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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112557, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931159

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) the root of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho (EK), is used for treating edema and ascites but is also of toxicological concerns. And the clinical applications of EK have been seriously restricted for its severe toxicity. To reduce its toxicity, a commonly used clinical practice is processing it with vinegar. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aimed to summarize and discuss updated information on biological activities and phytochemistry of EK before and after vinegar-processing, and provide feasible insights for further research on the chemical composition, toxicity and pharmacological effects of EK before and after vinegar-processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information on chemical compositions and biological activities of EK before and after vinegar-processing was collected from scientific databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, CNKI, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library and SciFinder). Additionally, published and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were also obtained from online databases. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Diuretic and purgative effect of EK are well documented pharmacologically as are acute, irritant and organic toxic effects. Some of about terpenoids reported have antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and potential antiviral effect. After processing with vinegar, the contents of terpenoids mostly were reduced (ingenane and jatrophane type) with some new compounds being generated (unclear). Also, the toxicity of EK was decreased (using mice, rats and zebrafish embryos model), while the diuretic and purgative effects were retained (using cancerous ascites model rats and mice). CONCLUSIONS: While some evidence exists for the reduction of toxicity without compromising the pharmacological effects of EK after vinegar processing, the specific mechanism of action remains unknown. Consequently, further research is necessary to investigate the mechanisms and the relationship between vinegar processing and changes in the chemical composition as well as pharmacological effects/toxicity. This is essential before a safe clinical use can be endorsed.

2.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(11): 871-880, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831133

RESUMO

Dahuang-Gancao decoction (DGD) is a classical formula, which is commonly used for reliving constipation in Chinese clinic. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution alternations of DGD in normal and constipation mice. DGD exhibited stronger purgative effect in constipation mice by the increased fecal excretion and reduced first defection time compared with normal mice. The Cmax, AUC0-t and MRT0-t of rhein, aloe-emodin, rhein-8-O-ß-D-glucoside, sennoside A, and glycyrrhizic acid as main bio-active components in DGD were markedly increased in constipation mice. The tissue distribution of the analytes in constipation mice were higher than those in normal mice with rhein > rhein-8-O-ß-D-glucoside > aloe-emodin > glycyrrhizic acid > emodin in liver, and glycyrrhizic acid > rhein-8-O-ß-D-glucoside > liquitin > sennoside A > rhein > aloe-emodin > emodin in colon. The kidney concentrations of the analytes showed a descending order of rhein > rhein-8-O-ß-D-glucoside > sennoside A > glycyrrhizic acid > aloe-emodin > emodin, most of them were higher while rhein was lower in constipation mice than normal mice. The higher exposure of the anthraquinones in plasma, liver and colon may result in the stronger purgative effect in the constipation mice than normal mice. Rhein is mainly excreted through the kidney, the decreased level of rhein in constipation mice may explain the alleviated side effects. Accumulation of glycyrrhizic acid in colon may related with the moderate property of licorice. These results provided the experimental basis for understanding the therapeutic effects and metabolite profile of DGD.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112423, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765764

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euphorbia kansui is a toxic Chinese herbal medicine and exhibits promising treatment to the malignant ascites (MA) in its traditional use. Ingenane-type and jastrophane-type diterpenes are demonstrated to be responsible for the toxicity and efficacy of kansui. Two representative compounds, kansuiphorin C (KPC) and kansuinin A (KA) in each type were proved to effectively reduce the ascites. The biological and toxicological effects are closely associated with the gastrointestinal tract, but the possible mechanism and related metabolic functions of KPC and KA treating MA through modulating the gut microbiota remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the possible mechanism and related metabolism of KPC and KA ameliorating malignant ascites through modulating gut microbiota. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MA rats and normal rats were divided into different groups and administrated with KPC, KA, and positive drug, respectively. 16S rDNA gene sequencing and metagenomes analysis combined with the quantification of short-chain fatty acids of feces were performed to reflect the modulation of gut microbiota. Then, the metabolites of KPC and KA in rat feces under the normal and pathological circumstances were detected by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with MS/MS detector (UFLC-MS/MS) to explore the in-vivo bacterial biotransformation. RESULTS: KPC and KA were modulatory compounds for gut microbiota. The richness of Lactobacillus and the decreased abundance of Helicobacter involved in the carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism could be responsible for their prohibitory effects on malignant ascites. KPC exhibited stronger modulation of gut microbiota through making the abundance of Helicobacter about 3.5 times lower than KA. Besides, in-vivo microbial biotransformation of KPC and KA contained oxidation, hydrolysis, dehydration, and methylation to form metabolites of lower polarity. Besides, at the dosage of 10 mg kg-1, the toxicity of both compounds had weaker influences on the gut microbiota of normal rats. CONCLUSION: KPC and KA could ameliorate malignant ascites by modulating gut microbiota mainly containing the increase of Lactobacillus and the decrease of Helicobacter and related carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, providing a basis for their promising clinical usage.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3116-3122, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602861

