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1.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 352(4): e1800277, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698293

RESUMO

A series of novel 3-amidophenols with 5-heteroatomic substitutions were designed and synthesized. Several compounds showed potent antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (MIC = 0.25-5 µg/mL). Compounds 12j and 14i also displayed good inhibitory activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and two clinically isolated multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains (MIC = 0.39-3.12 µg/mL). The privileged compound 14i showed certain oral efficacy on a mouse infection model. The compounds are non-cytotoxic against L-O2 hepatocytes and RAW264.7 macrophagocytes. They did not exert inhibitory activity against representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Amidas/síntese química , Amidas/química , Animais , Antituberculosos/síntese química , Antituberculosos/química , Linhagem Celular , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/síntese química , Fenóis/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tuberculose/microbiologia
2.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(4): 372-381, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686792

RESUMO

A series of meta-amido bromophenol derivatives were designed and synthesized. The compounds were found to potently inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. They also exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and multidrug-resistant strains. The compounds did not show inhibitory activity against normal Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moderate cytotoxicities and good metabolic stability were observed for the selected compounds. The results demonstrated meta-amido bromophenols as a new class of antitubercular agents with good potentials.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/química , Fenóis/química , Desenho de Drogas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Medchemcomm ; 9(8): 1293-1304, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151083

RESUMO

A series of m-amidophenol derivatives (6a-6l, 7a-7q, 9a, 9b, 12a-12c, 14 and 15) were designed and synthesized. Their antitubercular activities were evaluated in vitro against M. tuberculosis strains H37Ra and H37Rv and clinically isolated multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Ten compounds displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against M. tuberculosis H37Ra below 2.5 µg mL-1 and 6g was the most active compound (MIC = 0.625 µg mL-1). Compounds 6g and 7a also showed potent inhibitory activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC = 0.39 µg mL-1) and several clinically isolated multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains (MIC = 0.39-3.125 µg mL-1). The compounds did not show inhibitory activity against normal Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They exhibited low cytotoxicity against HepG2 and RAW264.7 cell lines. The results demonstrated m-amidophenol as an attractive scaffold for the development of new antitubercular agents.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6230, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670200

RESUMO

Although recent studies focused on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia have reported that it may be beneficial, there is still lack of convincing evidence and critical meta-analytic work regarding its effectiveness as an adjunctive therapy. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effectiveness of TCM in combination with antipsychotics for refractory schizophrenia. Fourteen articles involving 1725 patients published as of December 2016 were included which compared antipsychotic therapies to either TCM alone, or TCM as an adjunctive therapy. TCM was observed to have beneficial effects on aspects of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) including total score changes and negative score changes, as well as clinical effects estimated with PANSS or the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The changes in extrapyramidal side effects (RSESE) scores from baseline to the end of the treatment period were similar in two groups of related trials. TCM was also reported to mitigate some anti-psychotic related side-effects and overall, TCM adjuvant therapy was generally safe and well tolerated. While, the results indicated the potential utility of TCM as an alternative adjunctive therapeutic for refractory schizophrenia treatment, there remains a need for further high-quality studies.

