patients with pN+ breast cancer, using DFS as the primary endpoint, and prospectively assessing cardiac toxicities and requiring RT quality assurance. The results of this study will provide high-level evidence for elective IMNI in patients with breast cancer after mastectomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrails.gov , NCT04320979 . Registered 25 Match 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04320979.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(43): 24892-24904, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724700

RESUMO

The solvation free energy of organic molecules is a critical parameter in determining emergent properties such as solubility, liquid-phase equilibrium constants, pKa and redox potentials in an organic redox flow battery. In this work, we present a machine learning (ML) model that can learn and predict the aqueous solvation free energy of an organic molecule using the Gaussian process regression method based on a new molecular graph kernel. To investigate the performance of the ML model for electrostatic interaction, the nonpolar interaction contribution of the solvent and the conformational entropy of the solute in the solvation free energy, three data sets with implicit or explicit water solvent models, and contribution of the conformational entropy of the solute are tested. We demonstrate that our ML model can predict the solvation free energy of molecules at chemical accuracy with a mean absolute error of less than 1 kcal mol-1 for subsets of the QM9 dataset and the Freesolv database. To solve the general data scarcity problem for a graph-based ML model, we propose a dimension reduction algorithm based on the distance between molecular graphs, which can be used to examine the diversity of the molecular data set. It provides a promising way to build a minimum training set to improve prediction for certain test sets where the space of molecular structures is predetermined.

13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 4891-4897, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738382

RESUMO

With the advantages of extensive sources, easy collection, renewability, high yield, carbon circulation, low pollution, and so on, Chinese medicinal solid waste can be converted into clean gas by pyrolysis and gasification, which is then able to serve for industrial production. This is of great practical significance in the context of energy shortage and for solid waste recycling in China. This paper reviews the research progress on biomass gasification principle, gasification medium, and reactor in gasification technology of Chinese medicinal solid waste in recent years. Meanwhile, based on the summary of related research, the defects and improvement measures regarding raw materials, gasification agents, by-products, and reactors were discussed, which provides direction for further development in the gasification technology of Chinese medicinal solid waste in the future.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Resíduos Sólidos , Biomassa , China , Tecnologia
14.
Front Surg ; 8: 676847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746218

RESUMO

Background: As a newly emerging technique, endoscopic transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (Endo-TLIF) has become an increasingly popular procedure of interest. The purpose of this study was to introduce a modified Endo-TLIF system and share our preliminary clinical experiences and outcomes in treating lumbar degenerative disease with this procedure. Methods: Ninety-six patients (thirty-seven men and fifty-nine women; mean age 55.85 ± 11.03 years) with lumbar degenerative diseases who underwent Endo-TLIF in our hospital were enrolled. The surgical time, volume of intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hospitalization time and postoperative drainage were documented. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) scores, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, and modified MacNab criteria. Bone fusion was identified through computerized tomography (CT) scans or X-ray during the follow-up period. Results: All patients were followed up for at least 12 months, and the average follow-up time was 17.03 ± 3.27 months. The mean operative time was 136.79 ± 30.14 minutes, and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 53.06 ± 28.89 ml. The mean VAS scores of low back pain and leg pain were 5.05 ± 1.37 and 6.25 ± 1.03, respectively, before surgery, which improved to 2.27 ± 0.66 and 2.22 ± 0.55, respectively, after the operation (P < 0.05). The final VAS scores of low back pain and leg pain were 0.66 ± 0.60 and 0.73 ± 0.66, respectively (P < 0.05). The preoperative ODI score (49.06 ± 6.66) also improved significantly at the 3-month follow-up (13.00 ± 7.37; P < 0.05). The final ODI score was 8.03 ± 6.13 (P < 0.05). There were 10 cases of non-fusion (nine women and one man) at the 12-month follow-up, but no cases of non-union were identified by imaging at the final follow-up. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated satisfactory clinical and radiologic results among patients who received Endo-TLIF treatment from our institution. This indicates that Endo-TLIF is efficient and safe for select patients.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136116, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846525