RESUMO

The quality marker( Q-maker) of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) has been the core concept of TCM quality evaluation and control in recent years. Based on the knowledge and long-term practice of the researches on TCM quality,we put forward that " Taking the effectiveness as the core,the measurability and peculiarity as necessary conditions,and considering compatibility for TCM formulae,TCM Q-makers are selected and confirmed,and then the transmission and traceability should be investigated as its functional attributes". Selecting the commonly used representative TCM as the research object,based on the score of TCM effectiveness,measurability and peculiarity,a layered three-dimensional integrated technology was adopted for the quantitative evaluation and grading identification of the Q-markers for TCM. And after Q-markers for TCM are selected and confirmed,the transmission variation of the Q-markers is studied in the whole process from the formation of TCM to its function representation. Based on TCM chemical and biological characteristics as well as effectiveness,and integrating multidisciplinary techniques and methods,researches on innovative methods for system identification and confirmation of the TCM Q-makers are developed emphatically to form representative and exemplary extensive application,which will provide significant theoretical and methodological support for effectively improving the quality control level of TCM.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Biomarcadores , Controle de Qualidade
5.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652602

RESUMO

The dried roots of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho have long been used to treat edema in China. However, the severe toxicity caused by Euphorbia kansui (EK) has seriously restricted its clinical application. Although EK was processed with vinegar to reduce its toxicity, the detailed mechanisms of attenuation in toxicity of EK stir-fried with vinegar (VEK) have not been well delineated. Diterpenoids are the main toxic ingredients of EK, and changes in these after processing may be the underlying mechanism of toxicity attenuation of VEK. 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (3-O-EZ) is one of the diterpenoids derived from EK, and the content of 3-O-EZ was significantly reduced after processing. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of toxicity reduction of VEK based on the change of 3-O-EZ after processing with vinegar. Based on the chemical structure of 3-O-EZ and the method of processing with vinegar, simulation experiments were carried out to confirm the presence of the product both in EK and VEK and to enrich the product. Then, the difference of peak area of 3-O-EZ and its hydrolysate in EK and VEK were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Furthermore, the toxicity effect of 3-O-EZ and its hydrolysate, as well as the underlying mechanism, on zebrafish embryos were investigated. The findings showed that the diterpenoids (3-O-EZ) in EK can convert into less toxic ingenol in VEK after processing with vinegar; meanwhile, the content of ingenol in VEK was higher than that of EK. More interestingly, the ingenol exhibited less toxicity (acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and organic toxicity) than that of 3-O-EZ, and 3-O-EZ could increase malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduce glutathione (GSH) content; cause embryo oxidative damage by inhibition of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; and induce inflammation and apoptosis by elevation of IL-2 and IL-8 contents and activation of the caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity. Thus, this study contributes to our understanding of the mechanism of attenuation in toxicity of VEK, and provides the possibility of safe and rational use of EK in clinics.