5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 16: 224, 2016 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reported rates of personality disorder (PD) in subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) are quite varied across different countries, and less is known about the heterogeneity of PD among subjects with SZ. We examined the co-morbidity of PD among patients who are in the stable phase of SZ. METHOD: 850 subjects were randomly sampled from patients diagnosed with SZ in psychiatric and psycho-counseling clinics at Shanghai Mental Health Center. Co-morbidity of PDs was assessed through preliminary screening and patients were administered several modules of the SCID-II. Evidence of heterogeneity was evaluated by comparing patients diagnosed with SZ with those who presented with either affective disorder or neurosis (ADN). RESULTS: 204 outpatients (24.0 %) in the stable phase of SZ met criteria for at least one type of DSM-IV PD. There was a higher prevalence of Cluster-A (odd and eccentric PD) and C (anxious and panic PD) PDs in SZ (around 12.0 %). The most prevalent PD was the paranoid subtype (7.65 %). Subjects with SZ were significantly more likely to have schizotypal PD (4.4 % vs. 2.1 %, p = 0.003) and paranoid PD (7.6 % vs. 5.4 %, p = 0.034), but much less likely to have borderline, obsessive-compulsive, depressive, narcissistic and histrionic PD. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that DSM-IV PD is common in patients with SZ than in the general population. Patterns of co-morbidity with PDs in SZ are different from ADN.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 129(5): 578-85, 2016 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26904993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have indicated that cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) might improve cognitive function by changing brain activations in patients with schizophrenia. However, the results were not consistent in these changed brain areas in different studies. The present activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether cognitive function change was accompanied by the brain activation changes, and where the main areas most related to these changes were in schizophrenia patients after CRT. Analyses of whole-brain studies and whole-brain + region of interest (ROI) studies were compared to explore the effect of the different methodologies on the results. METHODS: A computerized systematic search was conducted to collect fMRI and PET studies on brain activation changes in schizophrenia patients from pre- to post-CRT. Nine studies using fMRI techniques were included in the meta-analysis. Ginger ALE 2.3.1 was used to perform meta-analysis across these imaging studies. RESULTS: The main areas with increased brain activation were in frontal and parietal lobe, including left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule in patients after CRT, yet no decreased brain activation was found. Although similar increased activation brain areas were identified in ALE with or without ROI studies, analysis including ROI studies had a higher ALE value. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that CRT might improve the cognition of schizophrenia patients by increasing activations of the frontal and parietal lobe. In addition, it might provide more evidence to confirm results by including ROI studies in ALE meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Remediação Cognitiva , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0125784, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25973925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are observed throughout all developmental phases of psychosis. However, prior studies have usually focused on a limited illness period and used a wide variety of cognitive instruments. Therefore, it has been difficult to characterize or highlight cognitive functioning in different stages of psychosis. METHOD: We administered the RBANS (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) tests to 4 participant subgroups, including healthy volunteers (controls, HC, n = 28), subjects at high risk for clinical psychosis (prodrome, CHR, n = 27), first-episode schizophrenia patients (FE-Sz, n = 26), and mid-term and long-term chronic schizophrenia patients (Ch-Sz, n =147). Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses of RBANS index scores were assessed among groups. We examined clinical outcomes over 2 years between the CHR and HC subjects, and RBANS domains were used as possible predictors for conversion to psychosis. RESULTS: Performance on all RBANS domains was significantly impaired during a post-onset stage of psychosis (FE-Sz and Ch-Sz), and RBANS scores declined along with disease progression. Regression analyses showed that for CHR and HC subjects, baseline impairment in delayed memory (DM) significantly predicted conversion to psychosis. Additionally, partial correlations showed that for FE-Sz and Ch-Sz subjects, DM was the only correlate with a later stage of psychosis. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive deficits broadly emerged, and diminished functioning followed along with disease progression. Impairment in DM is perhaps one domain that helps us understand the development of psychosis. A critical need is to monitor and treat memory functioning for psychotic patients throughout all phases of the disease.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e97794, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24933577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decreased P300 amplitude is one of the most consistent findings in patients with schizophrenia. However, whether prolonged P300 latency occurs in patients with schizophrenia, especially first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, remains controversial. METHODS: A meta-analyses of P300 aberration in FES patients and healthy control(HC) group was conducted. The meta-regression analysis was performed using a random effects model. The pooled standardized effect size (PSES) was calculated as the division of the difference between the means of the two groups by the common standard deviation. RESULTS: A total of 569 FES patients and 747 HCs were included in this meta-analysis. P300 amplitude was significantly reduced (PSES = -0.83, 95% CI: -1.02-0.65, P = 0.00001) and P300 latency was delayed significantly in FES patients (PSES = -0.48, 95% CI: 0.14-0.81, P = 0.005). The meta-regression analysis showed that task difficulty was a source of heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis confirms that disrupted information processing is found in FES patients, which is manifested by smaller P300 amplitude and delayed P300 latency.