RESUMO

Importance: Several studies have explored the efficacy and toxic effects of concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- or capecitabine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with or without oxaliplatin in the neoadjuvant setting. Addition of oxaliplatin to 5-FU or capecitabine elicited similar outcomes but with significantly increased toxic effects; however, there is a need for randomized clinical trials comparing 2 CRT regimens for patients receiving CRT in the adjuvant setting. Objective: To explore the efficacy and toxic effects of oxaliplatin combined with postoperative concurrent capecitabine and radiotherapy (RT) for pathological stage II and III rectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter randomized clinical trial enrolled patients from 7 centers in China between April 1, 2008, and December 30, 2015. Patients with pathologically confirmed stage II and III rectal cancer were randomized (1:1) to receive concurrent CRT with capecitabine or capecitabine plus oxaliplatin. Analysis was conducted from December 31, 2019, to March 15, 2020. Interventions: RT comprised 45 to 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 to 2.0 Gy over 5 weeks. In the capecitabine with RT group, concurrent chemotherapy included 2 cycles of capecitabine (1600 mg/m2) on days 1 to 14 and 22 to 35. The capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group received identical postoperative RT to that in the capecitabine with RT group combined with capecitabine (1300 mg/m2) on days 1 to 14 and 22 to 35 and a 2-hour infusion of oxaliplatin (60 mg/m2) on weeks 1, 2, 4, and 5. Patients in both groups received adjuvant chemotherapy (capecitabine or fluorouracil and oxaliplatin) after CRT. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was 3-year disease-free survival (DFS). Results: A total of 589 patients (median [IQR] age, 55 [47-52] years; 375 [63.7%] men and 214 [36.3%] women) were enrolled, including 294 patients randomized to the capecitabine with RT group and 295 patients randomized to the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group. Median (IQR) follow-up was 68 (45-96) months. Most patients had stage III disease (574 patients [75.9%]). Three-year DFS was 76.3% for the capecitabine with RT group and 74.1% for the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group, and 5-year DFS was 72.0% for the capecitabine with RT group and 71.1% for the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.79-1.44; P = .68). There was no significant difference between groups in overall survival (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.64-1.34; P = .70) or local recurrence (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.31-1.22; P = .16). More grade 3 and 4 acute toxic effects were observed in the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group than in the capecitabine with RT group (114 patients [38.6%] vs 84 patients [28.6%]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that addition of oxaliplatin to capecitabine-based postoperative CRT did not improve the efficacy of treatment but increased the risk of severe acute toxic effects. This finding highlights the basic role of postoperative capecitabine with RT for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00714077.

16.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: miRNAs and mRNAs have been significantly implicated in tumorigenesis and served as promising prognostic biomarkers for human cancer. Hence, this study was aimed to develop the pivotal miRNA biomarkers-based prognostic signature for salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. METHODS: The miRNA and mRNA expression data were integrated from the gene expression omnibus database to study their involvement in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma development and progression. Gene ontology and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes were conducted to analyze the biological pathways. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to verify the expression of selected miRNAs in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and corresponding normal tissues. RESULTS: There were 386 differentially expressed genes: 158 upregulated and 228 downregulated genes and 102 differentially expressed miRNAs: 78 upregulated and 24 downregulated miRNAs in the salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma samples. A miRNA-mRNA network containing 11 miRNAs and 199 genes was subsequently constructed. Gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analysis revealed that the genes targeted by the 11 miRNAs were mostly involved in tumor-related pathways and processes, such as miRNAs in cancer, focal adhesion, neurotrophin signaling pathway, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Among them, 4 miRNAs (miR-375, miR-494, miR-34c-5p, and miR-331-3p) were selected to verify by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR in 36 pairs of collected salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and adjacent nontumor samples. Overall survival analysis revealed that the higher expression of miR-331-3p was significantly associated with a worst overall survival and multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that hsa-miR-331-3p could be an independent prognostic factor for salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that 4-miRNAs signature was a powerful prognostic biomarker for salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma, which provide a basis for exploring deeper mechanisms regarding the progression of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma, and leading to the development of potential therapeutic strategies.