6.
Pharmacol Res ; 148: 104453, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541688

RESUMO

With the development of system biology, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is drawing more and more attention nowadays. However, there are still many enigmas behind this ancient medical system because of the arcane theory and complex mechanism of actions. In recent decades, advancements in genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics and culturomics have led to the groundbreaking characterization of the gut microbiota, a 'forgotten organ', and its role in host health and disease. Notably, gut microbiota has been emerging as a new avenue to understanding TCM. In this review, we will focus on the structure, composition, functionality and metabolites of gut microbiota affected by TCM so as to conversely understand its theory and mechanisms. We will also discuss the potential areas of gut microbiota for exploring Chinese material medica waste, Chinese marine material medica, add-on therapy and personalized precise medication of TCM. The review will conclude with future perspectives and challenges of gut microbiota in TCM intervention.

7.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533325

RESUMO

In the present study, a new strategy including the combination of external appearance, chemical detection, and biological analysis was proposed for the comprehensive evaluation of safflowers in different producing areas. Firstly, 40 batches of safflower samples were classified into class I and II based on color measurements and K-means clustering analysis. Secondly, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 16 chromaticity-related characteristic components (including characteristic components hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, safflomin C, and another 13 flavonoid glycosides) in safflowers by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTRAP®/MS2). The results of the quantification indicate that hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, kaempferol, quercetin, and safflomin C had significant differences between the two types of safflower, and class I of safflower had a higher content of hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, and safflomin C as the main anti-thrombotic components in safflower. Thirdly, chemometrics methods were employed to illustrate the relationship in multivariate data of color measurements and chromaticity-related characteristic components. As a result, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-ß-d-glucoside were strongly associated with the color indicators. Finally, anti-thrombotic analysis was used to evaluate activity and verify the suitability of the classification basis of safflower based on the color measurements. It was shown that brighter, redder, yellower, more orange-yellow, and more vivid safflowers divided into class I had a higher content of characteristic components and better anti-thrombotic activity. In summary, the presented strategy has potential for quality evaluation of other flower medicinal materials.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2131-2138, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355572

RESUMO

The dose-toxicity-effect relationship between licorice combined with rhubarb in purgation was studied. A total of 108 ICR mice were divided into control group,model group,positive group,low,medium and high-dose rhubarb groups,and low,medium and high-dose rhubarb-liquorice decoction group. After 6 days of continuous administration of loperamide hydrochloride,the constipation model of mice was replicated,and each group was given lactulose,different doses of rhubarb and rhubarb-liquorice decoction for 14 days. After administration,the defecation characteristics,blood biochemistry,liver,kidney and colon pathological changes in each group were compared. Based on the objective weight given by factor analysis,the dose-toxicity-effect relationship was comprehensively analyzed by multi-index scoring method. Two common factors were extracted by factor analysis,representing effect and toxicity respectively. The results showed that rhubarb could exert a diarrhea effect at the dosage of 1/2,2 and 8 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,increase the defecation volume and the intestinal tract propulsion rate,reduce the time of anal and the oral transmission,and increase the water content of feces. The combination with licorice could alleviate its diarrhea effect,especially at the dosage of 1/2 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However,rhubarb showed obvious hepatic and colon toxicities at the dosage of 2 and 8 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,and the combination with licorice could significantly reduce its toxicity. It shows that licorice has a " mediating" effect on rhubarb by alleviating the purgation property and reducing the toxicity.


Assuntos
Catárticos/farmacologia , Glycyrrhiza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rheum/química , Animais , Colo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Rim , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Testes de Toxicidade
9.
Phytother Res ; 33(8): 2044-2055, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209937

RESUMO

Mulberry leaf was reported that it has antidiabetic activity, although the mechanisms underlying the function have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the results of network pharmacology suggested that mulberry leaves could regulate key biological process in development of diabetes, and the process implicates multiple signaling pathways, such as JAK-STAT, MAPK, VEGF, PPAR, and Wnt. Then, the research in vitro indicated that mulberry leaves remarkably ameliorated high glucose-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which was characterized with significant reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as well as downregulation of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4, and it was found to be connected with the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in human tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). Moreover, the results of bioinformatics and the dual luciferase report showed that ZEB1 might be a target gene of miR-302a; decreased miR-302a and increased ZEB1 expressions could significantly promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, mulberry leaves could reverse these modulations. Our results demonstrated that network pharmacology could provide a guidance role for traditional Chinese medicine research, and mulberry leaves could be of benefit in preventing high glucose-induced EMT in HK-2 cells, which proved that it was related to the upregulation of miR-302a by targeting ZEB1 and the inhibition of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK1/2 pathway.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus/química , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Nefropatias/patologia
10.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181779