Assuntos
Potencial Evocado P300 , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão
9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 126(15): 2886-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23924461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few characteristic changes of linear electroencephalograph (EEG) have been reported in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in temporal-spatial dimensional properties of EEG under different cognitive tasks in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: EEG was recorded by using EEG-1518K system and mapping system (Nihon Kohden Tomioka Corporation, Japan) in 45 schizophrenic patients and 47 healthy adults (normal control, NC) under five states: eyes closed, eyes open, mental arithmetic test with eyes closed, memory test with eyes open, and number cancellation test. Correlation dimension (D2) and point-wise correlation dimension (PD2) were calculated for all EEG analyses. RESULTS: (1) There were no significant differences of D2 and PD2 between NC and schizophrenic patients under states of eyes open and closed. (2) Compared with NC, schizophrenic patients showed decreased performance of D2 in mental arithmetic test with eyes closed and number cancellation test (mental arithmetic test with eyes closed: Nc 5.9 ± 0.6, Sch 3.0 ± 0.8; number cancellation test: Nc 6.0 ± 0.6, Sch 4.4 ± 0.7; P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). (3) Schizophrenic patients also showed decrease performance of PD2 in mental arithmetic test with eyes closed, memory test with eyes open, and number cancellation test (mental arithmetic test with eyes closed: Nc 6.9 ± 0.7, Sch 4.0 ± 0.8; memory test with eyes open: Nc 6.6 ± 0.8, Sch 5.0 ± 0.9; number cancellation test: Nc 7.1 ± 0.7, Sch 4.8 ± 0.9; P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Nonlinear dynamic analysis provided a new approach in clinical investigation of EEG signals. It was helpful to further understand the cerebral mechanism in schizophrenic cognitive process.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica não Linear
11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 93(41): 3261-4, 2013 Nov 05.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24401618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnostic application of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of P300 amplitude and latency in schizophrenia. METHODS: ROC curve of P300 amplitude and latency was plotted from 91 first episode schizophrenia (FES) and 141 normal controls (NC). Youden's index and distance were calculated in ROC curve to determine the optimal cutoff point of P300 amplitude and latency for schizophrenic diagnosis. Then the subjects were layered by gender and age for improved diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: The area under ROC curve for P300 amplitude for predicting schizophrenia was 0.746 (P < 0.001), while P300 latency showed poor power in predicting schizophrenia (P = 0.373). The optimal cutoff point of P300 amplitude was 5.097 µV with a sensitivity of 80.14% and a specificity of 63.74%. After gender and age stratification, Youden' s index was enhanced in all 5 subgroups (from 1.8% to 14.88%) and the sensitivities of corresponding cutoff were enhanced obviously in subgroups of males (25.01%), ≤ 25 years (22.22%) and >40 years (28.80%) patients. CONCLUSION: P300 amplitude has certain values in schizophrenic diagnosis. Gender and age stratification may enhance the diagnostic efficiency of ROC curve in the diagnosis of frequent schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Potencial Evocado P300 , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
12.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 91(43): 3040-3, 2011 Nov 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22333055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the variations and their activated brain areas of error-related negativity (ERN) in first episode schizophrenics. METHODS: ERN was tested by an ERP device and their activated brain areas were compared in 58 first episode schizophrenics (FES) and 62 normal controls (NC) from March 2010 to February 2011. RESULTS: (1) The ERN latencies in the FES group were significantly longer on Cz (58 ± 14 ms), Fz (60 ± 11 ms), C3 (57 ± 17 ms) and C4 (60 ± 13 ms) electrodes compared with those in the NC group (49 ± 13 ms, 47 ± 13 ms, 50 ± 14 ms, 51 ± 12 ms). And the ERN amplitudes were significantly lower than those in the controls in Cz (5.0 ± 2.8 µV; 7.5 ± 3.1 µV, P < 0.01), C3 (5.5 ± 4.0 µV; 8.0 ± 3.7 µV, P < 0.01), Fz (5.0 ± 3.1 µV; 7.7 ± 3.8 µV, P < 0.01) and Pz (4.5 ± 3.3 µV: 7.5 ± 3.0 µV, P < 0.01) electrodes.(2) The variations of ERN latencies and amplitudes showed an insignificant correlation with the positive symptom scores and total scores of PANSS. (3) The activation levels of insula, superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule were obviously lower in the FES group than those in the NC group. CONCLUSION: The anomalies of ERN latencies and amplitudes in first episode schizophrenics may reflect the deficient error-monitoring functions. Further studies are warranted. And such brain areas as insular may contribute pathogenically to the dysfunctions of error-monitoring in schizophrenics.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 90(29): 2026-9, 2010 Aug 03.