17.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(11): 5414-5424, 2021 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723539

RESUMO

This work proposes a state-of-the-art hybrid kernel to calculate molecular similarity. Combined with Gaussian process models, the performance of the hybrid kernel in predicting molecular properties is comparable to that of the directed message-passing neural network (D-MPNN). The hybrid kernel consists of a marginalized graph kernel (MGK) and a radial basis function (RBF) kernel that operate on molecular graphs and global molecular features, respectively. Bayesian optimization was used to obtain the optimal hyperparameters for both models. The comparisons are performed on 11 publicly available data sets. Our results show that their performances are similar, their prediction errors are correlated, and the ensemble predictions of the two models perform better than either of them. Through principal component analysis, we found that the molecular embeddings of the hybrid kernel and the D-MPNN are also similar. The advantage of D-MPNN lies in the computational efficiency and scalability of large-scale data, while the advantage of the graph kernel models lies in the accurate uncertainty quantification.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Teorema de Bayes
18.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813330

RESUMO

The capacity degredation in layered Ni-rich LiNixCoyMnzO2 (x ≥ 0.8) cathode largely originated from drastic surface reactions and intergranular cracks in polycrystalline particles. Herein, we report a highly stable single-crystal LiNi0.83Co0.12Mn0.05O2 cathode material, which can deliver a high specific capacity (∼209 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C, 2.8-4.3 V) and meanwhile display excellent cycling stability (>96% retention for 100 cycles and >93% for 200 cycles). By a combination of in situ X-ray diffraction and in situ pair distribution function analysis, an intermediate monoclinic distortion and irregular H3 stack are revealed in the single crystals upon charging-discharging processes. These structural changes might be driven by unique Li-intercalation kinetics in single crystals, which enables an additional strain buffer to reduce the cracks and thereby ensure the high cycling stability.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769646

RESUMO

Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a common hospital-acquired infection. It causes patients to stay longer in the hospital and increases medical costs. This study explores the effect of applying an automatic medical information system to implement five-item prevention care bundles on the prevention of ventilator-related pneumonia. This study was a retrospective cohort study. This study was conducted from October 2017 to February 2018 and collected data from the intensive care unit of a medical center in southern Taiwan from January 2013 to May 2016. The control group (enrolled from January 2013 to June 2014) received oral hygiene. The experimental group (enrolled from July 2014 to December 2015) received five-item ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention care bundles, which consisted of (1) elevation of the head of the bed to 30-45°; (2) daily oral care with 0.12-0.2% chlorhexidine twice daily; (3) daily assessment of readiness to extubate; (4) daily sedative interruption; and (5) emptying water from the respirator tube. Results showed the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the bundle group was significantly less than the oral hygiene group (p = 0.029). The factors that significantly affected the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia were ventilator-associated pneumonia care bundle, ventilator-days, and intensive care unit length of stay. A significant reduction in ventilator-associated pneumonia rate in the bundle group compared to the oral hygiene group (OR = 0.366, 95% CI = 0.159-0.840) was observed, with 63.4% effectiveness. Application of an automatic medical information system to implement bundle care can significantly reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.


Assuntos
Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5288, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842293

RESUMO

Amlexanox, an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agent, has been widely used clinically for the treatment of canker sores, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. Recently, amlexanox has received considerable attention in curing nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases and hepatitis virus infection. Herein, we first established a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrum (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of amlexanox in rat plasma. Propranolol was used as the internal standard (IS). Using a simple protein precipitation method, the amlexanox and IS were separated with Capcell Pak C18 column (2.0 × 50 mm, 5 µm) and eluted with water and acetonitrile each containing 0.1% formic acid using gradient elution condition at a flow rate of 0.4 mL·min-1 . Amlexanox and IS were detected by a triple quadrupole mass in multiple reactive monitoring (MRM) under the transitions of m/z 299.2 → 281.2 and m/z 259.9→116.1 with positive electrospray ionization, respectively. The calibration curves of amlexanox were established with the range of 50 to 2000 ng·mL-1 (r2 > 0.99). The validation method consisted of selectivity, accuracy, precision, carryover effect, matrix effect, recovery, dilution effect, and stability. The fully validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of amlexanox in Wistar rats.

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