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies and is an increasing cause of cancer-related deaths. In our previous study, a series of ferulic acid (FA) derivatives were designed and synthesized; they exhibited positive anti-cancer activities, especially for a compound labelled FXS-3. In this study, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed, wherein it revealed the inhibitory effect of FXS-3 on the proliferation and metastasis of human lung cancer A549 cells. The further flow cytometry assay showed that FXS-3 induced apoptosis of A549 cells induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. The trans-well migration and Matrigel invasion assays revealed that FXS-3 inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. By the western blotting analysis, FXS-3 increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X protein (Bax)/Bcl-2 ratio, inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and regulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase B (AKT)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/ERK signaling pathways. The subsequent A549 xenograft-bearing mouse model and tail vein injection of A549 cells induced pulmonary tumor metastasis model showed that FXS-3 significantly restrained the tumor growth and metastasis. In conclusion, FXS-3 might inhibit proliferation and metastasis of human lung cancer A549 cells by positively regulating JNK signaling pathway and negativly regulating ERK/p38, AKT/mTOR, and MEK/ERK signaling pathways, which provides important scientific basis for the development of anti-cancer drugs about FA derivatives.

11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 170: 254-263, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947126

RESUMO

Malignant ascites (MA) is one of the severe complications of gastrointestinal tumors, affecting the patients' survival time and quality of life. Euphorbia kansui is a commonly used toxic Chinese herbal medicine for malignant ascites. Our previous study showed that the biological and toxicological effects of kansui were closely related to the gastrointestinal tract. The ingenane-type and jastrophane-type diterpenoids are both toxic and active components of kansui. The contents of kansuiphorin C (KPC) and kansuinin A (KA) take highest accounts in each type of diterpene. Hence, in this study, the efficacy and toxicity of KPC and KA on normal rats and MA rats were firstly evaluated by serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST), oxidative damage indicators (GSH, SOD, MDA and LDH), inflammatory indexes (TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2) and the volume of ascites. Changes in the levels of these indices showed that although the toxicity of KPC on normal rats was stronger than KA, KPC exhibited better efficacy to the malignant ascites with no obvious side effects at the dose of 10 mg·kg-1. Then, accurate and reliable methods for the determination of KPC and KA in the rat feces by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with MS/MS detector (UFLC-MS/MS) were established, detected by the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The chromatographic separation was conducted on an XBbridge C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.5 µm) using gradient elution composed of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 0.5 mL·min-1 and column temperature was 30 °C. The method was finally applied to the comparative study on normal and malignant ascites rats given KPC and KA, respectively. Interestingly, the results showed that KPC's accumulative fecal excretion rate (normal, 19.22%±5.36%; model, 15.96%±3.47%) were much higher than that of KA (normal, 2.928%±0.741%; model, 2.835%±0.873%) at the same dose within 48 h. This suggested KPC had higher in-vivo transformations in comparison with KA, providing guidance for the further preclinical research of KPC and KA as promising compounds treating MA.


Assuntos
Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos/química , Fezes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Euphorbia/química , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 238: 111868, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981706