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21029637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore N400 changes elicited by Chinese sentences ending with matching (congruent) or mismatching (incongruent) words in first episode schizophrenia. METHODS: ERP (event-related potentials) component N400 were recorded by an ERP device in 56 first episode schizophrenia (FES) and 62 normal controls (NC) according to a paradigm of Chinese sentences ending with matching or mismatching words. RESULTS: (1) Latencies: compared with NC, FES showed prolonged N400 latencies in five areas at pre-treatment: in Cz. The latencies were (358 ms ± 32 ms vs 394 ms ± 45 ms, P < 0.01) in congruent and (410 ms ± 29 ms vs 446 ms ± 35 ms, P < 0.01) in incongruent situation. And so did in Fz, Pz, C3 and C4; (2) amplitudes: compared with NC, FES also showed smaller N400 amplitudes in five areas at pre-treatment. The amplitudes were (8.6 µV ± 5.1 µV vs 5.2 µV ± 4.6 µV, P < 0.01) in congruent and (13.4 µV ± 6.7 µV vs 8.5 µV ± 5.9 µV, P < 0.01) in incongruent situation. And so did in Fz, Pz, C3 and C4; (3) the prolonged N400 latencies and decreased amplitudes were negatively correlated with the patients' positive scale and total scale of PANSS. CONCLUSION: With clear priming effect in first episode schizophrenia, Chinese sentences are suitable stimuli in N400 experiment. They may be used for further study of neural mechanism and early diagnosis of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Cognição , Potenciais Evocados , Linguagem , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 90(3): 169-72, 2010 Jan 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20356551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the characteristics of sensory gating P50 in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. METHODS: Auditory evoked potentials P50 were recorded in 41 GAD patients, 69 OCD patients and in 58 normal controls by the conditioning/testing paradigm presented with auditory double clicks stimuli, using American Nicolet Bravo instrument. RESULTS: (1) No significant differences was found in latencies of S1-P50 and S2-P50 among these three groups (P > 0.05). (2) Significant differences were found in indices of S1-P50 amplitudes (NC: 6 +/- 3, GAD: 3 +/- 2, OCD: 5 +/- 3, P < 0.01), S2-P50 amplitudes (NC: 2 +/- 1, GAD: 4 +/- 1, OCD: 2 +/- 1, P < 0.01), S2/S1, S1-S2 and 100(1-S2/S1). (3) Compared with NC, GAD and OCD patients showed a decreased S1-P50 amplitude and OCD patients also showed an increased S2-P50 amplitude. (4) P50 inhibition significantly decreased in GAD and OCD patients. The values of S2/S1 ratio were 39% +/- 22% in NC, 50% +/- 29% in GAD and 88% +/- 42% in OCD (P < 0.01). (5) Both S1-S2 and 100 (1-S2/S1) decreased in GAD and OCD patients (NC: 3 +/- 2, 61 +/- 22; OCD: 1 +/- 1, 15 +/- 22; GAD: 3 +/- 3, 50 +/- 29. P < 0.01). (6) Compared with GAD, OCD patients showed a lower S2/S1 ratio (P < 0.01) and a higher value of S1-S2 (P < 0.01) and 100 (1-S2/S1) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The anxiety disorder patients has sensory gating deficits. The inhibition deficit can be measured by auditory evoked potential P50. And S2/S1 ratio, S1-S2 and 100(1-S2/S1) may be biological markers of GAD and OCD patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Filtro Sensorial , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 123(6): 686-9, 2010 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20368087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research about N400 has been mainly based on English stimuli, while the cognitive processing of Chinese characters is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the semantic processing of Chinese idioms. METHODS: Event related potentials (ERP) component N400 was elicited by 38 pairs of matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) ended Chinese idioms: ending words with same phoneme but different shape and meaning (sPdSdM), with similar shape but different phoneme and meaning (sSdPdM), with same meaning but different phoneme and shape (sMdPdS), and words with different phoneme, shape and meaning (dPdSdM) and recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments. In 62 right-handed healthy adults (age 19 - 50 years), N400 amplitudes and latencies were compared between matching and mismatching conditions at Fz, Cz and Pz. RESULTS: N400 showed a midline distribution and could be elicited in electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz. The mean values of N400 latencies and amplitudes were obtained for matching and mismatching ending words in healthy adults. Significant differences were found in N400 latencies and amplitudes in matching and mismatching ending-words idioms in healthy adults (P < 0.05). Compared with matching ending-words idioms, N400 latencies were prolonged and the amplitudes were increased in mismatching ones. N400s elicited by different types of stimuli showed different latencies and amplitudes, and longest N400 latency and largest N400 amplitude were elicited by ending-words with dPdSdM. No gender difference was found of N400 latency and amplitude in this study (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with English stimuli, Chinese ideographic words could provide more flexible stimuli for N400 research in that the words have 3-dimension changes - phoneme, shape and meaning. Features of N400 elicited by matching and mismatching ending words in Chinese idioms are mainly determined by the meaning of the word. Some issues of N400 elicited by Chinese characters deserve further research.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Leitura , Semântica , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Caracteres Sexuais
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