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb), as the preferred representative of cathartic drugs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has a long history of medicinal use and multifarious functions that produce a wide range of dosage. In modern times, rhubarb and its prescriptions are not only used to treat common clinical diseases, but also achieve good results in the treatment of acute, dangerous, severe and difficult diseases. However, rhubarb also has an alias called "General", which means that its efficacy is relatively rapid. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was conducted to simultaneously elucidate dosage-effect relationship of rhubarb of different efficacy, "Removing accumulation with purgation" (E1) and "Clearing heat and purging fire" (E2), providing reference for the safe and effective usage of rhubarb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-week-old rats were randomly divided into the normal control group (Con.), model group (Mod.) and rhubarb groups with six doses (0.135, 0.27, 0.81, 1.35, 4.05, 8.1 g/kg). We established a constipation model with gastrointestinal accumulated heat induced by dyspepsia, taking defecation characteristics observed by metabolic cages, alvine pushing rate, gastrointestinal hormones in serum, etc., as indicators of E1, and taking TG, Na+-K+-ATPase, inflammatory factors and proteins, etc., as indicators of E2. The factor analytic approach was used to systematically evaluate the two effects and analyze the corresponding dosage-effect relationship. RESULTS: The levels of Gas, AchE, TG, Na+-K+-ATPase, TNF-α, IL-1ß, (p-)NF-κB p65, (p-)p38, (p-)ERK and p-JNK in model rats increased significantly while the levels of defecation, fecal water content, MTL, SS, ET, NTS, VIP, JNK and TLR4 decreased. Compared with the Mod., in rhubarb groups, the increase of faeces, alvine pushing rate, most gastrointestinal hormones, etc., reflected the therapeutic efficacy of E1, and the reduction of TG, Na+-K+-ATPase, expression levels of inflammatory indexes, etc., reflected the impact of E2. After the analysis, the effective threshold dose ranging from 0.67 to 5.37 g/kg (corresponding to 7.44-59.67 g in the clinic) was in the EC20-EC80 range for E1 treatment and from 0.78 to 5.60 g/kg (equivalently clinical 8.67-62.22 g) was for E2 treatment. And the 1.6- and 1.2-fold rhubarb highest dose of Chinese Pharmacopoeia might be the optimal doses for E1 and E2 respectively. In general, however, the concentration of rhubarb liquid for overall efficacy is suggested to be between middle and highest dose of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. CONCLUSION: A constipation model was used to elucidate two main effects of rhubarb, which was consistent with the characteristics of TCM syndrome. In the wide range of rhubarb dosage, low doses might have little or no effect and although high concentrations of rhubarb liquid enhanced curative efficacy, it would also have certain side effects on the body. Therefore, scientific-based experiments and rational analysis by mathematical models could contribute to the safe and effective application of rhubarb in the clinic.

13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 8636835, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911351

RESUMO

Ginkgo ketoester tablets (GT) and donepezil were a clinically used combination for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the study was undertaken to investigate the antiamnesic effects of the two drugs alone and in combination through in vivo models of the Morris water maze along with in vitro antioxidants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). The potential mechanisms were speculated by the activities of acetylcholine (ACh), AChE, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB). The combination group showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of cholinesterase and antioxidation. As far as its mechanism was concerned, the combination of two drugs exerted excellent effects on oxidative stress, cholinergic pathway damage, and inactivation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. Additionally, to elucidate the binding mechanism of GT active ingredients into the structure of AChE, the results of molecular docking studies indicated that hydrogen and/or hydrophobic bonds might play an important role in their binding process. Thus, the combination of drugs could treat AD perfectly and further verify the scientific rationality of clinical medication.


Assuntos
Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Donepezila/uso terapêutico , Ginkgo biloba/química , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase , Amnésia/patologia , Animais , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Donepezila/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ginkgolídeos/química , Ligantes , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Escopolamina , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Comprimidos
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 235: 227-242, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703496

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danggui buxue Decoction (DBD) has been frequently used to treat with blood deficiency, which consisted of Danggui (DG) and Huangqi (HQ) at a ratio of 1:5. Accumulating evidence showed that blood deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was similar to anemia in modern medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to explore its therapeutic mechanism of with network pharmacology approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We explored the chemical compounds of DBD and used compound ADME screening to identify the potential compounds. Targets for the therapeutic actions of DBD were obtained from the PharmMapper, Swiss, SEA and STITCH. GO analysis and pathway enrichment analysis was performed using the DAVID webserver. Cytoscape was used to visualize the compound-target-pathway network for DBD. The pharmacodynamics and crucial targets were also validated. RESULTS: Thirty-six potential active components in DBD and 49 targets which the active components acted on were identified. 47 KEGG pathways which DBD acted on were also come to light. And then, according to KEGG pathway annotation analysis, only 16 pathways seemed to be related to the blood nourishing effect of DBD, such as PI3K-AKT pathway, and so on. Only 32 targets participated in these 16 pathways and they were acted on by 29 of the 36 active compounds. Whole pharmacodynamic experiments showed that DBD had significant effects to blood loss rats. Furthermore, DBD could promote the up-regulation of hematopoietic and immune related targets and the down-regulation of inflammatory related targets. Significantly, with the results of effective rate, molecular docking and experimental validation, we predicted astragaloside IV in HQ, senkyunolide A and senkyunolide K in DG might be the major contributing compounds to DBD's blood enriching effect. CONCLUSION: In this study, a systematical network pharmacology approach was built. Our results provided a basis for the future study of senkyunolide A and senkyunolide K as the blood enriching compounds in DBD. Furthermore, combined network pharmacology with validation experimental results, the nourishing blood effect of DBD might be manifested by the dual mechanism of enhancing immunity and promoting hematopoiesis.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 15: 291-298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800179

RESUMO

Herein we report a novel palladium-catalyzed reaction that results in phenanthrene derivatives using aryl iodides, ortho-bromobenzoyl chlorides and norbornadiene in one pot. This dramatic transformation undergoes ortho-C-H activation, decarbonylation and subsequent a retro-Diels-Alder process. Pleasantly, this protocol has a wider substrate range, shorter reaction times and higher yields of products than previously reported methods.

16.
Neuroscience ; 404: 175-183, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690136

RESUMO

Light has pervasive effects on the physiology and behavior of mammals. Several human studies have shown that light modulates cognitive functions; however, the mechanisms responsible for the effects of light remain unclear. Our previous work using diurnal male Nile grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus) revealed that reduced illuminance during the day leads to impairments in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning/memory, reduced CA1 dendritic spine density, and attenuated hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in males. The present study examined the impact of ambient light intensity on hippocampal functions in female grass rats and explored sex differences in behavioral and hippocampal responses. Female grass rats were housed in either a 12:12-hr bright light-dark (brLD, 1000 lx) or dim light-dark (dimLD, 50 lx) cycle for four weeks. The dimLD group showed impaired spatial memory in the Morris water maze task and reduced CA1 apical dendritic spine density, similar to prior observations in males. However, the behavioral deficits seen in females were more severe than those seen in males, with dimLD females showing no evidence of long-term retention over the 24-hour periods between training sessions. In contrast to the attenuated hippocampal BDNF expression found in dimLD males, there was no significant difference in the expression of BDNF and of its receptor TrkB between females in brLD and dimLD. The results suggest that, as seen in male grass rats, reduced illuminance during the day impairs hippocampal-dependent spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in female diurnal grass rats, but the underlying signaling pathways responsible for the effects of light restriction may differ between the sexes.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Luz , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Murinae , Receptor trkB/metabolismo
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 229: 222-232, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339979

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As recorded in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, Genkwa Flos (YH) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GC) compose one herbal pair of the so-called "eighteen incompatible medicaments", which indicate pairs of herbs that are mutually incompatible and that theoretically should not be applied simultaneously. However, the theory has been called into question due to a lack of evidence. AIMS OF STUDY: In this study, the incompatibility of YH and GC was investigated based on an assessment of the toxic effects of their combination by traditional safety methods and a modern metabonomic approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the subacute toxicity of YH and YH-GC. The serum, urine, and several tissues were collected for biochemical analysis, histopathological examination, and metabonomic analysis. RESULTS: Rats exposed to a dose of 1.0 g/kg YH (3 times of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia maximum dose) exhibited toxicity of the heart, liver, kidney and testes, and rats exposed to a YH-GC combination (1.0 g/kg YH + 1.0 g/kg GC) exhibited similar hepatotoxicity, which aggravated renal and reproductive toxicity. Following this, a metabonomic study tentatively identified 14 potential biomarkers in the YH group and 10 potential biomarkers in the YH-GC group, and metabolic pathways were then constructed. YH disturbed the pathways of glycerophospholipid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, and sphingolipid metabolism, while YH-GC combination induced disruptions in phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, tyrosine metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: The toxicities of YH and YH-GC combination above the Chinese Pharmacopoeia dose were obvious but different. Metabonomics combined with biochemical and histopathological methods can be applied to elucidate the toxicity mechanism of the YH-GC combination that caused liver, kidney and reproductive injuries in rats.


Assuntos
Daphne , Glycyrrhiza , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Flores , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rizoma , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287737

RESUMO

Sipunculus nudus, an old marine species, has great potential for use as functional seafood due to its various bioactivities. Its potential antithrombotic activity pushed us to isolate the bio-active components bio-guided by tracking fibrinolytic activity. As a result, a novel protease named as SK (the kinase obtained from S. nudus) was obtained, which possessed a molecular weight of 28,003.67 Da and 15 N-terminal amino acid sequences of PFPVPDPFVWDTSFQ. SK exerted inhibitory effects on thrombus formation through improving the coagulation system with dose-effect relationship within a certain range. Furthermore, in most cases SK got obviously better effect than that of urokinase. With the help of untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics profiling, arachidonic acid, sphingolipid, and nicotinate and nicotinamide mechanism pathways were found to be important pathways. They revealed that the effect mechanism of SK on common carotid arterial thrombosis induced by FeCl3 was achieved by inhibiting vessel contraction, platelet aggregation, adhesion, and release, correcting endothelial cell dysfunction and retarding process of thrombus formation. This study demonstrated SK was a promising thrombolytic agent on the basis of its comprehensive activities on thrombosis, and it should get further exploitation and utilization.


Assuntos
Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Nematoides/enzimologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Fibrinolíticos/química , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Proteínas de Helminto/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Molecules ; 23(6)2018 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890656

RESUMO

Ganoderma resinaceum has been used as an ethnomedicine for lowering blood sugar. To clarify the bioactive chemical constituents contributing to lower blood sugar, chemical investigation on the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma resinaceum was conducted by chromatographic techniques, and led to the isolation of 14 compounds. Their structures were elucidated as triterpenoid lactones (1⁻4 and 8) and ganoderma acids (5⁻7 and 9⁻14) based on the analysis of extensive spectroscopy (mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV)) and comparison with literature data. Compounds 3, 5, 6, and 9⁻14 were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 1⁻7 are new compounds. Compounds 1⁻4 and 8 were characteristic of an oxaspirolactone moiety, consisting of a five-membered ether ring, a five-membered lactone ring, and a characteristic C-23 spiro carbon. It is rare for natural products that such an oxaspirolactone moiety occurred in the lanostane-type triterpenoids. Compounds 5⁻7 and 9⁻14 may be important intermediates of the biosynthetic pathways of 1⁻4 and 8. Compounds 1 and 2 showed more potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase compared with the positive control drug acarbose with IC50 value of 0.75 ± 0.018 mM and 1.64 ± 0.022 mM, respectively.


Assuntos
Ganoderma/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Análise Espectral/métodos , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 155: 169-176, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631077

RESUMO

The dried roots of Euphorbia kansui T.N. Liou ex T.P. Wang have been traditionally used for edema in China. However, the severe toxicity caused by Euphorbia kansui has seriously restricted its clinical application. Therefore, in order to study the material basis of the toxicity attenuation effect of processing with vinegar, a rapid, sensitive, validated and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to determine twelve compounds in ethyl acetate extracts of Euphorbia kansui before and after fry-baked with vinegar simultaneously. Meanwhile, the study of their toxic effect on zebrafish was conducted. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on Waters BEH C18 UPLC column. 0.3% formic acid in water and acetonitrile were used as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min and a temperature at 30 °C. The analysis was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using positive electrospray ionization (ESI). Furthermore, the toxic research results indicated that the toxicity of Euphorbia kansui was decreased after vinegar-processed, which might because of the increase in the content of 5-O-benzoyl-20-deoxyingenol and the decrease in the contents of the remaining terpenoids in ethyl acetate extracts of Euphorbia kansui fry-baked with vinegar. This study demonstrated that the method used is a powerful approach to determine the content of twelve compounds that responsible for the toxic effect of Euphorbia kansui at the same instant. And provided the experimental evidence for the rationale behind the reduction of toxicity.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Ácido Acético/química , Euphorbia/química , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
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